Words from Gardenweb

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definitions & notes only words
  1. A horizon
    the top layer of a soil profile; usually contains humus
  2. abacinate
    blind by holding a red-hot metal plate before someone's eyes
  3. abaxial
    facing away from the axis of an organ or organism
  4. abbreviated
    cut short in duration
  5. aberrant
    markedly different from an accepted norm
  6. abiogenesis
    a hypothetical organic phenomenon by which living organisms are created from nonliving matter
  7. abiogenetic
    originating by abiogenesis
  8. abortion
    termination of pregnancy
  9. abortive
    failing to accomplish an intended result
  10. above
    in or to a place that is higher
  11. abrade
    rub hard or scrub
  12. abrupt
    exceedingly sudden and unexpected
  13. abscission
    the act of cutting something off
  14. absorb
    take in a liquid
  15. absorbent
    having power or capacity or tendency to absorb or soak up something (liquids or energy etc.)
  16. absorption spectrum
    the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation that has passed through a medium that absorbed radiation of certain wavelengths
  17. acariasis
    infestation with itch mites
  18. acarpous
    producing no fruit
  19. acaulescent
    (of plants) having no apparent stem above ground
  20. accelerator
    a pedal that controls the throttle valve
  21. accessory
    a supplementary component that improves capability
  22. accessory fruit
    fruit containing much fleshy tissue besides that of the ripened ovary; as apple or strawberry
  23. acclimate
    get used to a certain environment
  24. acclimatization
    adaptation to a new climate
  25. accumbent
    lying down; in a position of comfort or rest
  26. acephalous
    lacking a head or a clearly defined head
  27. acerose
    narrow and long and pointed; as pine leaves
  28. acetone
    the simplest ketone
  29. acetonic
    of or relating to acetone
  30. acetylate
    introduce an acetyl group into (a chemical compound)
  31. achene
    small dry indehiscent fruit with the seed distinct from the fruit wall
  32. achlamydeous
    not having a floral envelope or perianth
  33. acicular
    narrow and long and pointed; as pine leaves
  34. aciculate
    related to plants or animals or crystals having aciculae or needlelike parts
  35. acid rain
    precipitation forming when gas emissions combine with water
  36. acidimetric
    involving or related to acidimetry
  37. acidophile
    an organism that thrives in a relatively acid environment
  38. acidulous
    being sour to the taste
  39. acinose
    pertaining to one of the small sacs (as in a compound gland)
  40. acneiform
    resembling acne
  41. acorea
    absence of the pupil in an eye
  42. acorn
    fruit of the oak tree
  43. acre
    a unit of area used in English-speaking countries
  44. acrid
    strong and sharp, as a taste
  45. acrimony
    a rough and bitter manner
  46. acrocarp
    a moss in which the main axis is terminated by the archegonium (and hence the capsule)
  47. acrocarpous
    (of mosses) having the archegonia at the top of the stem
  48. acropetal
    of leaves or flowers
  49. acroscopic
    facing or on the side toward the apex
  50. acrylate
    a salt or ester of propenoic acid
  51. actinal
    located on the surface or end on which the mouth is situated
  52. actinomorphic
    capable of division into symmetrical halves by any longitudinal plane passing through the axis
  53. active transport
    transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient; requires an expenditure of energy
  54. actual
    existing in act or fact
  55. actual sin
    a sin committed of your own free will
  56. aculeate
    having or resembling a stinger or barb
  57. acumen
    shrewdness shown by keen insight
  58. acuminate
    (of a leaf shape) narrowing to a slender point
  59. acute
    ending in a sharp point
  60. acyclic
    not cyclic
  61. adaptability
    flexibility to fit changed circumstances
  62. adaptation
    the process of adjusting or conforming to new conditions
  63. adaptive radiation
    the development of many different forms from an originally homogeneous group of organisms as they fill different ecological niches
  64. adaxial
    nearest to or facing toward the axis of an organ or organism
  65. additive
    characterized or produced by addition
  66. adenosine diphosphate
    an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for energy storage
  67. adenosine triphosphate
    a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
  68. adherent
    someone who believes and helps to spread a doctrine
  69. adhesive agent
    a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together
  70. adiabatic
    occurring without loss or gain of heat
  71. adjacent
    having a common boundary or edge
  72. adjustment
    the act of making something different
  73. admixture
    the act of mixing together
  74. adnate
    of unlike parts or organs; growing closely attached
  75. adobe
    sun-dried brick used in hot dry climates
  76. adpressed
    pressed close to or lying flat against something
  77. adsorption
    the accumulation of molecules of a gas to form a thin film on the surface of a solid
  78. adventitious
    associated by chance and not an integral part
  79. adventitious root
    root growing in an unusual location e.g. from a stem
  80. adventive
    not native and not fully established
  81. advisement
    careful consideration
  82. adynamic
    lacking strength or vigor
  83. adze
    an edge tool used to cut and shape wood
  84. aeciospore
    spore of a rust fungus formed in an aecium
  85. Aeolian
    of or pertaining to Aeolus, the Greek god of the winds
  86. aerate
    fill, combine, or supply with oxygen
  87. aeration
    the process of exposing to air (so as to purify)
  88. aerial
    existing, living, growing, or operating in the air
  89. aeriferous
    conveying air; as the bronchial tubes
  90. aeriform
    resembling air or having the form of air
  91. aerobic
    depending on free oxygen or air
  92. aerobiosis
    life sustained in the presence of air or oxygen
  93. aestival
    (rare) of or occurring in summer
  94. aestivation
    cessation or slowing of activity during the summer
  95. affinity
    a natural attraction or feeling of kinship
  96. affixed
    firmly attached
  97. afforestation
    the conversion of bare or cultivated land into forest
  98. aftermath
    the consequences of an event
  99. agamic
    (of reproduction) not involving the fusion of male and female gametes in reproduction
  100. agamogenesis
    reproduction without the fusion of gametes
  101. agamous
    (of reproduction) not involving the fusion of male and female gametes in reproduction
  102. agar
    a colloidal extract of algae
  103. agaric
    a saprophytic fungus of the order Agaricales having an umbrellalike cap with gills on the underside
  104. age class
    people in the same age range
  105. agglomerate
    form into one cluster
  106. agglutinate
    clump together; as of bacteria, red blood cells, etc.
  107. aggregate
    a sum total of many heterogeneous things taken together
  108. aggregate fruit
    fruit consisting of many individual small fruits or drupes derived from separate ovaries within a common receptacle: e.g. blackberry; raspberry; pineapple
  109. aggregation
    the act of gathering something together
  110. aging
    the organic process of growing older
  111. agrestic
    characteristic of the fields or country
  112. agrobiology
    the study of plant nutrition and growth especially as a way to increase crop yield
  113. agrology
    science of soils in relation to crops
  114. agronomy
    the application of soil and plant sciences to land management and crop production
  115. air current
    air moving (sometimes with considerable force) from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
  116. air hole
    a hole that allows the passage of air
  117. ala
    a flat wing-shaped process or winglike part of an organism
  118. alar
    of or relating to the axil
  119. alate
    (of seeds or insects) having winglike extensions
  120. albedo
    the ratio of reflected to incident light
  121. albescent
    becoming or shading into white
  122. albino
    a person with white hair, milky skin, and pink eyes
  123. albumen
    a simple water-soluble protein found in many animal tissues and liquids
  124. albuminous
    relating to or containing or resembling albumin
  125. alga
    primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves
  126. algin
    a gum used especially as a thickener or emulsifier
  127. algoid
    of or resembling algae
  128. algology
    the branch of botany that studies algae
  129. alien
    from another place or part of the world
  130. aliform
    having or resembling wings
  131. alkali
    any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
  132. alkaline
    relating to or containing an alkali
  133. allantoid
    shaped like a sausage
  134. allele
    any of the forms of a gene that can occupy the same locus
  135. allergen
    any substance that can cause an allergy
  136. allergy
    hypersensitive immunological reaction to some substance
  137. alley
    a narrow street with walls on both sides
  138. alliaceous
    of or pertaining to the botanical genus Allium
  139. alliance
    the state of being confederated
  140. allochthonous
    of rocks, deposits, etc.
  141. allogamy
    cross-fertilization in plants
  142. allomorphic
    pertaining to allomorphs
  143. allopatric
    occurring in areas isolated geographically from one another
  144. allotropic
    of or related to or exhibiting allotropism
  145. alluvial
    relating to deposits carried by rushing streams
  146. alluvial fan
    a fan-shaped deposit where a fast flowing stream flattens out
  147. alluvial soil
    a fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains or in river beds
  148. alluviation
    the phenomenon of sediment or gravel accumulating
  149. alluvion
    gradual formation of new land, by recession of the sea or deposit of sediment
  150. alluvium
    clay or silt or gravel carried by rushing streams and deposited where the stream slows down
  151. almanac
    an annual publication arranged according to the calendar
  152. alpine
    relating to or characteristic of high mountains
  153. alternate
    go back and forth
  154. alternation of generations
    the alternation of two or more different forms in the life cycle of a plant or animal
  155. altimeter
    an instrument that measures the height above ground
  156. alveolate
    pitted with cell-like cavities (as a honeycomb)
  157. ambient
    completely enveloping
  158. ameloblast
    a cell from which tooth enamel develops
  159. amelogenesis
    the developmental process of forming tooth enamel
  160. amendment
    a statement that is added to a proposal or document
  161. ament
    a cylindrical spikelike inflorescence
  162. amentaceous
    (of plants) bearing or characterized by aments or catkins
  163. American white oak
    large slow-growing deciduous tree of the eastern United States having stout spreading branches and leaves with usually 7 rounded lobes; yields strong and durable hard wood
  164. amethystine
    containing or resembling amethyst
  165. amino acid
    organic compounds containing an amino group and acid group
  166. amitosis
    the direct method of cell division characterized by simple division of the nucleus without formation of chromosomes
  167. ammonification
    impregnation with ammonia or a compound of ammonia
  168. amnion
    thin innermost membranous sac enclosing the developing embryo of higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)
  169. amniote
    any member of the Amniota
  170. amorphous
    having no definite form or distinct shape
  171. amour propre
    feelings of excessive pride
  172. amphibian
    cold-blooded vertebrate living on land but breeding in water
  173. amphibious
    relating to vertebrates that live on land but breed in water
  174. amphidiploid
    (genetics) an organism or cell having a diploid set of chromosomes from each parent
  175. amphigory
    nonsensical writing (usually verse)
  176. amphimixis
    union of sperm and egg in sexual reproduction
  177. amphipod
    a kind of malacostracan crustacean
  178. amphitheater
    an oval large stadium with tiers of seats
  179. amphitropous
    partly inverted; turned back 90 degrees on its stalk
  180. amphoteric
    having characteristics of both an acid and a base and capable of reacting as either
  181. ampule
    a small bottle that contains a drug
  182. anabiosis
    suspended animation in organisms during periods of extreme drought from which they revive when moisture returns
  183. anabolism
    the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances (e.g., living tissue) from simpler ones together with the storage of energy
  184. anadromous
    migrating from the sea to fresh water to spawn
  185. anaerobe
    an organism that does not require air or free oxygen to live
  186. anaerobic
    not using or dependent on oxygen
  187. analgesic
    capable of relieving pain
  188. analogous
    similar or equivalent in some respects
  189. anastomose
    come together or open into each other
  190. anastomosis
    a natural or surgical joining of parts or branches of tubular structures so as to make or become continuous
  191. anatomy
    the study of the structure of animals
  192. anatropous
    completely inverted; turned back 180 degrees on its stalk
  193. anchor rope
    the chain or rope that attaches an anchor to a vessel
  194. anchorite
    one retired from society for religious reasons
  195. andante
    at a moderately slow tempo
  196. andrenid
    a bee that is a member of the genus Andrena
  197. Andricus
    cynipid gall wasps, chiefly affecting oaks
  198. androecium
    a male gametoecium
  199. androgenesis
    male parthenogenesis in which the embryo contains only paternal chromosomes due to the failure of the egg nucleus to participate in fertilization
  200. androgenic
    of or related to the male hormone androgen
  201. androgynous
    having both male and female characteristics
  202. androphobia
    a morbid fear of men
  203. anemography
    recording anemometrical measurements
  204. anemometer
    a gauge for recording the speed and direction of wind
  205. anemophilous
    of flowering plants that are pollinated by the wind
  206. aneroid barometer
    a barometer that measures pressure without using fluids
  207. anesthyl
    a mixture of methyl and ethyl chloride
  208. aneuploid
    having a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number
  209. anfractuous
    full of twists and turns
  210. anginal
    of or related to the pain of angina pectoris
  211. anginose
    of or related to the pain of angina pectoris
  212. angiocarp
    tree bearing fruit enclosed in a shell or involucre or husk
  213. angiosperm
    plants having seeds in a closed ovary
  214. angiospermous
    of or related to or characteristic of plants that are angiosperms
  215. angled
    forming or set at an inclination
  216. Anguilliformes
    elongate fishes with pelvic fins and girdle absent or reduced
  217. angular
    having the shape of intersecting lines or planes
  218. anhydrous
    without water; especially without water of crystallization
  219. animal fat
    any fat obtained from animals
  220. animateness
    the property of being animated
  221. animator
    someone who imparts energy and vitality and spirit to others
  222. anion
    a particle with a negative electric charge
  223. anionic compound
    a compound characterized by an active anion
  224. annotation
    the act of adding notes
  225. annual
    occurring every year
  226. annual ring
    an annual formation of wood in plants as they grow
  227. annular
    shaped like a ring
  228. annulated
    shaped like a ring
  229. annulus
    a toroidal shape
  230. anodyne
    capable of relieving pain
  231. anoxia
    severe hypoxia
  232. anoxic
    relating to or marked by a severe deficiency of oxygen in tissues or organs
  233. ant bird
    any of various dull-colored South American birds that feeding on ants some following army ant swarms
  234. antagonism
    an actively expressed feeling of dislike and hostility
  235. anterior
    of or near the head end or toward the front plane of a body
  236. anthelmintic
    capable of expelling or destroying parasitic worms
  237. anther
    the part of the stamen that contains pollen
  238. antheridium
    the male sex organ of spore-producing plants
  239. antherozoid
    a motile male gamete of a plant such as an alga or fern or gymnosperm
  240. anthesis
    the time and process of budding and unfolding of blossoms
  241. anthophagous
    feeding on flowers
  242. anthozoan
    sessile marine coelenterates including solitary and colonial polyps; the medusoid phase is entirely suppressed
  243. anthracosis
    lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust
  244. anthropic
    relating to mankind or the period of mankind's existence
  245. anthropical
    relating to mankind or the period of mankind's existence
  246. anthropogenesis
    the evolution or genesis of the human race
  247. anthropophagous
    of or relating to eaters of human flesh
  248. anti
    not in favor of (an action or proposal etc.)
  249. anti-inflammatory
    a medicine intended to reduce swelling
  250. antibiosis
    an association between organisms that is harmful to one of them or between organisms and a metabolic product of another
  251. antibiotic
    a substance used to kill microorganisms and cure infections
  252. anticlinal
    sloping downward away from a common crest
  253. anticyclone
    winds spiraling outward from a high pressure center
  254. antidotal
    counteracting the effects of a poison
  255. antifungal
    any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi
  256. antihistamine
    a medicine used to treat allergies and colds
  257. antimicrobial
    capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of disease-causing microorganisms
  258. antipodal
    the relation of opposition along a diameter
  259. antiquark
    the antiparticle of a quark
  260. antisepsis
    the process of inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms
  261. antispasmodic
    a drug used to relieve or prevent spasms
  262. antitumor
    used in the treatment of cancer
  263. antitussive
    any medicine used to suppress or relieve coughing
  264. antiviral
    inhibiting or stopping the growth and reproduction of viruses
  265. antonym
    a word that expresses an opposite meaning
  266. antrorse
    bent or curved forward or upward
  267. apetalous
    (of flowers) having no petals
  268. apex
    the highest point of something
  269. aphid
    any of various small plant-sucking insects
  270. aphotic
    lacking light; especially not reached by sunlight
  271. aphrodisiac
    a drug or other agent that stimulates sexual desire
  272. aphyllous
    having no leaves
  273. apical
    situated at an apex
  274. apiculate
    (of a leaf shape) having a short sharply pointed tip
  275. Apios
    twining perennial North American plants
  276. aplanatic
    free from or corrected for spherical aberration
  277. apocarpous
    (of ovaries of flowering plants) consisting of carpels that are free from one another as in buttercups or roses
  278. apogamous
    of or relating to the development of an embryo in the absence of fertilization
  279. apogamy
    development of an embryo without fertilization
  280. apomict
    a plant that reproduces or is reproduced by apomixis
  281. apomixis
    any of several kinds of reproduction without fertilization
  282. apophatism
    the religious belief that God cannot be known but is completely `other' and must be described in negative terms (in terms of what God is not)
  283. apophthegm
    a short pithy instructive saying
  284. apophysis
    (anatomy) a natural outgrowth or projection on an organ or body part such as the process of a vertebra
  285. apostate
    not faithful to religion or party or cause
  286. apothecium
    a cuplike ascocarp in many lichens and ascomycetous fungi
  287. appendage
    a part that is joined to something larger
  288. appendicular
    relating to or consisting of an appendage or appendages
  289. appendix
    a small sac attached to the large intestines of some animals
  290. apple turnover
    turnover with an apple filling
  291. applemint
    mint with apple-scented stems of southern and western Europe
  292. appressed
    pressed close to or lying flat against something
  293. approximate
    not quite exact or correct
  294. apron
    a garment tied about the waist and worn to protect clothing
  295. apterous
    (of insects) without wings
  296. Apus apus
    common European bird with a shrieking call that nests chiefly about eaves of buildings or on cliffs
  297. aquaculture
    rearing aquatic animals or cultivating aquatic plants for food
  298. aquatic plant
    a plant that grows partly or wholly in water whether rooted in the mud, as a lotus, or floating without anchorage, as the water hyacinth
  299. aqueduct
    a conduit that carries water over a valley
  300. aquiculture
    a technique of growing plants (without soil) in water containing dissolved nutrients
  301. aquifer
    underground layer of rock or sand that yields groundwater
  302. araceous
    relating to a plant of the family Araceae
  303. arachnoid
    relating to or resembling a member of the class Arachnida
  304. arbor
    a framework that supports climbing plants
  305. arboreal
    of or relating to or formed by trees
  306. arboreous
    resembling a tree in form and branching structure
  307. arborescent
    resembling a tree in form and branching structure
  308. arboretum
    a facility where trees and shrubs are cultivated
  309. arboriculture
    the cultivation of tree for the production of timber
  310. arboriform
    resembling a tree in form and branching structure
  311. arcade
    a structure composed of arches supported by columns
  312. archegoniate
    of or relating to an archegonium
  313. archegonium
    a female sex organ occurring in mosses, ferns, and most gymnosperms
  314. arching
    forming or resembling an arch
  315. architectural
    of or pertaining to the art and science of architecture
  316. arctic
    extremely cold
  317. arcuate
    forming or resembling an arch
  318. area
    the extent of a two-dimensional surface within a boundary
  319. arenaceous
    resembling or containing or abounding in sand
  320. arenicolous
    growing or living or burrowing in sand
  321. areola
    small circular area such as that around the human nipple or an inflamed area around a pimple or insect bite
  322. areolate
    relating to or like or divided into areolae
  323. argillaceous
    resembling or containing clay
  324. argue
    have a disagreement about something
  325. arid
    lacking sufficient water or rainfall
  326. aril
    fleshy and usually brightly colored cover of some seeds that develops from the ovule stalk and partially or entirely envelopes the seed
  327. arillate
    having a fleshy and usually brightly colored cover
  328. arista
    bristlelike process near the tip of the antenna of certain flies
  329. Aristotle
    one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers
  330. armature
    coil in which voltage is induced by motion through a magnetic field
  331. aromatic
    having a strong pleasant odor
  332. arrangement
    an orderly grouping considered as a unit
  333. arrhythmic
    lacking a steady beat or accent
  334. arroyo
    a stream or brook
  335. art teacher
    someone who teaches art
  336. arteria ovarica
    the artery that branches from the aorta and supplies blood to the ovaries
  337. arthropod
    invertebrate having jointed limbs and a segmented body
  338. arthrospore
    a body that resembles a spore but is not an endospore
  339. article
    one of a class of artifacts
  340. articulate
    express or state clearly
  341. artifact
    a man-made object
  342. arundinaceous
    of or relating to or resembling reedlike plants of the genus Arundinaria
  343. Asarum
    wild ginger
  344. ascending
    the act of changing location in an upward direction
  345. ascomycete
    any fungus of the class Ascomycetes (or subdivision Ascomycota) in which the spores are formed inside an ascus
  346. ascus
    saclike structure in which ascospores are formed through sexual reproduction of ascomycetes
  347. asexual
    not having or involving sex
  348. asexual reproduction
    reproduction without the fusion of gametes
  349. ashlar
    a rectangular block of hewn stone used for building purposes
  350. aspect
    a characteristic to be considered
  351. Aspergillus
    genus of common molds causing food spoilage and some pathogenic to plants and animals
  352. aspirate
    suck in (air)
  353. assiduous
    marked by care and persistent effort
  354. assimilation
    the process of absorbing one cultural group into another
  355. associate
    bring or come into action
  356. association football
    a football game in which two teams of 11 players try to kick or head a ball into the opponents' goal
  357. assurgent
    growing or extending upward
  358. asteriated
    (of some crystals especially gemstones) exhibiting asterism
  359. astern
    at, near, or toward the stern of a ship or airplane
  360. astomatous
    having no mouth or mouthlike opening
  361. astragalar
    of or relating to the anklebone
  362. astringent
    tending to draw together or constrict soft organic tissue
  363. asymmetrical
    characterized by an imbalance in spatial arrangement
  364. atavistic
    characteristic of a throwback
  365. atherogenesis
    the formation of atheromas on the walls of the arteries as in atherosclerosis
  366. atmometer
    an instrument that measures rate of evaporation of water
  367. atoll
    an island consisting of a coral reef surrounding a lagoon
  368. atrophy
    a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse
  369. attenuate
    become weaker, in strength, value, or magnitude
  370. atypical
    not representative of a group, class, or type
  371. auctorial
    of or by or typical of an author
  372. auger
    hand tool for boring holes
  373. augur
    predict from an omen
  374. aureole
    the outermost region of the sun's atmosphere
  375. auricle
    a pouch projecting from an atrium of the heart
  376. auriculate
    having auricles
  377. auriform
    having a shape resembling an ear
  378. auroral
    characteristic of the dawn
  379. author
    a person who writes professionally
  380. autobiographic
    relating to or in the style of an autobiography
  381. autochthonous
    originating where it is found
  382. autocoid
    any physiologically active internal secretion especially one of uncertain classification
  383. autoecious
    of parasites especially rust fungi
  384. autogamous
    characterized by or fit for autogamy
  385. autogamy
    self-fertilization in plants
  386. autogenic
    originating within the body
  387. autolysis
    lysis of plant or animal tissue by an internal process
  388. autonomic
    relating to or controlled by the autonomic nervous system
  389. autonomous
    existing as an independent entity
  390. autotrophic
    of or relating to organisms (as green plants) that can make complex organic nutritive compounds from simple inorganic sources by photosynthesis
  391. autotype
    process for producing permanent prints in a carbon pigment
  392. autumnal
    of or characteristic of or occurring in the fall
  393. auxin
    a plant hormone that promotes root formation and bud growth
  394. availability
    the quality of being at hand when needed
  395. avalanche
    a slide of large masses of snow, ice and mud down a mountain
  396. avaram
    evergreen Indian shrub with vivid yellow flowers whose bark is used in tanning; sometimes placed in genus Cassia
  397. avenue
    a wide street or thoroughfare
  398. avitaminosis
    any of several diseases caused by deficiency of one or more vitamins
  399. awl-shaped
    shaped like an awl
  400. awn
    slender bristlelike appendage found on the bracts of grasses
  401. axe
    an edge tool with a heavy bladed head mounted across a handle
  402. axial
    situated on or along or in the direction of an axis
  403. axil
    the upper angle between an axis and an offshoot such as a branch or leafstalk
  404. axile
    relating to or attached to the axis
  405. axillary
    of or relating to the axil
  406. axis
    a straight line through a body or figure
  407. azonal
    not divided into zones
  408. B horizon
    immediately below the A-horizon
  409. baccate
    producing or bearing berries
  410. bacciferous
    producing or bearing berries
  411. bacilliform
    formed like a bacillus
  412. bacillus
    aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium
  413. backblast
    backfire from a recoilless weapon
  414. backcross
    mate a hybrid of the first generation with one of its parents
  415. backdoor
    an entrance at the rear of a building
  416. backfield
    the offensive football players who line up behind the linemen
  417. backfire
    a loud noise made by the explosion of fuel in an engine
  418. backflow
    a flow that returns toward its source
  419. backslap
    display excessive cordiality (towards)
  420. bacon strip
    a slice of bacon
  421. bactericide
    any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
  422. bacteriophage
    a virus that is parasitic (reproduces itself) in bacteria
  423. Bacteroidaceae
    family of bacteria living usually in the alimentary canal or on mucous surfaces of warm-blooded animals; sometimes associated with acute infective processes
  424. baculiform
    formed like a bacillus
  425. badlands
    deeply eroded barren land
  426. baffle
    be a mystery or bewildering to
  427. baffle board
    a flat plate that controls or directs the flow of fluid or energy
  428. bagasse
    the dry dusty pulp that remains after juice is extracted from sugar cane or similar plants
  429. bagnio
    a building containing public baths
  430. Bahasa Malaysia
    the Malay language spoken in Malaysia
  431. balanced
    being in a state of proper equilibrium
  432. bald
    lacking hair on all or most of the scalp
  433. ball
    an object with a spherical shape
  434. ball and chain
    heavy iron ball attached to a prisoner by a chain
  435. ballistic
    of the motion of objects moving under their own momentum
  436. bamboo
    woody tropical grass having hollow woody stems
  437. bandy-legged
    have legs that curve outward at the knees
  438. bar
    a rigid piece of metal or wood
  439. bar code
    code consisting of a series of vertical bars of variable width that are scanned by a laser; printed on consumer product packages to identify the item for a computer that provides the price and registers inventory information
  440. barbed
    having or covered with protective points, spines, or thorns
  441. barbellate
    having or covered with protective barbs or quills or spines or thorns or setae etc.
  442. Barbuda
    an island in Antigua and Barbuda
  443. barefoot
    without shoes
  444. bark
    the sound made by a dog
  445. barograph
    a recording barometer
  446. barren
    completely wanting or lacking
  447. barrier
    a structure or object that impedes free movement
  448. basal
    serving as or forming a bottom layer
  449. base
    lowest support of a structure
  450. basidiocarp
    the fruiting body of a basidiomycete which bears its spores on special cells
  451. basidiomycete
    any of various fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota
  452. basidium
    a small club-shaped structure typically bearing four basidiospores at the ends of minute projections; unique to basidiomycetes
  453. basifixed
    attached by its base
  454. basinal
    of or relating to a basin
  455. basipetal
    of leaves or flowers
  456. basiscopic
    facing or on the side toward the base
  457. basket
    a container that is usually woven and has handles
  458. basophil
    a leukocyte with basophilic granules easily stained by basic stains
  459. bast
    (botany) tissue that conducts synthesized food substances (e.g., from leaves) to parts where needed; consists primarily of sieve tubes
  460. bastardise
    declare a child to be illegitimate
  461. bathyal zone
    the steep descent of the seabed from the continental shelf to the abyssal zone
  462. bathysphere
    spherical deep diving apparatus for underwater exploration
  463. batten
    a strip fixed to something to hold it firm
  464. bay
    an indentation of a shoreline smaller than a gulf
  465. bayou
    a swampy arm or slow-moving outlet of a lake
  466. beach
    an area of sand sloping down to the water of a sea or lake
  467. beach towel
    very large towel to dry yourself after swimming
  468. beak
    horny projecting mouth of a bird
  469. beaked
    having or resembling a beak
  470. beam scale
    a portable balance consisting of a pivoted bar with arms of unequal length
  471. bean plant
    any of various leguminous plants grown for their edible seeds and pods
  472. bearded
    having hair on the cheeks and chin
  473. beat back
    cause to move back by force or influence
  474. Beaufort scale
    a scale from 0 to 12 for the force of the wind
  475. Beckman thermometer
    a mercury thermometer that measures small differences or changes in temperature
  476. bedding plant
    an ornamental plant suitable for planting in a flowerbed
  477. bedrock
    solid unweathered rock beneath surface deposits of soil
  478. beholden
    under a moral obligation to someone
  479. below
    in or to a place that is lower
  480. belt
    a band to tie or buckle around the body
  481. bench mark
    a surveyor's mark on a permanent object of predetermined position and elevation used as a reference point
  482. bench press
    a small punch press mounted on a workbench
  483. benthic
    of or relating to or happening on the bottom under a body of water
  484. benthos
    a region including the bottom of the sea and the littoral zones
  485. bentonite
    an absorbent aluminum silicate clay formed from volcanic ash
  486. berm
    a narrow ledge or shelf at the top or bottom of a slope
  487. berry
    a small fruit having any of various structures, e.g., simple (grape or blueberry) or aggregate (blackberry or raspberry)
  488. bespatter
    spot, splash, or soil
  489. best friend
    the one friend who is closest to you
  490. biannual
    occurring or payable twice each year
  491. bicarbonate
    a salt of carbonic acid (containing the anion HCO3) in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced; an acid carbonate
  492. bicentric
    having two centers
  493. bicolored
    having two colors
  494. biconvex
    convex on both sides; shaped like a lentil
  495. bicornate
    having two horns or horn-shaped parts
  496. bicornuate
    having two horns or horn-shaped parts
  497. bicycle
    a vehicle that has two wheels and is moved by foot pedals
  498. bicyclist
    a person who rides a bicycle
  499. bidentate
    having toothlike projections that are themselves toothed
  500. biennial
    occurring every second year
  501. bifacial
    having two faces or fronts
  502. bifid
    divided into two lobes
  503. biflagellate
    having two flagella
  504. bifoliate
    having two leaves
  505. biform
    having or combining two forms
  506. bifurcated
    divided into or made up of two parts
  507. big science
    scientific research that requires massive capital investment but is expected to yield very significant results
  508. bigamous
    of illegal marriage to a second person while legally married to a first
  509. bigeminal
    occurring in pairs
  510. bigeneric
    resulting from a cross between species of different genera
  511. bigos
    a Polish stew of cabbage and meat
  512. bilabiate
    having two lips
  513. bilateral symmetry
    the property of being symmetrical about a vertical plane
  514. bilobate
    having two lobes
  515. bilocular
    divided into or containing two cells or chambers
  516. biloculate
    divided into or containing two cells or chambers
  517. binate
    growing in two parts or in pairs
  518. binder
    something used to tie
  519. binomial
    a quantity expressed as a sum or difference of two terms
  520. bioassay
    appraisal of the biological activity of a substance by testing its effect on an organism and comparing the result with some agreed standard
  521. bioclimatic
    of or concerned with the relations of climate and living organisms
  522. bioclimatology
    the study of effects of climate on living organisms
  523. biodiversity
    the diversity of plant and animal life in a habitat
  524. bioelectricity
    electric phenomena in animals or plants
  525. biogenesis
    the production of living organisms from other living organisms
  526. biogenous
    producing or produced by living things
  527. biogeographical region
    an area of the Earth determined by distribution of flora and fauna
  528. biogeography
    the study of the distribution of animals and plants
  529. biographic
    of or relating to or being biography
  530. biologic
    pertaining to biology or to life and living things
  531. biological clock
    an innate mechanism in living organisms that controls the periodicity of many physiological functions
  532. biological research
    scientific research conducted by biologists
  533. biology
    the science that studies living organisms
  534. bioluminescence
    luminescence produced by physiological processes
  535. biomass
    the total amount of living matter in a given unit area
  536. biome
    major ecological community with distinct climate and flora
  537. biometry
    a branch of biology that studies biological phenomena and observations by means of statistical analysis
  538. bionomics
    the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment
  539. biosphere
    the regions of the Earth where living organisms exist
  540. biosynthetic
    of or relating to biosynthesis
  541. biosystematics
    use of data (e.g. cytogenetic or biochemical) to assess taxonomic relations especially within an evolutionary framework
  542. biota
    all the plant and animal life of a particular region
  543. biotechnology
    the branch of molecular biology that studies the use of microorganisms to perform specific industrial processes
  544. biotic
    of or relating to living organisms
  545. biotin
    a B vitamin that aids in body growth
  546. biotype
    organisms sharing a specified genotype or the genotype (or peculiarities) so shared
  547. biparous
    producing two offspring at a time
  548. bipartite
    involving two sections or elements
  549. bipinnate
    of a leaf shape; having doubly pinnate leaflets (as ferns)
  550. bipinnatifid
    pinnatifid with the segments also pinnatifid
  551. bird louse
    wingless insect with mouth parts adapted for biting
  552. bisect
    cut in half or cut in two
  553. biserrate
    having saw-like notches with the notches themselves similarly notched
  554. bisexual
    sexually attracted to both sexes
  555. bite
    to grip, cut off, or tear with or as if with the teeth or jaws
  556. bivalent
    having a valence of two or having two valences
  557. bivalved
    used of mollusks having two shells (as clams etc.)
  558. black poplar
    large European poplar
  559. black spot
    any of several fungous diseases of plants that produce small black spots on the plant
  560. black stork
    Old World stork that is glossy black above and white below
  561. blackamoor
    a person with dark skin who comes from Africa
  562. blacktop
    a black bituminous material used for paving roads or other areas; usually spread over crushed rock
  563. bladdery
    resembling a bladder
  564. blade
    the flat part of a tool or weapon that has a cutting edge
  565. blanch
    turn pale, as if in fear
  566. bland diet
    a diet of foods that are not irritating
  567. blast
    a sudden very loud noise
  568. bleed
    lose blood from one's body
  569. blend
    mix together different elements
  570. blight
    any plant disease resulting in withering without rotting
  571. blister
    an elevation of the skin filled with fluid
  572. blizzard
    a storm with widespread snowfall accompanied by strong winds
  573. bloom
    produce or yield flowers
  574. blossom
    a flower or cluster of flowers on a plant
  575. blowback
    the backward escape of gases and unburned gunpowder after a gun is fired
  576. blown
    being moved or acted upon by moving air or vapor
  577. blowout
    an easy victory
  578. blunt
    not sharp (used of a knife or other blade)
  579. boat-shaped
    having a concave shape like a boat
  580. boatswain
    a petty officer on a merchant ship
  581. body of water
    the part of the earth's surface covered with water
  582. bog
    wet spongy ground of decomposing vegetation
  583. bog soil
    poorly drained soils on top of peat and under marsh or swamp vegetation
  584. bole
    the main stem of a tree
  585. bolt
    a screw that screws into a nut to form a fastener
  586. bomb
    an explosive device fused to explode under specific conditions
  587. bonsai
    a dwarfed ornamental tree or shrub grown in a tray or shallow pot
  588. bootlicker
    someone who humbles himself as a sign of respect
  589. Border terrier
    small rough-coated terrier of British origin
  590. bordered
    having a border especially of a specified kind
  591. bore
    make a hole, especially with a pointed power or hand tool
  592. borer
    a drill for penetrating rock
  593. Bosporus
    a strait connecting the Mediterranean and the Black Sea
  594. boss
    a person who exercises control and makes decisions
  595. Boston
    state capital and largest city of Massachusetts
  596. botanical
    of or relating to plants
  597. botanical garden
    a facility where trees and shrubs are cultivated for exhibition
  598. botany
    the branch of biology that studies plants
  599. botryoid
    resembling a cluster of grapes in form
  600. bottom quark
    a quark with a charge of -1/3 and a mass about 10,000 times that of an electron
  601. bottomland
    low-lying alluvial land near a river
  602. botuliform
    shaped like a sausage
  603. boulder clay
    unstratified soil deposited by a glacier
  604. bouquet
    an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present
  605. bovid
    of or relating to or belonging to the genus Bos (cattle)
  606. bowling green
    a field of closely mowed turf for playing bowls
  607. box-shaped
    resembling a box in rectangularity
  608. brachypterous
    having very short or rudimentary wings
  609. brackish
    slightly salty
  610. bract
    a modified leaf or leaflike part just below and protecting an inflorescence
  611. bracteal
    pertaining to or resembling or functioning as a bract
  612. bracteate
    having bracts
  613. bracteolate
    having bracteoles
  614. bracteole
    a small bract
  615. bractlet
    a small bract
  616. bramble
    any of various rough thorny shrubs or vines
  617. bran
    broken husks of cereal grains that are separated from flour
  618. branch
    a division of a stem arising from the main stem of a plant
  619. branchlet
    a small branch or division of a branch
  620. breccia
    a rudaceous rock consisting of sharp fragments embedded in clay or sand
  621. breeder
    a person who breeds animals
  622. Bremen
    a city of northwestern Germany linked by the Weser River to the port of Bremerhaven and the North Sea; in the Middle Ages it was a leading member of the Hanseatic League
  623. bristle
    a stiff hair
  624. broad-leafed
    having relatively broad rather than needlelike or scalelike leaves
  625. broadleaf
    having relatively broad rather than needlelike or scalelike leaves
  626. brochure
    a small book usually having a paper cover
  627. Bromeliaceae
    a family of tropical American plants of order Xyridales including several (as the pineapple) of economic importance
  628. brown rat
    common domestic rat; serious pest worldwide
  629. brown rot
    any of certain fungous diseases of plants characterized by browning and decay of tissues
  630. Brown Swiss
    large hardy brown breed of dairy cattle from Switzerland
  631. Brownian movement
    the random motion of small particles suspended in a gas or liquid
  632. browse
    feed as in a meadow or pasture
  633. brush
    an implement that has hairs or bristles set into a handle
  634. brush aside
    bar from attention or consideration
  635. bryophyte
    any of numerous plants of the division Bryophyta
  636. buccal cavity
    the cavity between the jaws and the cheeks
  637. buckeye
    tree having palmate leaves and large clusters of white to red flowers followed by brown shiny inedible seeds
  638. bud
    a partially opened flower
  639. budding
    beginning to develop
  640. Buffalo Bill
    United States showman famous for his Wild West Show
  641. buffer
    protect from impact
  642. buffer storage
    (computer science) a part of RAM used for temporary storage of data that is waiting to be sent to a device; used to compensate for differences in the rate of flow of data between components of a computer system
  643. buffer zone
    a neutral zone between two rival powers that is created in order to diminish the danger of conflict
  644. bulb
    anything with a round shape resembling a teardrop
  645. bulbil
    small bulb or bulb-shaped growth arising from the leaf axil or in the place of flowers
  646. bulbous
    rounded and bulging
  647. bullate
    of leaves; appearing puckered as if blistered
  648. bullbrier
    a very prickly woody vine of the eastern United States growing in tangled masses having tough round stems with shiny leathery leaves and small greenish flowers followed by clusters of inedible shiny black berries
  649. bunch grass
    any of various grasses of many genera that grow in tufts or clumps rather than forming a sod or mat; chiefly of western United States
  650. bur
    seed vessel having hooks or prickles
  651. burl
    a large rounded outgrowth on the trunk or branch of a tree
  652. burn
    destroy by fire
  653. burn center
    a center where patients with severe burns can be treated
  654. bush
    a woody perennial plant usually having several major stems
  655. butte
    a hill that rises abruptly from the surrounding region
  656. buttress
    a support usually of stone or brick
  657. butyraceous
    having the qualities of butter or yielding or containing a substance like butter
  658. C horizon
    beneath the B-horizon and above the bedrock
  659. cable
    a very strong thick rope made of twisted hemp or steel wire
  660. cactus
    a succulent and often spiny plant native to arid regions
  661. caducous
    shed at an early stage of development
  662. cairn
    a mound of stones piled up as a memorial or to mark a boundary or path
  663. calamus oil
    carcinogenic oil from calamus root used as a perfume
  664. calcareous
    composed of or containing or resembling calcium carbonate or calcite or chalk
  665. calcicolous
    growing or living in soil rich in lime
  666. calcific
    involving or resulting from calcification
  667. calcification
    a process that impregnates something with calcium
  668. calcifugous
    growing or living in acid soil
  669. calcination
    the conversion of metals into their oxides as a result of heating to a high temperature
  670. calcine
    heat a substance so that it oxidizes or reduces
  671. calculate
    make a mathematical computation
  672. calculous
    relating to or caused by or having a calculus or calculi
  673. caldera
    a large crater caused by the violent explosion of a volcano
  674. calefacient
    producing the sensation of heat when applied to the body
  675. caliche
    nitrate-bearing rock or gravel of the sodium nitrate deposits of Chile and Peru
  676. caliper
    an instrument for measuring the distance between two points
  677. callosity
    an area of skin that is thick or hard from continual pressure or friction (as the sole of the foot)
  678. callus
    a skin area that is thick or hard from continual pressure
  679. calycine
    of or relating to or resembling a calyx
  680. calycle
    a small cup-shaped structure
  681. calyculate
    having a calyculus
  682. calyptra
    the hood or cap covering the calyx of certain plants: e.g., the California poppy
  683. calyptrate
    having calypters
  684. calyx
    (botany) the whorl of sepals of a flower collectively forming the outer floral envelope or layer of the perianth enclosing and supporting the developing bud; usually green
  685. calyx tube
    the cuplike or ringlike or tubular structure of a flower which bears the sepals and stamens and calyx (as in Rosaceae)
  686. cambium
    a formative one-cell layer of tissue between xylem and phloem in most vascular plants that is responsible for secondary growth
  687. Cambrian
    of or relating to or characteristic of Wales or its people or their language
  688. campanile
    a bell tower; usually stands alone unattached to a building
  689. campanulate
    shaped like a bell or campana
  690. campestral
    of fields or open country
  691. campus
    a field on which the buildings of a university are situated
  692. campylotropous
    (of a plant ovule) curved with the micropyle near the base almost touching its stalk
  693. canaliculate
    having thin parallel channels
  694. cancellate
    having a latticelike structure pierced with holes or windows
  695. candle
    stick of wax with a wick in the middle
  696. cane
    a strong slender often flexible stem as of bamboos, reeds, rattans, or sugar cane
  697. canescent
    covered with fine whitish hairs or down
  698. canker
    an ulcerlike sore
  699. canopy
    a covering that shelters an area from the weather
  700. canorous
    richly melodious
  701. cant hook
    a peavey having a hook instead of a spike
  702. canticle
    a hymn derived from the Bible
  703. capability
    the quality of being able to do something
  704. capillary
    a minute blood vessel connecting arterioles with venules
  705. capillary action
    a phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries
  706. capillary artery
    one of the small thin-walled arteries that end in capillaries
  707. capitate
    being abruptly enlarged and globose at the tip
  708. capitulate
    surrender under agreed conditions
  709. capitulum
    a dense cluster of flowers or foliage
  710. Capsella
    shepherd's purse
  711. capsular
    resembling a capsule
  712. capsule
    a small container
  713. car traffic
    cars coming and going
  714. carapace
    hard outer covering or case of certain organisms
  715. carbide
    a binary compound of carbon with a more electropositive element
  716. carbohydrate
    an essential component of living cells and source of energy
  717. carbon
    an abundant nonmetallic element in all organic compounds
  718. carbon cycle
    the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
  719. carbon-14 dating
    a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14; believed to be reliable up to 40,000 years
  720. Carboniferous
    from 345 million to 280 million years ago
  721. carcase
    the dead body of an animal especially one slaughtered and dressed for food
  722. carcinogen
    any substance that produces cancer
  723. carina
    any of various keel-shaped structures or ridges such as that on the breastbone of a bird or that formed by the fused petals of a pea blossom
  724. carinal
    relating to or resembling a carina
  725. carinate
    having a ridge or shaped like a ridge or suggesting the keel of a ship
  726. carminative
    relieving gas in the alimentary tract
  727. carnivorous plant
    plants adapted to attract and capture and digest primarily insects but also other small animals
  728. carob tree
    evergreen Mediterranean tree with edible pods
  729. carotene
    yellow or orange-red fat-soluble pigments in plants
  730. carpel
    a simple pistil or one element of a compound pistil
  731. carpophore
    a slender stalk that furnishes an axis for a carpel
  732. carrier bag
    a bag made of paper or plastic for holding customer's purchases
  733. carry
    physically move while supporting, by vehicle, hands, or body
  734. Cartagena
    a port in southeastern Spain on the Mediterranean
  735. cartilaginous
    of or relating to cartilage
  736. carting
    the work of taking something away in a cart or truck and disposing of it
  737. Carum carvi
    a Eurasian plant with small white flowers yielding caraway seed
  738. caruncle
    an outgrowth on a plant or animal such as a fowl's wattle or a protuberance near the hilum of certain seeds
  739. carunculate
    having a caruncle
  740. Carya tomentosa
    smooth-barked North American hickory with 7 to 9 leaflets bearing a hard-shelled edible nut
  741. caryophyllaceous
    of or pertaining to plants of the family Caryophyllaceae
  742. caryopsis
    dry seed-like fruit produced by the cereal grasses: e.g. wheat, barley, Indian corn
  743. cascade
    a small waterfall or series of small waterfalls
  744. castanets
    pair of hollow pieces of wood or bone made to click together
  745. casual
    without or seeming to be without plan or method; offhand
  746. catabolism
    breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
  747. catachresis
    strained or paradoxical use of words either in error (as `blatant' to mean `flagrant') or deliberately (as in a mixed metaphor: `blind mouths')
  748. catadromous
    migrating from fresh water to the sea to spawn
  749. cataphyll
    a reduced or scarcely developed leaf at the start of a plant's life (i.e., cotyledons) or in the early stages of leaf development
  750. catastrophic
    extremely harmful; bringing physical or financial ruin
  751. caterpillar
    a wormlike and often hairy larva of a moth or butterfly
  752. cathartic
    emotionally purging
  753. cation
    a particle with a positive electric charge
  754. catkin
    a cylindrical spikelike inflorescence
  755. Catullus
    Roman lyric poet remembered for his love poems to an aristocratic Roman woman (84-54 BC)
  756. caudate
    having a tail or taillike appendage
  757. caudex
    persistent thickened stem of a herbaceous perennial plant
  758. caulescent
    (of plants) producing a well-developed stem above ground
  759. cauliflower
    a plant having an edible head of crowded white flower buds
  760. cauline
    (of plants) producing a well-developed stem above ground
  761. caustic
    capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action
  762. ceding back
    the act of ceding back
  763. cell
    the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
  764. cell membrane
    a thin membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell
  765. cellular
    relating to cells
  766. cellulose
    a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
  767. cement
    a building material that is a powder made of a mixture of calcined limestone and clay; used with water and sand or gravel to make concrete and mortar
  768. Cenozoic
    of or relating to or denoting the Cenozoic era
  769. censorious
    harshly critical or expressing censure
  770. central gyrus
    either of two gyri on either side of the central sulcus
  771. centrifugal
    tending to move away from a center
  772. centripetal
    tending to move toward a center
  773. centromere
    a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
  774. centrosome
    small region of cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus
  775. centrum
    the main body of a vertebra
  776. Cephalanthera
    small genus of temperate Old World terrestrial orchids
  777. cephalic
    of or relating to the head
  778. Cephalobidae
    a family of Nematoda
  779. Ceratophyllaceae
    coextensive with the genus Ceratophyllum: hornworts
  780. cereal
    grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat
  781. cernuous
    having branches or flower heads that bend downward
  782. cervine
    relating to or resembling deer
  783. cespitose
    (of plants) growing in small dense clumps or tufts
  784. chafed
    painful from having the skin abraded
  785. chaff
    material consisting of seed coverings and pieces of stem
  786. chaffy
    abounding in or covered with or resembling or consisting of chaff
  787. chain saw
    portable power saw; teeth linked to form an endless chain
  788. chalaza
    one of two spiral bands of tissue connecting the egg yolk to the enclosing membrane at either end of the shell
  789. chalk
    a soft whitish calcite
  790. chalk out
    make a sketch of
  791. chalybeate
    containing or impregnated with or tasting of iron
  792. chambered
    having compartmental chambers
  793. channel
    a deep and relatively narrow body of water
  794. chaparral
    dense vegetation consisting of stunted trees or bushes
  795. character
    a property that defines the individual nature of something
  796. charismatic
    possessing an extraordinary ability to attract
  797. chartaceous
    of or like paper
  798. Chartism
    the principles of a body of 19th century English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people
  799. checksum
    a digit representing the sum of the digits in an instance of digital data; used to check whether errors have occurred in transmission or storage
  800. chelate
    a heterocyclic compound having a metal ion attached by coordinate bonds to at least two nonmetal ions
  801. chemosynthesis
    synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water
  802. chemotaxis
    movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
  803. chiasma
    an intersection or crossing of two tracts in the form of the letter X
  804. chicot
    handsome tree of central and eastern North America having large bipinnate leaves and green-white flowers followed by large woody brown pods whose seeds are used as a coffee substitute
  805. chimaera
    a grotesque product of the imagination
  806. chinook
    large Pacific salmon valued as food
  807. chisel
    an edge tool with a flat steel blade with a cutting edge
  808. chitin
    component of arthropods' exoskeletons and bodies of fungi
  809. chlorenchyma
    parenchyma whose cells contain chloroplasts
  810. chlorinity
    a measure of the quantity of chlorine or other halides in water (especially seawater)
  811. chloroform
    a volatile liquid haloform ; formerly used as an anesthetic
  812. chlorophyll
    any of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms
  813. chlorophyllose
    relating to or being or containing chlorophyll
  814. chloroplast
    plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments
  815. chlorosis
    iron deficiency anemia in young women
  816. chlorotic
    of or pertaining to or suffering from chlorosis
  817. chromatid
    one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis
  818. chromatin
    the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division it condenses into chromosomes
  819. chromogen
    a compound that can be converted to a pigment
  820. chromophore
    the chemical group that gives color to a molecule
  821. chromoplast
    plastid containing pigments other than chlorophyll usually yellow or orange carotenoids
  822. chromosome
    a threadlike strand of DNA that carries genes
  823. chromosphere
    a gaseous layer of the sun's atmosphere (extending from the photosphere to the corona) that is visible during a total eclipse of the sun
  824. chronicle
    a record or narrative description of past events
  825. chrysalis
    pupa of a moth or butterfly enclosed in a cocoon
  826. Chrysophyta
    mostly freshwater eukaryotic algae having the chlorophyll masked by brown or yellow pigment; yellow-green and golden-brown algae and diatoms: Xanthophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae; some classification systems superseded or subsumed by Heterokontophyta
  827. chute
    sloping channel through which things can descend
  828. cicatrix
    a mark left by the healing of injured tissue
  829. ciliate
    of or relating to cilia projecting from the surface of a cell
  830. cilium
    a hairlike projection from the surface of a cell
  831. Cincinnati
    a city in southern Ohio on the Ohio river
  832. Cincinnatus
    Roman statesman regarded as a model of simple virtue
  833. Cinnamomum
    Asiatic and Australian aromatic trees and shrubs
  834. circinate
    shaped like a ring
  835. circular file
    a container with an open top
  836. circumboreal
    comprising or throughout far northern regions
  837. circumcision
    the act of circumcising performed on males eight days after birth as a Jewish and Muslim religious rite
  838. circumpolar
    located or found throughout a polar region
  839. circus
    a travelling company of entertainers
  840. cirque
    a steep-walled semicircular basin in a mountain
  841. cirrhosis
    a chronic disease interfering with the liver's functioning
  842. cistern
    a sac or cavity containing fluid
  843. citation
    an official award usually given as formal public statement
  844. citrate
    a salt or ester of citric acid
  845. citrus
    a tropical tree cultivated for its juicy edible fruits
  846. cladophyll
    a flattened stem resembling and functioning as a leaf
  847. claim form
    a form to use when filing a claim
  848. clamber
    climb awkwardly, as if by scrambling
  849. clandestine
    conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods
  850. clarification
    the act of removing solid particles from a liquid
  851. clasp
    hold firmly and tightly
  852. class
    a collection of things sharing a common attribute
  853. classification
    the basic cognitive process of arranging into categories
  854. clathrate
    having a latticelike structure pierced with holes or windows
  855. claw
    sharp curved horny process on the toe of some animals
  856. clear-cut
    clear and distinct to the senses; easily perceptible
  857. cleavage
    the act of splitting
  858. cleft
    a long narrow opening
  859. cleistocarp
    closed spore-bearing structure of some fungi (especially Aspergillaceae and Erysiphaceae) from which spores are released only by decay or disintegration
  860. cleistogamy
    the production of small nonopening self-pollinating flowers
  861. climber
    someone who ascends on foot
  862. Cline
    American geneticist who succeeded in transferring a functioning gene from one mouse to another (born in 1934)
  863. clinker
    a fragment of incombustible matter left after a wood or coal or charcoal fire
  864. cloche
    a woman's close-fitting hat that resembles a helmet
  865. clod
    a compact mass
  866. clone
    a genetically identical organism derived from a single cell
  867. closed book
    something that baffles understanding and cannot be explained
  868. cloud chamber
    apparatus that detects the path of high-energy particles passing through a supersaturated vapor; each particle ionizes molecules along its path and small droplets condense on them to produce a visible track
  869. cloud cover
    the state of the sky when it is covered by clouds
  870. cloven foot
    a hoof divided into two parts at its distal extremity
  871. clubfoot
    congenital deformity of the foot usually marked by a curled shape or twisted position of the ankle and heel and toes
  872. cluster
    a grouping of a number of similar things
  873. coalesce
    fuse or cause to come together
  874. coalescence
    the union of diverse things into one body or form or group
  875. coalescent
    growing together, fusing
  876. coarctate
    (of an insect pupa) enclosed in a rigid case
  877. coarse-haired
    having coarse hair or fur
  878. coast polypody
    stiff leathery-leaved fern of western North America having ovate fronds parted to the midrib
  879. cob
    adult male swan
  880. cobblestone
    rectangular paving stone with curved top
  881. coccus
    any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
  882. cochlear
    of or relating to the cochlea of the ear
  883. coetaneous
    of the same period
  884. coexist
    occur at the same time or place
  885. coherent
    marked by an orderly and consistent relation of parts
  886. cohesion
    the state of sticking together
  887. coir
    stiff coarse fiber from the outer husk of a coconut
  888. cola extract
    a flavoring extracted from the kola nut
  889. cold cream
    a cream used cosmetically (mostly by women) for softening and cleaning the skin
  890. cold frame
    protective covering consisting of a wooden frame with a glass top in which small plants are protected from the cold
  891. cold spell
    a spell of cold weather
  892. coleus
    any of various Old World tropical plants of the genus Coleus having multicolored decorative leaves and spikes of blue flowers
  893. collar
    a band that fits around the neck and is usually folded over
  894. collateral
    accompanying; following as a consequence
  895. collet
    a cone-shaped chuck used for holding cylindrical pieces in a lathe
  896. colloid
    a mixture with properties between those of a solution and fine suspension
  897. colloidal
    of or relating to or having the properties of a colloid
  898. colloidal gel
    a colloid in a more solid form than a sol
  899. colloidal suspension
    a colloid that has a continuous liquid phase in which a solid is suspended in a liquid
  900. collude
    act in unison and in secret towards a deceitful purpose
  901. colonial
    relating to a body of people who settle far from home
  902. colony
    a group of organisms of the same type living together
  903. color chart
    a chart displaying colors
  904. colubrid
    mostly harmless temperate-to-tropical terrestrial or arboreal or aquatic snakes
  905. columella
    a small column that is a part of a plant or animal
  906. column
    a line of units following one after another
  907. columniform
    having the form of a column
  908. coma
    a state of deep and often prolonged unconsciousness
  909. combination
    the act of bringing things together to form a new whole
  910. commandment
    something that is commanded
  911. commensalism
    when one organism benefits from another without damaging it
  912. commissure
    a bundle of nerve fibers passing from one side to the other of the brain or spinal cord
  913. common time
    a time signature indicating four beats to the bar
  914. community
    a group of people living in a particular local area
  915. comose
    bearing a coma
  916. compact
    closely and firmly united or packed together
  917. companionableness
    suitability to be a companion
  918. compass card
    compass in the form of a card that rotates so that 0 degrees or North points to magnetic north
  919. competitively
    in competition
  920. complex
    complicated in structure
  921. complicate
    make less simple
  922. composite
    consisting of separate interconnected parts
  923. compost
    a mixture of decaying vegetation and manure
  924. compound
    a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts
  925. compound leaf
    a leaf composed of a number of leaflets on a common stalk
  926. compressed
    pressed tightly together
  927. computer mouse
    a hand-operated electronic device that controls the coordinates of a cursor on your computer screen as you move it around on a pad; on the bottom of the device is a ball that rolls on the surface of the pad
  928. concatenate
    add by linking or joining so as to form a chain or series
  929. concave
    curving inward
  930. concavo-convex
    concave on one side and convex on the other with the concavity being greater than the convexity
  931. conceit
    the trait of being unduly vain
  932. concentric
    having a common center
  933. conceptualise
    have the idea for
  934. concerted
    involving the joint activity of two or more
  935. concrete
    capable of being perceived by the senses
  936. concretion
    the union of diverse things into one body or form or group
  937. cone
    a shape with a circular base and sides tapering to a point
  938. confined
    being in captivity
  939. confluent
    flowing together
  940. conform
    be similar, be in line with
  941. congeneric
    belonging to the same genus
  942. congenerous
    belonging to the same genus
  943. congested
    overfull as with blood
  944. congregate
    come together, usually for a purpose
  945. conical
    relating to or resembling a cone
  946. conidiospore
    an asexually produced fungal spore formed on a conidiophore
  947. conifer
    a type of tree or shrub bearing cones
  948. coniferous
    of or relating to or part of trees or shrubs bearing cones and evergreen leaves
  949. conjugate
    undergo the act of becoming a single unit
  950. conjugation
    the state of being joined together
  951. conjuncture
    a critical combination of events or circumstances
  952. connate
    related in nature
  953. connective
    connecting or tending to connect
  954. Conopodium
    a genus of dicotyledonous plants of the family Umbelliferae
  955. conservation
    careful management of the environment and natural resources
  956. conservatory
    a schoolhouse with special facilities for fine arts
  957. conserved
    protected from harm or loss
  958. conspecific
    belonging to the same species
  959. conspicuous
    obvious to the eye or mind
  960. constipate
    impede with a clog or as if with a clog
  961. constricted
    drawn together or squeezed physically or by extension psychologically
  962. consumer
    a person who uses goods or services
  963. contiguous
    having a common boundary or edge
  964. continental
    of or relating to or characteristic of a continent
  965. continuous
    moving in time or space without interruption
  966. contorted
    twisted, especially as in pain or struggle
  967. contracted
    reduced in size or pulled together
  968. contralateral
    on or relating to the opposite side (of the body)
  969. contrite
    feeling or expressing pain or sorrow for sins or offenses
  970. conundrum
    a difficult problem
  971. convent
    a religious residence especially for nuns
  972. convergence
    the act of coming closer
  973. convergent
    tending to come together from different directions
  974. conversant
    well informed about or knowing thoroughly
  975. convex
    curving or bulging outward
  976. convolute
    rolled longitudinally upon itself
  977. coordinative
    serving to connect two grammatical constituents of identical construction
  978. coppice
    a dense growth of bushes
  979. copse
    a dense growth of trees, shrubs, or bushes
  980. Corallorhiza
    genus of leafless root-parasitic orchids having small purplish or yellowish racemose flowers with lobed lips; widely distributed in temperate regions
  981. coralwood
    East Indian tree with racemes of yellow-white flowers
  982. corbel
    a triangular bracket of brick or stone
  983. cord
    a line made of twisted fibers or threads
  984. cordate
    (of a leaf) shaped like a heart
  985. cordiform
    (of a leaf) shaped like a heart
  986. cordon
    a series of sentinels or posts enclosing some place or thing
  987. cordon off
    divide by means of a rope
  988. core
    the center of an object
  989. coriaceous
    resembling or made to resemble leather; tough but pliable
  990. cork
    outer bark of the cork oak
  991. corm
    solid swollen underground bulb-shaped stem or stem base and serving as a reproductive structure
  992. cormous
    having or producing corms
  993. corn flake
    crisp flake made from corn
  994. corn sugar
    dextrose made by hydrolysis of cornstarch
  995. corneous
    made of horn (or of a substance resembling horn)
  996. cornucopia
    a horn filled with fruit and grain symbolizing prosperity
  997. corolla
    (botany) the whorl of petals of a flower that collectively form an inner floral envelope or layer of the perianth
  998. corona
    one or more circles of light seen around a luminous object
  999. coronate
    invest with regal power; enthrone
  1000. corporate
    of or belonging to a business firm
  1001. corpuscular
    of or relating to corpuscles
  1002. correct
    free from error; especially conforming to fact or truth
  1003. corrugate
    fold into ridges
  1004. cortex
    the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal
  1005. corymb
    flat-topped or convex inflorescence in which the individual flower stalks grow upward from various points on the main stem to approximately the same height; outer flowers open first
  1006. corymbose
    resembling a corymb
  1007. cosher
    conforming to dietary laws
  1008. cosmopolitan
    composed of people from many parts of the world
  1009. costa
    a riblike part of a plant or animal
  1010. costate
    having ribs
  1011. costume
    attire characteristic of a country, time, or social class
  1012. cotyledon
    embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants
  1013. counterirritant
    a medicine applied locally to produce superficial inflammation in order to reduce deeper inflammation
  1014. country of origin
    the country where you were born
  1015. cove
    a small inlet
  1016. coxa
    the ball-and-socket joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum
  1017. crankshaft
    a rotating shaft driven by (or driving) a crank
  1018. crash land
    make an emergency landing
  1019. create
    bring into existence
  1020. creeper
    a person who crawls or creeps along the ground
  1021. creeping
    a slow mode of locomotion on hands and knees or dragging the body
  1022. creeping zinnia
    low-branching leafy annual with flower heads resembling zinnias; found in southwestern United States and Mexico to Guatemala
  1023. crenate
    having a margin with rounded scallops
  1024. crenulate
    having a margin with small rounded teeth
  1025. crest
    the top or extreme point of something
  1026. crested
    having a usually ornamental tuft or process on the head
  1027. cretaceous
    abounding in chalk
  1028. Crex
  1029. crinkle root
    North American herb with pungent scaly or toothed roots
  1030. crinoid
    of or relating to or belonging to the class Crinoidea
  1031. crisp
    tender and brittle
  1032. crispate
    wavy or notched and curled very irregularly
  1033. crisply
    in a well delineated manner
  1034. critical point
    a crisis situation or point in time when a critical decision must be made
  1035. crosier
    a staff surmounted by a crook or cross carried by bishops as a symbol of pastoral office
  1036. cross
    a marking that consists of lines that intersect each other
  1037. cross-fertilization
    fertilization by the union of male and female gametes from different individual of the same species
  1038. cross-pollination
    fertilization by transfer of pollen from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of another
  1039. crosspiece
    a horizontal beam that extends across something
  1040. Crotalus
    large rattlesnakes
  1041. crotch
    the region of the angle formed by the junction of two branches
  1042. crown
    an ornamental jeweled headdress signifying sovereignty
  1043. crown gall
    a bacterial disease of plants (especially pome and stone fruits and grapes and roses) which forms excrescences on the stem near the ground
  1044. cruciate
    shaped like a cross
  1045. crucifer
    any of various plants of the family Cruciferae
  1046. crumpled
    of metal e.g.
  1047. crustaceous
    being or having or resembling a hard crust or shell
  1048. crustose
    (of lichens) having a thin crusty thallus that adheres closely to the surface on which it is growing
  1049. cryogenics
    the branch of physics that studies the phenomena that occur at very low temperatures
  1050. cryptogam
    formerly recognized taxonomic group including all flowerless and seedless plants that reproduce by means of spores: ferns, mosses, algae, fungi
  1051. Cryptomeria
    Japanese cedar; sugi
  1052. crystalline
    consisting of or containing or of the nature of crystals
  1053. ctenoid
    resembling a comb
  1054. cube
    a three-dimensional figure with six equal squares as faces
  1055. cubiform
    shaped like a cube
  1056. cucurbit
    any plant of the family Cucurbitaceae
  1057. culm
    stem of plants of the Gramineae
  1058. cultivar
    a variety of a plant developed from a natural species and maintained under cultivation
  1059. cultivate
    adapt something wild to the environment
  1060. cultivated
    developed by human care and for human use
  1061. cultivation
    production of food by preparing the land to grow crops
  1062. cultivator
    a farm implement used to break up the surface of the soil
  1063. cumulate
    collect or gather
  1064. cumuliform
    shaped like a cumulus cloud
  1065. cuneate
    (of a leaf shape) narrowly triangular, wider at the apex and tapering toward the base
  1066. cup
    a small open container usually used for drinking
  1067. cupflower
    Mexican evergreen climbing plant having large solitary funnel-shaped fragrant yellow flowers with purple-brown ridges in the throat
  1068. Cupressus
    type genus of Cupressaceae
  1069. cuprous
    of or containing divalent copper
  1070. cupule
    cup-shaped structure of hardened bracts at the base of an acorn
  1071. cure
    a medicine or therapy that cures disease or relieve pain
  1072. curliness
    (of hair) a tendency to curl
  1073. curling iron
    a cylindrical metal home appliance that heats a lock of hair that has been curled around it
  1074. curvature
    the property possessed by the curving of a line or surface
  1075. cushion
    protect from impact
  1076. cusp
    point formed by two intersecting arcs
  1077. cuspidal
    having cusps or points
  1078. cuspidate
    having cusps or points
  1079. cuticle
    hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles
  1080. cutin
    (biochemistry) a waxy transparent material that occurs in the cuticle of plants and consists of highly polymerized esters of fatty acids
  1081. cutter
    a cutting implement; a tool for cutting
  1082. cutting
    the act of penetrating or opening open with a sharp edge
  1083. cutworm
    North American moth whose larvae feed on young plant stems cutting them off at the ground
  1084. Cyanophyta
    prokaryotic organisms sometimes considered a class or phylum or subkingdom; coextensive with the Cyanophyceae: cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
  1085. cycad
    any tropical gymnosperm of the order Cycadales
  1086. cyclic
    marked by repeated series of events
  1087. cyclone
    a violent storm in which air moves in a circular direction
  1088. Cygnus
    a constellation in the northern hemisphere between Pegasus and Draco in the Milky Way; contains a black hole
  1089. cylindric
    having the form of a cylinder
  1090. cylindrical
    having the form of a cylinder
  1091. cymatium
    a molding for a cornice; in profile it is shaped like an S
  1092. cyme
    more or less flat-topped cluster of flowers in which the central or terminal flower opens first
  1093. cymose
    having a usually flat-topped flower cluster in which the main and branch stems each end in a flower that opens before those below it or to its side
  1094. cymule
    a small cyme, generally with few flowers
  1095. Cynocephalus
    type genus of the family Cynocephalidae
  1096. cystolith
    a calculus formed in the bladder
  1097. cytokinin
    any of a class of plant hormones that promote cell division and delay the senescence of leaves
  1098. cytology
    the branch of biology that studies the structure and function of cells
  1099. cytoplasm
    the substance inside a cell, not including the nucleus
  1100. cytoskeleton
    a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
  1101. cytotoxicity
    the degree to which something is toxic to living cells
  1102. D region
    the lowest region of the ionosphere (35 to 50 miles up) that reflects low-frequency radio waves
  1103. dactylic
    of or consisting of dactyls
  1104. daily double
    a single bet on two horse races in the same day
  1105. dairy farming
    the business of a dairy
  1106. dale
    an open valley in a hilly area
  1107. damping off
    a plant disease caused by a fungus
  1108. dance band
    a group of musicians playing popular music for dancing
  1109. dangerous
    involving or causing risk; liable to hurt or harm
  1110. data
    a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
  1111. Db
    a transuranic element
  1112. dead load
    a constant load on a structure (e.g. a bridge) due to the weight of the supported structure itself
  1113. deadhead
    a train or bus or taxi traveling empty
  1114. decalescent
    absorbing heat without increase in temperature when heated beyond a certain point
  1115. decapod
    cephalopods having eight short tentacles plus two long ones
  1116. deceitfulness
    the quality of being crafty
  1117. deciduous
    shedding foliage at the end of the growing season
  1118. decoction
    the extraction of water-soluble drug substances by boiling
  1119. decompose
    break down
  1120. decomposition
    the organic phenomenon of rotting
  1121. decompound
    of a compound leaf
  1122. decorticate
    remove the cortex of (an organ)
  1123. decrease
    a change downward
  1124. decreased
    made less in size or amount or degree
  1125. decrescendo
    (music) a gradual decrease in loudness
  1126. decumbent
    lying down; in a position of comfort or rest
  1127. decurved
    bent down or curved downward
  1128. decussate
    crossed or intersected in the form of an X
  1129. deem
    judge or regard in a particular way
  1130. deep water
    serious trouble
  1131. defenestrate
    throw through or out of a window
  1132. deficiency disease
    any disease caused by a lack of an essential nutrient
  1133. definite
    precise; explicit and clearly defined
  1134. deflagrate
    cause to burn rapidly and with great intensity
  1135. deflagration
    combustion that propagates through a gas or along the surface of an explosive at a rapid rate driven by the transfer of heat
  1136. deflect
    turn from a straight course or fixed direction
  1137. defoliant
    a chemical that is sprayed on plants and causes their leaves to fall off
  1138. defoliate
    deprived of leaves
  1139. deforestation
    the state of being clear of trees
  1140. deformed
    so badly formed or out of shape as to be ugly
  1141. degradation
    changing to a lower, less respected state
  1142. dehisce
    burst or split open
  1143. dehiscence
    release of material by splitting open of an organ or tissue
  1144. dehorn
    take the horns off (an animal)
  1145. delicate
    developed with extreme subtlety
  1146. deliquesce
    melt or become liquid by absorbing moisture from the air
  1147. deltoid
    large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint
  1148. demarcation
    the boundary of a specific area
  1149. demography
    the study of the characteristics of human populations
  1150. demulcent
    a medication that soothes inflamed or injured skin
  1151. dendroid
    resembling a tree in form and branching structure
  1152. Dendrolagus
    tree wallabies
  1153. denotation
    the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression
  1154. dentate
    having toothlike projections in the margin
  1155. denticle
    small pointed ridge on the exoskeleton of an arthropod
  1156. denticulate
    having a very finely toothed margin
  1157. denudate
    without the natural or usual covering
  1158. denude
    make bare or strip of a covering
  1159. deoxyribonucleic acid
    (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
  1160. dependence
    the state of relying on someone or something else
  1161. dependent
    a person who relies on another person for support
  1162. depilatory
    a cosmetic for temporary removal of undesired hair
  1163. deplumate
    strip of feathers
  1164. depressed
    filled with melancholy and despondency
  1165. desalinate
    remove salt from
  1166. desalinization
    the removal of salt, especially from sea water
  1167. descending
    coming down or downward
  1168. description
    the act of depicting something
  1169. desert
    leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch
  1170. desiccate
    lacking vitality or spirit; lifeless
  1171. desperate
    a person who is frightened and in need of help
  1172. desperation
    a state in which all hope is lost or absent
  1173. detached
    no longer connected or joined
  1174. detention basin
    a storage site that delays the flow of water downstream
  1175. determinate
    supplying or being a final or conclusive settlement
  1176. detritus
    loose material that is worn away from rocks
  1177. Detroit River
    a short river flowing from Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie along the border between the United States and Canada; one the busiest inland waterways in the world
  1178. detumescence
    diminution of swelling; the subsidence of anything swollen
  1179. Devonian
    from 405 million to 345 million years ago
  1180. dew point
    the temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins
  1181. dextrorse
    spiraling upward from left to right
  1182. diadromous
    (used of fish) migratory between fresh and salt waters
  1183. diagnosis
    identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
  1184. diagonal
    having an oblique or slanted direction
  1185. dial
    the circular graduated indicator on various measuring instruments
  1186. dialysis
    separation of substances in solution by means of their unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranes
  1187. diaphanous
    so thin as to transmit light
  1188. diaphoretic
    used to produce perspiration
  1189. diaphragm
    a muscular partition in the chest used in respiration
  1190. diaspora
    the dispersion of something that was originally localized
  1191. diastrophism
    the process of deformation that produces continents and ocean basins in the earth's crust
  1192. diatom
    microscopic unicellular marine or freshwater colonial alga having cell walls impregnated with silica
  1193. diatomaceous earth
    a light soil consisting of siliceous diatom remains and often used as a filtering material
  1194. dibble
    a wooden hand tool with a pointed end
  1195. dibranchiate
    cephalopods having two gills
  1196. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
    an insecticide that is also toxic to animals and humans
  1197. dichotomous
    divided into two sharply distinguished parts
  1198. dichotomously
    in a dichotomous manner
  1199. dichotomy
    a classification into two opposed parts or subclasses
  1200. dichroism
    pleochroism of a crystal so that it exhibits two different colors when viewed from two different directions
  1201. diclinous
    having pistils and stamens in separate flowers
  1202. dicotyledon
    flowering plant with two cotyledons
  1203. dicoumarol
    an anticoagulant drug that has now been largely replaced by warfarin
  1204. Didelphis
    type genus of the family Didelphidae
  1205. dieback
    a disease of plants characterized by the gradual dying of the young shoots starting at the tips and progressing to the larger branches
  1206. differentiation
    a discrimination between things as distinct
  1207. diffuse
    spread out; not concentrated in one place
  1208. dig in
    occupy a trench or secured area
  1209. digestion
    the process by which the body breaks down food
  1210. digitalin
    a powerful cardiac stimulant obtained from foxglove
  1211. digitalis
    any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  1212. digitate
    resembling a finger
  1213. dihybrid
    a hybrid produced by parents that differ only at two gene loci that have two alleles each
  1214. dike
    a barrier constructed to contain the flow of water
  1215. dilate
    become wider
  1216. dilettante
    an amateur engaging in an activity without serious intention
  1217. dimorphic
    occurring or existing in two different forms
  1218. dimorphism
    (chemistry) the property of certain substances that enables them to exist in two distinct crystalline forms
  1219. dimorphous
    occurring or existing in two different forms
  1220. dine out
    eat at a restaurant or at somebody else's home
  1221. dioecious
    having male and female reproductive organs in separate plants or animals
  1222. dip
    immerse briefly into a liquid so as to wet, coat, or saturate
  1223. diploid
    an organism or cell having the normal amount of DNA per cell
  1224. direct action
    a protest action by labor or minority groups to obtain their demands
  1225. direct sum
    a union of two disjoint sets in which every element is the sum of an element from each of the disjoint sets
  1226. directiveness
    the quality of being directive
  1227. dirt
    the part of the earth's surface consisting of humus and disintegrated rock
  1228. disarticulate
    separate at the joints
  1229. disbarment
    the act of expelling a lawyer from the practice of law
  1230. disbud
    thin out buds to improve the quality of the remaining flowers
  1231. disc
    a flat circular plate
  1232. disciform
    having a round or oval shape like a disc
  1233. discoid
    having a flat circular shape
  1234. discolor
    cause to lose or change hue
  1235. discompose
    cause to lose one's composure
  1236. discontinuity
    lack of connection or continuity
  1237. discrete
    constituting a separate entity or part
  1238. disjunct
    marked by separation of or from usually contiguous elements
  1239. disk
    something with a round shape resembling a flat circular plate
  1240. disk file
    (computer science) a computer file stored on a magnetic disk and identified by a unique label
  1241. disk harrow
    a harrow with a series of disks set on edge at an angle
  1242. disparate
    fundamentally different or distinct in quality or kind
  1243. dispersal
    the act of diffusing something
  1244. dispersion
    spreading widely or driving off
  1245. dissected
    having one or more incisions reaching nearly to the midrib
  1246. disseminate
    cause to become widely known
  1247. dissemination
    the act of dispersing or diffusing something
  1248. distal
    situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone
  1249. distant
    separated in space or coming from far away
  1250. distich
    two items of the same kind
  1251. distinct
    constituting a separate entity or part
  1252. distraint
    the seizure and holding of property as security for payment of a debt or satisfaction of a claim
  1253. distribution
    the act of spreading or apportioning
  1254. diuretic
    any substance that tends to increase the flow of urine
  1255. diurnal
    having a daily cycle or occurring every day
  1256. divaricate
    branch off
  1257. divergence
    moving away in different direction from a common point
  1258. divergent
    tending to move apart in different directions
  1259. divide
    a serious disagreement between two groups of people
  1260. divided
    separated into parts or pieces
  1261. diving dress
    a weighted and hermetically sealed garment supplied with air
  1262. division
    the act of partitioning
  1263. document
    a representation of a person's thinking with symbolic marks
  1264. documentation
    confirmation that some fact or statement is true
  1265. dodder
    a leafless annual parasitic vine
  1266. dolabrate
    having the shape of the head of an ax or cleaver
  1267. dolabriform
    having the shape of the head of an ax or cleaver
  1268. doldrums
    a belt of calms between the Atlantic and Pacific trade winds
  1269. dolomite
    a kind of sedimentary rock resembling marble or limestone but rich in magnesium carbonate
  1270. domatium
    a part of a plant (e.g., a leaf) that has been modified to provide protection for insects or mites or fungi
  1271. dong
    the basic unit of money in Vietnam
  1272. Dopastat
    a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system; as a drug (trade names Dopastat and Intropin) it is used to treat shock and hypotension
  1273. dormancy
    a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction
  1274. dormant
    inactive but capable of becoming active
  1275. dorsal
    on or near the back of an animal or organ
  1276. dorsoventral
    extending from the back to the belly
  1277. double
    consisting of or involving two parts or components usually in pairs
  1278. double dipping
    two incomes received from the same source
  1279. double reed
    a pair of joined reeds that vibrate together to produce the sound in some woodwinds
  1280. double-date
    go out on a date with a partner and another couple
  1281. down
    spatially or metaphorically from a higher to a lower level
  1282. downbound
    heading in any direction that is conventionally down
  1283. downy
    like down or as soft as down
  1284. downy mildew
    any of various fungi of the family Peronosporaceae parasitic on e.g. grapes and potatoes and melons
  1285. draft beer
    beer drawn from a keg
  1286. drag down
    exert a force with a heavy weight
  1287. drainage basin
    the entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries; an area characterized by all runoff being conveyed to the same outlet
  1288. draw
    cause to move by pulling
  1289. dreadfulness
    a quality of extreme unpleasantness
  1290. dreg
    a small amount of residue
  1291. Drepanis
    a genus of Drepanididae
  1292. dressing
    a cloth covering for a wound or sore
  1293. drier
    a substance that promotes drying
  1294. drift
    be in motion due to some air or water current
  1295. drift ice
    masses of ice floating in the open sea
  1296. driftage
    the deviation from its intended course due to drifting
  1297. driftwood
    wood that is floating or that has been washed ashore
  1298. drill steel
    carbon steel used for rock drills and dowels
  1299. dripstone
    the form of calcium carbonate found in stalactites and stalagmites
  1300. drive
    operate or control a vehicle
  1301. drooping
    hanging down (as from exhaustion or weakness)
  1302. drop line
    a headline with the top line flush left and succeeding lines indented to the right
  1303. drop zone
    an agreed area where military supplies are dropped to ground troops
  1304. drought
    a shortage of rainfall
  1305. drum-like
    shaped in a form resembling a drum
  1306. drumlin
    a mound of glacial drift
  1307. drupaceous
    of or related to a drupe
  1308. drupe
    fleshy indehiscent fruit with a single seed: e.g. almond
  1309. drupelet
    a small part of an aggregate fruit that resembles a drupe
  1310. dry point
    a steel needle for engraving without acid on a bare copper plate
  1311. dry wall
    a wide flat board used to cover walls or partitions
  1312. duck shot
    small lead shot for shotgun shells
  1313. duff
    a stiff flour pudding steamed or boiled usually and containing e.g. currants and raisins and citron
  1314. dune
    a ridge of sand created by the wind
  1315. dung
    fecal matter of animals
  1316. duplicate
    a copy that corresponds to an original exactly
  1317. dusky-colored
    having a dark color
  1318. dust
    fine powdery material such as dry earth or pollen
  1319. dust devil
    a miniature whirlwind strong enough to whip dust and leaves and litter into the air
  1320. dusty miller
    a plant having leaves and stems covered with down that resembles dust
  1321. Dutch elm disease
    disease of elms caused by a fungus
  1322. duty period
    the time period during which you are at work
  1323. dwarf
    a person who is markedly small
  1324. dysgenic
    pertaining to or causing degeneration in the offspring produced
  1325. ear
    the sense organ for hearing and equilibrium
  1326. earthworm
    terrestrial worm that burrows into and helps aerate soil
  1327. earwig
    any of numerous insects of the order Dermaptera having elongate bodies and slender many-jointed antennae and a pair of large pincers at the rear of the abdomen
  1328. Eburophyton
    a monocotyledonous genus of the family Orchidaceae
  1329. eccentric
    conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual
  1330. ecesis
    (ecology) the process by which a plant or animal becomes established in a new habitat
  1331. echolocation
    determination of the position of objects by reflected sound
  1332. ecology
    the environment as it relates to living organisms
  1333. ecosystem
    organisms interacting with their physical environment
  1334. ecotourism
    tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
  1335. ectomorphic
    having a build with little fat or muscle but with long limbs
  1336. ectoparasite
    any external parasitic organism (as fleas)
  1337. ectoplasm
    the outer granule-free layer of cytoplasm
  1338. edentate
    primitive terrestrial mammal with few if any teeth
  1339. edge
    a line determining the limits of an area
  1340. edger
    a person who puts finishing edges on a garment
  1341. EDTA
    a complex molecule used medically to chelate metal ions in cases of lead or heavy metal poisoning
  1342. eelworm
    any of various small free-living plant-parasitic roundworms
  1343. efflorescence
    the time and process of budding and unfolding of blossoms
  1344. effluent
    water mixed with waste matter
  1345. effuse
    pour out
  1346. egg
    animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum or embryo together with nutritive and protective envelopes; especially the thin-shelled reproductive body laid by e.g. female birds
  1347. egg-shaped
    rounded like an egg
  1348. El Nino
    (oceanography) a warm ocean current that flows along the equator from the date line and south off the coast of Ecuador at Christmas time
  1349. elasticity
    the tendency of a body to return to its original shape
  1350. elater
    any of various widely distributed beetles
  1351. electrolyte
    a solution that conducts electricity
  1352. elements
    violent or severe weather
  1353. ellipsoidal
    having the nature or shape of an ellipsoid
  1354. elliptic
    rounded like an egg
  1355. elliptical
    rounded like an egg
  1356. elongate
    make long or longer by pulling and stretching
  1357. Elops saurus
    game fish resembling the tarpon but smaller
  1358. emarginate
    having a notched tip
  1359. emasculation
    neutering a male animal by removing the testicles
  1360. embracing
    the act of clasping another person in the arms
  1361. embryo
    an animal organism in the early stages of growth
  1362. embryology
    the branch of biology that studies the formation and early development of living organisms
  1363. embryonal
    of an organism prior to birth or hatching
  1364. embryonic
    of an organism prior to birth or hatching
  1365. embryotic
    in an early stage of development
  1366. emerge
    come out into view, as from concealment
  1367. emergence
    the act of coming out into view
  1368. emergent
    coming into existence
  1369. emetic
    a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting
  1370. emigrant
    someone who leaves one country to settle in another
  1371. emigration
    moving from one place in order to settle in another
  1372. Emilia
    tropical African herbs
  1373. emollient
    a substance with a soothing effect when applied to the skin
  1374. enation
    a natural projection or outgrowth from a plant body or organ
  1375. enclose
    surround completely
  1376. enclosure
    a structure consisting of an area that has been confined
  1377. endemic
    native to or confined to a certain region
  1378. endemism
    nativeness by virtue of originating or occurring naturally
  1379. endoblast
    the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
  1380. endocarp
    the hard inner (usually woody) layer of the pericarp of some fruits (as peaches or plums or cherries or olives) that contains the seed
  1381. endoderm
    the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
  1382. endogenous
    derived or originating internally
  1383. endomorph
    a heavy person with a soft and rounded body
  1384. endomorphic
    having a squat and fleshy build
  1385. endoparasite
    any of various parasites that live in the internal organs of animals (especially intestinal worms)
  1386. endoplasm
    the inner portion of the cytoplasm of a cell
  1387. Endoprocta
    sometimes considered a subphylum of Bryozoa
  1388. endoscope
    a long slender medical instrument for examining the interior of a bodily organ or performing minor surgery
  1389. endosperm
    nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants
  1390. endospore
    a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae
  1391. endosteum
    vascular membrane that lines the inner surface of long bones
  1392. endothelium
    an epithelium of mesoblastic origin
  1393. energy level
    a definite stable energy that a physical system can have
  1394. enlistment
    the act of enlisting (as in a military service)
  1395. enophile
    someone who appreciates wine
  1396. ensiform
    shaped like a sword blade
  1397. enterobiasis
    an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis; occurs especially in children
  1398. entire
    constituting the full quantity or extent; complete
  1399. entomophilous
    of flowering plants that are pollinated by insects
  1400. entropy
    a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome
  1401. envelope
    a flat container for a letter or thin package
  1402. environment
    the totality of surrounding conditions
  1403. enzyme
    a complex protein produced by cells that acts as a catalyst
  1404. Eocene
    from 58 million to 40 million years ago
  1405. ephemeral
    anything short-lived, as an insect that lives only for a day
  1406. epical
    constituting or having to do with or suggestive of a literary epic
  1407. epicalyx
    a group of bracts simulating a calyx as in a carnation or hibiscus
  1408. epicanthus
    a vertical fold of skin over the nasal canthus
  1409. epicarp
    outermost layer of the pericarp of fruits as the skin of a peach or grape
  1410. epicondyle
    a projection on a bone above a condyle serving for the attachment of muscles and ligaments
  1411. epicureanism
    a doctrine of hedonism that was defended by several ancient Greek philosophers
  1412. epicycle
    a circle that rolls around another circle
  1413. epidemic
    a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
  1414. epidermic
    of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
  1415. epidermis
    the outer layer of skin covering the body surface
  1416. epilithic
    growing on stone
  1417. epiphyllum
    any cactus of the genus Epiphyllum having flattened jointed irregularly branching stems and showy tubular flowers
  1418. epiphyte
    plant that derives moisture and nutrients from the air and rain; usually grows on another plant but not parasitic on it
  1419. epiphytic
    of or relating to epiphytes
  1420. epiphytotic
    (of plants) epidemic among plants of a single kind especially over a wide area
  1421. episome
    DNA that is not incorporated into the genome but is replicated together with the genome (especially in bacterial cells)
  1422. epispadias
    a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis
  1423. epistasis
    the suppression of a gene by the effect of an unrelated gene
  1424. epithelioma
    a malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue
  1425. epithelium
    membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body
  1426. epithet
    descriptive word or phrase
  1427. epizoan
    any external parasitic organism (as fleas)
  1428. epizootic
    (of animals) epidemic among animals of a single kind within a particular region
  1429. Epsom salts
    hydrated magnesium sulfate that is taken orally to treat heartburn and constipation and injected to prevent seizures
  1430. equal
    having the same quantity, value, or measure as another
  1431. equidistant
    the same distance apart at every point
  1432. equilateral
    having all sides of the same length
  1433. eradicate
    destroy completely, as if down to the roots
  1434. erect
    upright in position or posture
  1435. ergonomics
    the study of the relation of workers to their environments
  1436. ergotropism
    an affinity for work
  1437. Erianthus
    genus of reedlike grasses having spikes crowded in a panicle covered with long silky hairs
  1438. erose
    having an irregularly notched or toothed margin as though gnawed
  1439. erosion
    the process of wearing or grinding something down
  1440. errhine
    causing nasal discharge
  1441. erroneous
    containing or characterized by error
  1442. escape
    run away from confinement
  1443. escarpment
    a long steep slope at the edge of a plateau or ridge
  1444. espalier
    a trellis on which ornamental shrub or fruit tree is trained to grow flat
  1445. essential oil
    an oil having the odor or flavor of the plant from which it comes; used in perfume and flavorings
  1446. estivation
    cessation or slowing of activity during the summer
  1447. estrogenic
    relating to or caused by estrogen
  1448. ethical
    conforming to accepted standards of social behavior
  1449. ethnology
    branch of anthropology dealing with divisions of humankind
  1450. ethylene
    a flammable colorless gaseous alkene
  1451. etiolate
    make weak by stunting the growth or development of
  1452. Euglenophyta
    free-swimming flagellate algae
  1453. eukaryote
    an organism of one or more cells with membrane-bound nuclei
  1454. eusporangiate
    having sporangia that arise from a group of epidermal cells
  1455. eusporangium
    a sporangium that arises from a group of epidermal cells
  1456. eutrophic
    (ecology) of a lake or other body of water rich in nutrients and subject to eutrophication
  1457. evanescent
    tending to vanish like vapor
  1458. even-pinnate
    pinnate with a pair of leaflets at the apex
  1459. evening gown
    a gown for evening wear
  1460. evergreen
    a plant having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year
  1461. everlasting
    continuing forever or indefinitely
  1462. evermore
    for a limitless time
  1463. evolution
    sequence of events involved in the development of a species
  1464. exarchate
    a diocese of the Eastern Orthodox Church
  1465. excavate
    recover through digging
  1466. exceed
    be or do something to a greater degree
  1467. excise
    remove by cutting
  1468. excitant
    a drug that temporarily quickens some vital process
  1469. excrement
    waste matter discharged from the body
  1470. excrescence
    something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings
  1471. exculpation
    the act of freeing from guilt or blame
  1472. excursive
    (of e.g. speech and writing) tending to depart from the main point or cover a wide range of subjects
  1473. exenterate
    remove the contents of (an organ)
  1474. exert
    put to use
  1475. exfoliate
    remove the surface, in scales or laminae
  1476. exiguous
    extremely scanty
  1477. exile
    the act of expelling a person from their native land
  1478. exocarp
    outermost layer of the pericarp of fruits as the skin of a peach or grape
  1479. exocentric
    not fulfilling the same grammatical role of any of its constituents
  1480. exogenous
    derived or originating externally
  1481. exorcise
    expel through adjuration or prayers
  1482. exosphere
    the outermost atmospheric layer
  1483. exoteric
    suitable for the general public
  1484. exotic
    characteristic of another place or part of the world
  1485. expanded
    increased in extent or size or bulk or scope
  1486. expectorant
    a medicine promoting expectoration
  1487. explicate
    elaborate, as of theories and hypotheses
  1488. exploit
    use or manipulate to one's advantage
  1489. exsert
    thrust or extend out
  1490. exsiccate
    lose water or moisture
  1491. extant
    still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost
  1492. extensile
    capable of being protruded or stretched or opened out
  1493. extinct
    no longer in existence
  1494. extinction
    the state of being no longer in existence
  1495. extirpate
    destroy completely, as if down to the roots
  1496. extirpation
    the act of pulling up or out
  1497. extract
    remove, usually with some force or effort
  1498. extravagantly
    in a rich and lavish manner
  1499. exudate
    a substance that oozes out from plant pores
  1500. eye
    the organ of sight
  1501. eyespot
    an eyelike marking
  1502. F layer
    the highest region of the ionosphere (from 90 to 600 miles up) which contains the highest concentration of free electrons and is most useful for long-range radio transmission
  1503. factoid
    unverified information given credibility through repetition
  1504. facultative
    of or relating to the mental faculties
  1505. fairy ring
    a ring of fungi marking the periphery of the perennial underground growth of the mycelium
  1506. falcate
    curved like a sickle
  1507. fallout
    radioactive particles that settle after a nuclear explosion
  1508. fallow
    left unplowed and unseeded during a growing season
  1509. falls
    a steep descent of the water of a river
  1510. familiarity
    personal knowledge or information about someone or something
  1511. family
    primary social group; parents and children
  1512. family Dasypodidae
  1513. fancier
    a person having a strong liking for something
  1514. fancy
    not plain; decorative or ornamented
  1515. fang
    canine tooth of a carnivorous animal
  1516. farandole
    a lively dance from Provence
  1517. farina
    fine meal made from cereal grain especially wheat
  1518. farinaceous
    resembling starch
  1519. farm
    workplace or land used for growing crops or raising animals
  1520. fascicle
    an installment of a printed work
  1521. fascination
    the state of being intensely interested
  1522. fastigiate
    having clusters of erect branches
  1523. fauces
    the passage between the back of the mouth and the pharynx
  1524. fault
    an imperfection in an object or machine
  1525. fault line
    (geology) line determined by the intersection of a geological fault and the earth's surface
  1526. fauna
    all the animal life in a particular region or period
  1527. faveolate
    pitted with cell-like cavities (as a honeycomb)
  1528. feather-foil
    a plant of the genus Hottonia
  1529. featherlike
    resembling or suggesting a feather or feathers
  1530. feces
    solid excretory product evacuated from the bowels
  1531. fecundity
    the state of being fertile or capable of producing offspring
  1532. federate
    unite on a federal basis or band together as a league
  1533. feed
    provide as food
  1534. feedback
    the process in which output of a system is returned to input
  1535. fell
    cause to go down by or as if by delivering a blow
  1536. fen
    low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation
  1537. feng shui
    rules in Chinese philosophy that govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of energy (qi); the favorable or unfavorable effects are taken into consideration in designing and siting buildings and graves and furniture
  1538. feral
    wild and menacing
  1539. fermentation
    breaking down an organic substance, as sugar into alcohol
  1540. fern
    a flowerless, seedless plant with fronds that uncurl upward
  1541. fern ally
    pteridophytes of other classes than Filicopsida
  1542. fertile
    capable of reproducing
  1543. fertility
    the state of being capable of producing offspring
  1544. fertilization
    making productive by adding nutrients
  1545. fertilizer
    any substance used to improve the quality of soil
  1546. fetch
    go or come after and bring or take back
  1547. fetid
    offensively malodorous
  1548. fibreboard
    wallboard composed of wood chips or shavings bonded together with resin and compressed into rigid sheets
  1549. fibril
    a very slender natural or synthetic fiber
  1550. fibrillate
    make fine, irregular, rapid twitching movements
  1551. fibrillose
    covered with fibrils more or less evenly disposed
  1552. fibrous
    having or resembling fibers especially fibers used in making cordage such as those of jute
  1553. fiddlehead
    tall fern of northern temperate regions having graceful arched fronds and sporophylls resembling ostrich plumes
  1554. fidelity
    the quality of being faithful
  1555. field capacity
    the maximum amount of water that a particular soil can hold
  1556. field crop
    a crop that is grown for agricultural purposes
  1557. field day
    a day for outdoor athletic competition
  1558. field test
    a test of the performance of a new product
  1559. filament
    a thin wire heated by the passage of an electric current
  1560. filamentous
    thin in diameter; resembling a thread
  1561. filiform
    thin in diameter; resembling a thread
  1562. fill
    make full, also in a metaphorical sense
  1563. filmy fern
    any fern of the genus Trichomanes having large pinnatifid often translucent fronds; most are epiphytic on tree branches and twigs or terrestrial on mossy banks
  1564. fimbriate
    having a fringe of slender processes
  1565. fine
    free from impurities
  1566. fiord
    a long narrow inlet of the sea between steep cliffs
  1567. fire blight
    a disease blackening the leaves of pear and apple trees
  1568. fire control
    preparation for the delivery of shellfire on a target
  1569. fire tower
    a watchtower where a lookout is posted to watch for fires
  1570. firebreak
    a narrow field that has been cleared to check the spread of a prairie fire or forest fire
  1571. firedamp
    a mixture of gases (mostly methane) that form in coal mines and become explosive when mixed with air
  1572. fireguard
    a narrow field that has been cleared to check the spread of a prairie fire or forest fire
  1573. first floor
    the floor of a building that is at or nearest to the level of the ground around the building
  1574. first step
    the first of a series of actions
  1575. firth
    a long narrow estuary (especially in Scotland)
  1576. fishy
    relating to or resembling cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates
  1577. fissile
    capable of being split or cleft or divided in the direction of the grain
  1578. fissure
    a long narrow depression in a surface
  1579. fistular
    hollow and tube-shaped like a reed
  1580. fistulous
    of or pertaining to or resembling a fistula
  1581. fitness
    the quality of being suitable
  1582. fitting
    in harmony with the spirit of particular persons or occasion
  1583. flaccid
    drooping without elasticity
  1584. flagellate
    whip or scourge; punish as if by whipping
  1585. flagellum
    a lash-like appendage used for locomotion
  1586. flaky
    made of or easily forming small fragments
  1587. flank
    the side between ribs and hipbone
  1588. flats
    footwear with no heel
  1589. flavivirus
    animal viruses belonging to the family Flaviviridae
  1590. flavorous
    full of flavor
  1591. fleshy
    of or relating to or resembling flesh
  1592. flexible
    able to bend easily
  1593. flexuous
    having turns or windings
  1594. floccose
    (of plants) having tufts of soft woolly hairs
  1595. flocculate
    form into an aggregated lumpy or fluffy mass
  1596. flocculation
    the process of flocculating
  1597. flocculent
    having a fluffy or woolly character or appearance
  1598. flogger
    a torturer who flogs or scourges
  1599. floodhead
    a wall of water rushing ahead of the flood
  1600. floodplain
    a low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding
  1601. flora
    all the plant life in a particular region or period
  1602. floral
    relating to or associated with flowers
  1603. floral cup
    the cuplike or ringlike or tubular structure of a flower which bears the sepals and stamens and calyx (as in Rosaceae)
  1604. floral envelope
    collective term for the outer parts of a flower consisting of the calyx and corolla and enclosing the stamens and pistils
  1605. floret
    a diminutive flower
  1606. floriculture
    the cultivation of flowering plants
  1607. Floridian
    a native or resident of Florida
  1608. florin
    the basic unit of money in Suriname; equal to 100 cents
  1609. florist
    someone who grows and deals in flowers
  1610. flour weevil
    an insect that infests flour and stored grains
  1611. flower
    reproductive organ of plants especially if showy or colorful
  1612. flower bed
    a bed in which flowers are growing
  1613. flower bud
    a bud from which only a flower or flowers develop
  1614. flower head
    a shortened compact cluster of flowers so arranged that the whole gives the effect of a single flower as in clover or members of the family Compositae
  1615. flowering tree
    any tree having seeds and ovules contained in the ovary
  1616. fluctuation
    an instance of change
  1617. flume
    a narrow gorge with a stream running through it
  1618. flute
    a high-pitched woodwind instrument
  1619. flyway
    the geographic route along which birds customarily migrate
  1620. fodder
    coarse food composed of plants or leaves and stalks
  1621. foehn
    a warm dry wind that blows down the northern slopes of the Alps
  1622. Foeniculum
    very small genus of aromatic European herbs with pinnately compound leaves and yellow flowers
  1623. foetoprotein
    any of several antigens that occur naturally in the fetus and sometimes in adults with cancer
  1624. fog
    droplets of water vapor suspended in the air near the ground
  1625. foliaceous
    of or pertaining to or resembling the leaf of a plant
  1626. foliage
    the aggregate of leaves of one or more plants
  1627. foliate
    grow leaves
  1628. foliation
    (botany) the process of forming leaves
  1629. folic acid
    a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
  1630. foliolate
    having leaflets or a specified kind or number of leaflets
  1631. foliose
    bearing numerous leaves
  1632. follicle
    any small spherical group of cells containing a cavity
  1633. follicular
    of or relating to or constituting a follicle
  1634. folly
    the trait of acting stupidly or rashly
  1635. food cache
    food in a secure or hidden storage place
  1636. food chain
    community of organisms where each member is eaten by another
  1637. food cycle
    (ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
  1638. food pyramid
    (ecology) a hierarchy of food chains with the principal predator at the top; each level preys on the level below
  1639. foolhardiness
    the trait of giving little thought to danger
  1640. foot
    the pedal extremity of vertebrates other than human beings
  1641. forage
    collect or look around for, as food
  1642. foraminifer
    marine microorganism having a calcareous shell with openings where pseudopods protrude
  1643. Foraminifera
  1644. force
    influence that results in motion, stress, etc. when applied
  1645. foredate
    establish something as being earlier relative to something else
  1646. foregather
    collect in one place
  1647. forensic
    used in the investigation of facts or evidence in court
  1648. forepart
    the side that is forward or prominent
  1649. foreshore
    the part of the seashore between the highwater mark and the low-water mark
  1650. forest
    a large, densely wooded area filled with trees and plants
  1651. forest goat
    cow-like creature with the glossy coat of a horse and the agility of a goat and the long horns of an antelope; characterized as a cow that lives the life of a goat
  1652. forested
    covered with forest
  1653. forestry
    the science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber
  1654. forgetfulness
    tendency to forget
  1655. forgiver
    a person who pardons or forgives or excuses a fault or offense
  1656. forked
    resembling a fork; divided or separated into two branches
  1657. form
    a perceptual structure
  1658. formal
    in accord with established conventions and requirements
  1659. formation
    the act of establishing or creating something
  1660. formula
    a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement
  1661. fortnight
    a period of fourteen consecutive days
  1662. fossorial
    (of limbs and feet) adapted for digging
  1663. foul out
    baseball: hit a ball such that it is caught from an out in foul territory
  1664. Fox River
    a river in Wisconsin that flows into Lake Michigan
  1665. fragment
    a piece broken off or cut off of something else
  1666. framework
    the underlying structure
  1667. free
    able to act at will
  1668. freeze
    change from a liquid to a solid when cold
  1669. frequency
    the number of occurrences within a given time period
  1670. fresh-cut
    cut recently
  1671. friability
    excessive breakableness
  1672. friable
    easily broken into small fragments or reduced to powder
  1673. Frigid Zone
    the part of the Earth's surface forming a cap over a pole
  1674. fringed
    surrounded as with a border or fringe
  1675. frond
    compound leaf of a fern or palm or cycad
  1676. front
    the side that is forward or prominent
  1677. frost
    ice crystals forming a white deposit
  1678. frostbitten
    injured by freezing or partial freezing
  1679. Fructidor
    twelfth month of the Revolutionary calendar
  1680. fructification
    the bearing of fruit
  1681. fruit
    the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant
  1682. fruiting body
    an organ specialized for producing spores
  1683. fruitlet
    a diminutive fruit, especially one that is part of a multiple fruit
  1684. fruticose
    of or relating to or resembling a shrub
  1685. fucoid
    any of various algae of the family Fucaceae
  1686. fugacious
    lasting a very short time
  1687. full stop
    a punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate a full stop or after abbreviations
  1688. Fulton
    American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
  1689. fumble
    feel about uncertainly or blindly
  1690. fumitory
    delicate European herb with greyish leaves and spikes of purplish flowers; formerly used medicinally
  1691. fungicide
    any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi
  1692. fungoid
    resembling fungi
  1693. fungous
    of or relating to fungi
  1694. fungus
    an organism of the kingdom Fungi lacking chlorophyll and feeding on organic matter; ranging from unicellular or multicellular organisms to spore-bearing syncytia
  1695. funicle
    the stalk of a plant ovule or seed
  1696. funiculus
    any of several body structure resembling a cord
  1697. furcate
    divide into two or more branches so as to form a fork
  1698. furfural
    a liquid aldehyde with a penetrating odor
  1699. furrowed
    having long narrow shallow depressions in the surface
  1700. furthermost
    most remote in space or time or order
  1701. fuscous
    of something having a dusky brownish grey color
  1702. fusiform
    tapering at each end
  1703. galea
    an organ shaped like a helmet
  1704. gall
    a digestive juice secreted by the liver
  1705. gallinaceous
    of or relating to or resembling a gallinacean
  1706. gametangium
    cell or organ in which gametes develop
  1707. gamete
    a mature sexual reproductive cell
  1708. gametophyte
    the gamete-bearing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
  1709. gamopetalous
    having a corolla composed of partially or wholly fused petals forming a corolla shaped like a tube or funnel
  1710. ganoid
    primitive fishes having thick bony scales with a shiny covering
  1711. garden
    a plot of ground where plants are cultivated
  1712. garden hose
    a hose used for watering a lawn or garden
  1713. gazebo
    a small roofed building affording shade and rest
  1714. gel
    a colloid in a more solid form than a sol
  1715. gelatinous
    thick like gelatin
  1716. geminate
    form by reduplication
  1717. gemma
    small asexual reproductive structure in e.g. liverworts and mosses that detaches from the parent and develops into a new individual
  1718. gemmiferous
    bearing or reproducing by a gemma
  1719. Gempylus
    type genus of the Gempylidae
  1720. gene
    part of DNA controlling physical characteristics and growth
  1721. geniculate
    bent at a sharp angle
  1722. genome
    the full DNA sequence of an organism
  1723. genotype
    the alleles at specified loci present in an organism
  1724. gentrification
    the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class
  1725. genus
    taxonomic group containing one or more species
  1726. genus Cicer
    chickpea plant; Asiatic herbs
  1727. genus Cotula
    cosmopolitan herbs especially southern hemisphere
  1728. geography
    study of the earth's surface
  1729. geophyte
    a perennial plant that propagates by underground bulbs or tubers or corms
  1730. geotropism
    an orienting response to gravity
  1731. geranium
    any of numerous plants of the family Geraniaceae
  1732. germ
    a structure from which tissue can develop into an organism
  1733. germ cell
    a spermatozoon or an ovum
  1734. germ plasm
    the protoplasm of the germ cells that contains chromosomes and genes
  1735. German shepherd
    breed of large shepherd dogs used in police work and as a guide for the blind
  1736. germinate
    sprout; produce buds or branches
  1737. germination
    the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
  1738. gesneriad
    any of numerous tropical or subtropical small shrubs or treelets or epiphytic vines of the family Gesneriaceae: African violet; Cape primroses; gloxinia
  1739. gibberellic acid
    a crystalline acid associated with gibberellin
  1740. gibberellin
    a plant hormone isolated from a fungus
  1741. gibbosity
    something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings
  1742. gibbous
    characteristic of or suffering from kyphosis, an abnormality of the vertebral column
  1743. girdle
    a band of material around the waist that strengthens a skirt or trousers
  1744. glabrescent
    lacking hair or a similar growth or tending to become hairless
  1745. glabrous
    having no hair or similar growth; smooth
  1746. glaciate
    cover with ice or snow or a glacier
  1747. glade
    a tract of land with few or no trees in the middle of a wooded area
  1748. gland
    any of various organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the bloodstream
  1749. glandular
    relating to or affecting or functioning as a gland
  1750. glauconite
    a green mineral consisting of hydrated silicate of potassium or iron or magnesium or aluminum; found in greensand
  1751. glaucous
    having a frosted look from a powdery coating, as on plants
  1752. globose
    having the shape of a sphere or ball
  1753. globular
    having the shape of a sphere or ball
  1754. glochid
    a barbed spine or bristle (often tufted on cacti)
  1755. glochidium
    a barbed spine or bristle (often tufted on cacti)
  1756. glomerule
    a compacted or sessile cyme
  1757. glory fern
    named for a country house in Barbados where it was discovered
  1758. glucose
    a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms
  1759. glume
    small dry membranous bract found in inflorescences of Gramineae and Cyperaceae
  1760. glutinous
    having the sticky properties of an adhesive
  1761. gonadotrophic
    of or relating to or involving gonadotropin
  1762. gourd
    any vine of the family Cucurbitaceae that bears fruits with hard rinds
  1763. grade
    a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality
  1764. grader
    a judge who assigns grades to something
  1765. graft
    tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient
  1766. grafting
    the act of grafting something onto something else
  1767. grain
    a cereal grass
  1768. Graminales
    grasses; sedges; rushes
  1769. granular
    composed of or covered with particles resembling meal
  1770. granulate
    form into grains
  1771. granulose
    composed of or covered with particles resembling meal in texture or consistency
  1772. Grass
    German writer of novels and poetry and plays (born 1927)
  1773. grass
    narrow-leaved green herbage: grown as lawns
  1774. grass tree
    elegant tree having either a single trunk or a branching trunk each with terminal clusters of long narrow leaves and large panicles of fragrant white, yellow or red flowers; New Zealand
  1775. grass vetch
    annual European vetch with red flowers
  1776. grassland
    land where grass or grasslike vegetation grows and is the dominant form of plant life
  1777. gravitational theory
    (physics) the theory that any two particles of matter attract one another with a force directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
  1778. gray mullet
    freshwater or coastal food fishes a spindle-shaped body
  1779. graze
    feed as in a meadow or pasture
  1780. green manure
    a growing crop that is plowed under to enrich soil
  1781. greenhouse
    a building with glass walls and roof
  1782. greensand
    an olive-green sandstone containing glauconite
  1783. gregarious
    temperamentally seeking and enjoying the company of others
  1784. gres-gris
    an African amulet
  1785. grid metal
    a kind of hard lead that is used for grids in storage batteries
  1786. Grimm's law
    a sound law relating German consonants and consonants in other Indo-European languages
  1787. grooved
    established as if settled into a groove or rut
  1788. grotto
    a small cave, usually with attractive features
  1789. ground rent
    payment for the right to occupy and improve a piece of land
  1790. ground water
    underground water that is held in the soil and in pervious rocks
  1791. groundcover
    low-growing plants planted in deep shade or on a steep slope where turf is difficult to grow
  1792. group
    any number of entities (members) considered as a unit
  1793. growth regulator
    (botany) a plant product that acts like a hormone
  1794. grub out
    dig up
  1795. guano
    the excrement of sea birds; used as fertilizer
  1796. guide
    someone employed to conduct others
  1797. guild
    a formal association of people with similar interests
  1798. gulch
    a narrow gorge or ravine cut by a stream
  1799. gully
    a deep ditch cut by running water
  1800. gum
    any of various substances that exude from certain plants
  1801. gustation
    the faculty of distinguishing sweet, sour, bitter, and salty properties in the mouth
  1802. gymnastics
    a sport that involves exercises intended to display strength and balance and agility
  1803. Gymnopilus
    a genus of fungus characterized by the orange color of the spore deposit
  1804. gymnosperm
    plants of the class Gymnospermae having seeds not enclosed in an ovary
  1805. gymnospermous
    relating to or characteristic of plants of the class Gymnospermae
  1806. Gymnosporangium
    genus of fungi that produce galls on cedars and other conifers of genera Juniperus and Libocedrus and causes rust spots on apples and pears and other plants of family Rosaceae
  1807. gynobase
    the enlarged receptacle in which the pistil is borne
  1808. gynoecium
    a female gametoecium
  1809. gynogenesis
    female parthenogenesis in which the embryo contains only maternal chromosomes due to the failure of the sperm to fuse with the egg nucleus
  1810. gynophore
    the stalk of a pistil that raises it above the receptacle
  1811. gynostegium
    the crown of the stamen in plants of the genus Asclepias
  1812. gypsum
    a white or colorless mineral used in cements and plasters
  1813. gyrate
    revolve quickly and repeatedly around an axis
  1814. ha-ha
    a loud laugh that sounds like a horse neighing
  1815. habiliment
    a covering designed to be worn on a person's body
  1816. habit
    an established custom
  1817. habitat
    the type of environment in which an organism normally lives
  1818. Haematoxylum
    small genus of tropical American spiny bushy shrubs or trees
  1819. haft
    the handle of a weapon or tool
  1820. hair
    a covering for the body (or parts of it) consisting of a dense growth of threadlike structures (as on the human head); helps to prevent heat loss
  1821. hairy
    having or covered with hair
  1822. halogen
    any of five related nonmetallic elements (fluorine or chlorine or bromine or iodine or astatine) that are all monovalent and readily form negative ions
  1823. halophyte
    plant growing naturally in very salty soil
  1824. ham-fisted
    lacking physical movement skills, especially with the hands
  1825. hamate
    the wrist bone in line with the 4th and 5th fingers
  1826. hand axe
    a stone tool with a cutting edge
  1827. hand drill
    a small portable drill held and operated by hand
  1828. haploid
    (genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
  1829. hard disc
    a rigid magnetic disk mounted permanently in a drive unit
  1830. hard-fought
    requiring great effort
  1831. hardening
    the act of making something harder
  1832. hardiness
    the property of being strong and healthy in constitution
  1833. hardpan
    crust or layer of hard subsoil encrusted with calcium-carbonate occurring in arid or semiarid regions
  1834. hardscrabble
    barely satisfying a lower standard
  1835. hardwood
    the wood of broad-leaved dicotyledonous trees
  1836. hardy
    having rugged physical strength
  1837. harrow
    a cultivator that pulverizes or smooths the soil
  1838. hastate
    like a spear point, with flaring pointed lobes at the base
  1839. hatchet
    a small ax with a short handle used with one hand
  1840. haustorium
    a root-like attachment in parasitic plants that penetrates and obtains food from the host
  1841. hay-scented
    fern of eastern North America with pale green fronds and an aroma like hay
  1842. head
    the upper part of the human body or the body in animals
  1843. headphone
    electro-acoustic transducer for converting electric signals into sounds; it is held over or inserted into the ear
  1844. heartwood
    the older inactive central wood of a tree or woody plant
  1845. heath
    a low evergreen shrub of the family Ericaceae
  1846. heave
    lift or elevate
  1847. heavy swell
    a broad and deep undulation of the ocean
  1848. hedge
    a fence formed by a row of closely planted shrubs or bushes
  1849. hedgerow
    a fence formed by a row of closely planted shrubs or bushes
  1850. heel
    the back part of the human foot
  1851. helicon
    a tuba that coils over the shoulder of the musician
  1852. heliophila
    any of various South African herbs and subshrubs cultivated for long showy racemes of bright blue flowers with white eyes
  1853. Heloderma
    type genus of the Helodermatidae; American venomous lizards
  1854. hem in
    surround in a restrictive manner
  1855. Hemigalus
    banded palm civets
  1856. hemimorphite
    a white mineral; a common ore of zinc
  1857. hemiparasite
    a parasitic plant that contains some chlorophyll and therefore is capable of photosynthesis
  1858. hemopoietic
    pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells
  1859. hemostatic
    tending to check bleeding by contracting the tissues or blood vessels
  1860. hemp
    any plant of the genus Cannabis
  1861. herb
    a plant lacking a permanent woody stem
  1862. herb garden
    a garden for growing herbs
  1863. herbaceous
    characteristic of a nonwoody herb or plant part
  1864. herbal
    of or relating to herbs
  1865. herbalist
    a therapist who heals by the use of herbs
  1866. herbarium
    a collection of dried plants that are mounted and classified
  1867. herbicide
    a chemical agent that destroys plants or inhibits their growth
  1868. hermaphrodite
    one having both male and female sexual characteristics
  1869. hermitage
    the abode of a recluse
  1870. Hesperides
    (Greek mythology) group of 3 to 7 nymphs who guarded the golden apples that Gaea gave as a wedding gift to Hera
  1871. Heterocephalus
    sand rats
  1872. heterocycle
    a ring of atoms of more than one kind
  1873. heteroecious
    of parasites
  1874. heterogeneity
    the quality of being diverse and not comparable in kind
  1875. heterogenous
    consisting of elements that are not of the same kind
  1876. Heteromeles
    one species: toyon
  1877. heteronym
    two words are heteronyms if they are spelled the same way but differ in pronunciation
  1878. heterosporous
    characterized by heterospory
  1879. heterotaxy
    any abnormal position of the organs of the body
  1880. heterotrophic
    requiring organic compounds of carbon and nitrogen for nourishment
  1881. hibernal
    characteristic of or relating to winter
  1882. Hillary
    New Zealand mountaineer who in 1953 first attained the summit of Mount Everest with his Sherpa guide Tenzing Norgay (born in 1919)
  1883. hillock
    a small natural hill
  1884. hilum
    the scar on certain seeds marking its point of attachment to the funicle
  1885. hip
    either side of the body below the waist and above the thigh
  1886. hirsute
    having or covered with hair
  1887. hirsuteness
    excessive hairiness
  1888. hispid
    (of animals or plants) having stiff coarse hairs or bristles
  1889. hoary
    having gray or white hair as with age
  1890. hoe
    a tool with a flat blade attached to a long handle
  1891. hoggishness
    an excessive desire for food
  1892. hollow
    not solid; having a space or gap or cavity
  1893. holotype
    the original specimen from which the description of a new species is made
  1894. homeopathic
    of or relating to the practice of homeopathy
  1895. homogenous
    all of the same or similar kind or nature
  1896. homologous
    similar in position, structure, function, or characteristics
  1897. homology
    the quality of being similar or corresponding in position or value or structure or function
  1898. homonym
    a word pronounced or spelled the same with another meaning
  1899. homosporous
    characterized by homospory
  1900. homostyled
    (botany) having styles all of the same length
  1901. honeysuckle
    shrub or vine of the genus Lonicera
  1902. hood
    a headdress that protects the head and face
  1903. hormone
    the secretion of an endocrine gland transmitted by the blood
  1904. horn
    a brass musical instrument with a brilliant tone
  1905. horny
    having bony outgrowths on the head
  1906. horology
    the art of designing and making clocks
  1907. Horta
    Belgian architect and leader in art nouveau architecture
  1908. horticulture
    the cultivation of plants
  1909. host
    a person who invites guests to a social event
  1910. hot cake
    a flat cake of thin batter fried on both sides on a griddle
  1911. hotbed
    a situation that is ideal for rapid development
  1912. house-to-house
    omitting no one
  1913. houseplant
    any of a variety of plants grown indoors for decorative purposes
  1914. Hs
    a radioactive transuranic element
  1915. humate
    material that is high in humic acids
  1916. humectant
    any substance that is added to another substance to keep it moist
  1917. humidity
    wetness in the atmosphere
  1918. hummock
    a small natural hill
  1919. humus
    partially decomposed organic matter
  1920. husk
    material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds
  1921. hyaline
    resembling glass in transparency or translucency
  1922. hybrid
    a composite of mixed origin
  1923. hybridize
    breed animals or plants using parents of different races and varieties
  1924. hydathode
    a pore that exudes water on the surface or margin of a leaf of higher plants
  1925. hydration
    the process of combining with water; usually reversible
  1926. hydrazoic acid
    a colorless explosive liquid that is volatile and poisonous and foul-smelling
  1927. hydric
    having or characterized by excessive moisture
  1928. hydrophilic
    having a strong affinity for water
  1929. hydrophyte
    a plant that grows partly or wholly in water whether rooted in the mud, as a lotus, or floating without anchorage, as the water hyacinth
  1930. hydroponics
    a technique of growing plants (without soil) in water containing dissolved nutrients
  1931. hydroxide ion
    the anion OH having one oxygen and one hydrogen atom
  1932. hygroscopic
    absorbing moisture (as from the air)
  1933. Hyla
    the type genus of the Hylidae; tree toads
  1934. hypanthium
    the cuplike or ringlike or tubular structure of a flower which bears the sepals and stamens and calyx (as in Rosaceae)
  1935. hypertensive
    having abnormally high blood pressure
  1936. hypha
    any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus
  1937. hypoactive
    abnormally inactive
  1938. hypodermis
    layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle in e.g. arthropods
  1939. hypoglycemic
    of or relating to hypoglycemia
  1940. hypophysial
    of or relating to the hypophysis
  1941. hypophysis
    the master gland of the endocrine system
  1942. hypotensive
    having abnormally low blood pressure
  1943. hypotonicity
    (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic
  1944. hypotonus
    (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic
  1945. hypoxia
    oxygen deficiency
  1946. icecap
    a mass of ice and snow that permanently covers a large area of land (e.g., the polar regions or a mountain peak)
  1947. iconology
    the branch of art history that studies visual images and their symbolic meaning (especially in social or political terms)
  1948. illegitimate
    contrary to or forbidden by law
  1949. imbricate
    used especially of leaves or bracts
  1950. imbricated
    used especially of leaves or bracts
  1951. immerse
    cause to be submerged
  1952. immigrant
    a person who comes to a country in order to settle there
  1953. imparipinnate
    (a leaf shape) pinnate with a single leaflet at the apex
  1954. imperfect
    defective or inadequate
  1955. imperforate
    not perforated; having no opening
  1956. imperiousness
    the trait of being imperious and overbearing
  1957. implication
    something that is inferred
  1958. impressed
    deeply or markedly affected or influenced
  1959. in due season
    at the appropriate time
  1960. in vitro
    in an artificial environment outside the living organism
  1961. in-tray
    a wood or metal receptacle placed on your desk to hold your incoming material
  1962. inbreeding
    the act of mating closely related individuals
  1963. incarnate
    possessing or existing in bodily form
  1964. incised
    cut into with a sharp instrument
  1965. included
    enclosed in the same envelope or package
  1966. incompatible
    not in harmonious or agreeable combination
  1967. inculpate
    suggest that someone is guilty
  1968. incumbent
    necessary as a duty or responsibility; morally binding
  1969. incurved
    bent into or having an inward curve
  1970. indefinite
    vague or not clearly defined or stated
  1971. indehiscent
    not opening spontaneously at maturity to release seeds
  1972. indeterminate
    not fixed or known in advance
  1973. indigenous
    originating where it is found
  1974. indirect fire
    fire delivered on a target that is not itself used as the point of aim for the weapons
  1975. indumentum
    a covering of fine hairs as on a leaf or insect
  1976. indurate
    make hard or harder
  1977. indusium
    a membrane enclosing and protecting the developing spores especially that covering the sori of a fern
  1978. inert
    unable to move or resist motion
  1979. infallibility
    the quality of never making an error
  1980. inferior
    of or characteristic of low rank or importance
  1981. inflated
    enlarged beyond truth or reasonableness
  1982. inflected
    (of the voice) altered in tone or pitch
  1983. inflorescence
    the flowering part of a plant or arrangement of flowers on a stalk
  1984. influent
    flowing inward
  1985. informatively
    in an informative manner
  1986. infra
    (in writing) see below
  1987. infrared ray
    a ray of infrared radiation; produces a thermal effect
  1988. infructescence
    the fruiting stage of the inflorescence
  1989. ingloriously
    in a dishonorable manner or to a dishonorable degree
  1990. innovation
    the act of starting something for the first time
  1991. inoculant
    a substance (a virus or toxin or immune serum) that is introduced into the body to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease
  1992. inorganic
    relating or belonging to the class of compounds not having a carbon basis
  1993. inquisitorial
    marked by inquisitive interest
  1994. insectivorous
    (of animals and plants) feeding on insects
  1995. insert
  1996. inspection
    a formal or official examination
  1997. integument
    an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal
  1998. inter
    place in a grave or tomb
  1999. intercalary
    having a day or month inserted to make the calendar year correspond to the solar year: "Feb. 29 is an intercalary day"
  2000. interferon
    an antiviral protein produced by cells that have been invaded by a virus; inhibits replication of the virus
  2001. intermediate
    lying between two extremes in time, space, or state
  2002. internode
    a segment of a stem between two nodes
  2003. interpret
    make sense of; assign a meaning to
  2004. interrupted
    discontinued temporarily
  2005. interspecific
    arising or occurring between species
  2006. interstellar
    between or among stars
  2007. intertidal
    of or relating to the littoral area above the low-tide mark
  2008. intertwine
    spin,wind, or twist together
  2009. intestate
    having made no legally valid will before death or not disposed of by a legal will
  2010. intraspecific
    arising or occurring within a species
  2011. intravenous
    within or by means of a vein
  2012. intricate
    having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate
  2013. introduce
    bring something new to an environment
  2014. introversion
    the folding in of an outer layer so as to form a pocket in the surface
  2015. invaginate
  2016. invalid
    no longer legally acceptable
  2017. invaluable
    having incalculable monetary or intellectual worth
  2018. invasive
    gradually intrusive without right or permission
  2019. involucrate
    having an involucre
  2020. involucre
    a highly conspicuous bract or bract pair or ring of bracts at the base of an inflorescence
  2021. involute
    especially of petals or leaves in bud
  2022. iridaceous
    of or pertaining to or characteristic of plants of the family Iridaceae
  2023. iron collar
    an instrument of execution for execution by strangulation
  2024. irregular
    not level or flat or symmetrical
  2025. irresistibility
    the quality of being overpowering and impossible to resist
  2026. irrigation
    supplying dry land with water by artificial means
  2027. isobilateral
    having identical parts on each side of an axis
  2028. isogamy
    (biology) reproduction by the union or fusion of gametes of the same size and structure
  2029. isomorphic
    having similar appearance but genetically different
  2030. isotope
    atom with same atomic number, different number of neutrons
  2031. jet-propelled
    propelled by (or as if propelled by) a jet engine
  2032. jointed
    having joints or jointed segments
  2033. Jolson
    United States singer (born in Russia) who appeared in the first full-length talking film (1886-1950)
  2034. jugale
    the craniometric point at the union of the frontal and temporal processes of the zygomatic bone
  2035. Juncus
    type genus of the Juncaceae
  2036. June grass
    valuable meadow and pasture grass in Europe and especially central United States having tall stalks and slender bright green leaves; a chief constituent in lawn grass mixtures
  2037. juvenile
    of or relating to children or young people
  2038. juxtaposed
    placed side by side often for comparison
  2039. karyotype
    the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
  2040. katabolism
    breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
  2041. katharobic
    of living being in an oxygenated environment lacking organic matter
  2042. keel
    one of the main longitudinal beams of the hull of a vessel
  2043. kelp
    large brown seaweeds having fluted leathery fronds
  2044. kernel
    a single whole grain of a cereal
  2045. key
    metal device that allows a lock's mechanism to be rotated
  2046. kimberlite
    a rare type of peridotite that sometimes contains diamonds
  2047. kinetic theory of heat
    a theory that the temperature of a body increases when kinetic energy increases
  2048. kingdom
    the domain ruled by a monarch
  2049. kitchen garden
    a small garden where vegetables are grown
  2050. knee
    hinge joint in the human leg connecting the tibia and fibula with the femur and protected in front by the patella
  2051. knotted
    tied with a knot
  2052. labelled
    bearing or marked with a label or tag
  2053. labiate
    having lips or parts that resemble lips
  2054. labyrinth
    complex system of paths in which it is easy to get lost
  2055. lacerate
    cut or tear irregularly
  2056. laciniate
    having edges irregularly and finely slashed
  2057. lackluster
    lacking brilliance or vitality
  2058. lactifuge
    any agent that reduces milk secretion
  2059. lactose
    a sugar that occurs only in milk
  2060. lacuna
    a blank gap or missing part
  2061. lacustrine
    of or relating to or living near lakes
  2062. lagoon
    a body of water cut off from a larger body by a reef
  2063. Lake Balaton
    a large shallow lake in western Hungary
  2064. lakeshore
    the shore of a lake
  2065. lambaste
    censure severely or angrily
  2066. lamella
    thin plate
  2067. lamina
    a thin plate or layer (especially of bone or mineral)
  2068. laminal
    arranged in or consisting of laminae
  2069. laminate
    cover with a thin sheet of plastic or other material
  2070. lanate
    covered with dense cottony hairs or hairlike filaments
  2071. lance-shaped
    shaped like a lance
  2072. lanceolate
    shaped like a lance head
  2073. landing
    the act of coming to land after a voyage
  2074. landscape architect
    someone who arranges features of the landscape or garden attractively
  2075. landscape architecture
    the branch of architecture dealing with the arrangement of land and buildings for human use and enjoyment
  2076. landscaper
    someone who arranges features of the landscape or garden attractively
  2077. lanseh
    East Indian tart yellow berrylike fruit
  2078. larva
    the immature free-living form of most invertebrates and amphibians and fish which at hatching from the egg is fundamentally unlike its parent and must metamorphose
  2079. lateral
    situated at or extending to the side
  2080. lateral line
    sense organs of fish and amphibians
  2081. latex
    a milky exudate from certain plants that coagulates on exposure to air
  2082. lath
    a narrow thin strip of wood used as backing for plaster or to make latticework
  2083. law degree
    degree conferred on someone who successfully completes law school
  2084. lawn
    a field of cultivated and mowed grass
  2085. lax
    without rigor or strictness
  2086. laxative
    stimulating evacuation of feces
  2087. layer
    a single thickness of some substance or material
  2088. leaching
    the process of leaching
  2089. leader
    a person who rules or guides or inspires others
  2090. leaf
    a flat, usually green part of a plant attached to a stem
  2091. leaf blight
    any blight causing a browning and falling of the leaves of a plant
  2092. leaf bud
    a bud from which leaves (but not flowers) develop
  2093. leaf cast
    a disease of conifers causing the needles to fall
  2094. leaf disease
    any plant disease localized in the foliage
  2095. leaf miner
    any of various small moths or dipterous flies whose larvae burrow into and feed on leaf tissue especially of the family Gracilariidae
  2096. leaf mold
    soil composed mainly of decaying leaves
  2097. leaf roller
    moth whose larvae form nests by rolling and tying leaves with spun silk
  2098. leaf scorch
    plant disease causing a burned or scorched appearance of the foliage
  2099. leaf shape
    any of the various shape that leaves of plants can assume
  2100. leaf-cutter
    bee that cuts rounded pieces from leaves and flowers to line its nest
  2101. leafhopper
    small leaping insect that sucks the juices of plants
  2102. leaflet
    a small book usually having a paper cover
  2103. leatherjacket
    any of several brightly colored tropical filefishes
  2104. leathery
    resembling or made to resemble leather; tough but pliable
  2105. Lee De Forest
    United States electrical engineer who in 1907 patented the first triode vacuum tube, which made it possible to detect and amplify radio waves (1873-1961)
  2106. leeward
    on the side away from the wind
  2107. left atrium
    the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
  2108. leg curl
    an exercise designed to strengthen the flexor muscles of the leg
  2109. legal ouster
    the expulsion of someone (such as a tenant) from the possession of land by process of law
  2110. leggy
    having long legs
  2111. legislate
    make laws or bills
  2112. legitimate
    in accordance with accepted standards or principles
  2113. legume
    an erect or climbing bean or pea plant
  2114. leguminous
    relating to or consisting of legumes
  2115. lemma
    a subsidiary proposition that is assumed to be true in order to prove another proposition
  2116. lentic
    of or relating to or living in still waters
  2117. lenticel
    one of many raised pores on the stems of woody plants that allow the interchange of gas between the atmosphere and the interior tissue
  2118. lenticular
    convex on both sides; shaped like a lentil
  2119. lentiform
    convex on both sides; shaped like a lentil
  2120. lentiginous
    relating to or covered with or resembling freckles
  2121. lepidote
    rough to the touch; covered with scales or scurf
  2122. leprous
    relating to or resembling or having leprosy
  2123. leptosporangiate
    having each sporangium formed from a single epidermal cell
  2124. leptosporangium
    a sporangium formed from a single epidermal cell
  2125. lesion
    any localized abnormal structural change in a bodily part
  2126. levee
    an embankment built to prevent a river from overflowing
  2127. levirate
    the biblical institution whereby a man must marry the widow of his childless brother in order to maintain the brother's line
  2128. liana
    a woody climbing usually tropical plant
  2129. lichen
    a plant occurring in crusty patches on tree trunks or rocks
  2130. life form
    the characteristic bodily form of a mature organism
  2131. lift
    raise from a lower to a higher position
  2132. lignin
    a complex polymer
  2133. lignum vitae
    small evergreen tree of Caribbean and southern Central America to northern South America; a source of lignum vitae wood, hardest of commercial timbers, and a medicinal resin
  2134. ligule
    any appendage to a plant that is shaped like a strap
  2135. limb
    one of the jointed appendages of an animal
  2136. limbed
    having or as if having limbs, especially limbs of a specified kind (usually used in combination)
  2137. lime
    the green acidic fruit of any of various lime trees
  2138. Limenitis
    mainly dark northern butterflies with white wing bars
  2139. limewater
    solution of calcium hydroxide in water used as an antacid
  2140. limnology
    the scientific study of bodies of fresh water for their biological and physical and geological properties
  2141. line
    a length without breadth or thickness
  2142. linear
    involving a single dimension
  2143. lingulate
    shaped like a tongue
  2144. Linnaean
    of or relating to Linnaeus or to the system of taxonomic classification that Linnaeus proposed
  2145. lip
    either of two fleshy folds of tissue that surround the mouth and play a role in speaking
  2146. lister
    moldboard plow with a double moldboard designed to move dirt to either side of a central furrow
  2147. lithophyte
    plant that grows on rocks or stony soil and derives nourishment from the atmosphere
  2148. little potato
    rhizoctinia disease of potatoes
  2149. littoral
    of or relating to a coastal or shore region
  2150. littoral zone
    the region of the shore of a lake or sea or ocean
  2151. liver spot
    a type of skin disease that causes brown spots on the skin
  2152. liverwort
    any of numerous small green nonvascular plants of the class Hepaticopsida growing in wet places and resembling green seaweeds or leafy mosses
  2153. loam
    a rich soil consisting of sand, clay and organic materials
  2154. lobate
    having or resembling a lobe or lobes
  2155. lobe
    a rounded projection that is part of a larger structure
  2156. lobed leaf
    a leaf having deeply indented margins
  2157. lobule
    a small lobe or subdivision of a lobe
  2158. location
    the act of putting something in a certain place
  2159. locule
    a small cavity or space within an organ or in a plant or animal
  2160. locus
    the scene of any event or action
  2161. loess
    a fine accumulation of clay and silt deposited by the wind
  2162. log
    a segment of the trunk of a tree when stripped of branches
  2163. logotype
    a company emblem or device
  2164. loligo
    somewhat flattened cylindrical squid
  2165. loment
    seedpods that are constricted between the seeds and that break apart when mature into single-seeded segments
  2166. long-ago
    belonging to time long gone
  2167. long-lived
    existing for a long time
  2168. longitudinal
    relating to lines that bisect the globe through the poles
  2169. loofa
    the dried fibrous part of the fruit of a plant of the genus Luffa; used as a washing sponge or strainer
  2170. lopper
    a long-handled pruning saw with a curved blade at the end and sometimes a clipper; used to prune small trees
  2171. lotic
    of or relating to or living in actively moving water
  2172. loud pedal
    a pedal on a piano that lifts the dampers from the strings and so allows them to continue vibrating
  2173. Ltd.
    a company that is organized to give its owners limited liability
  2174. Lucullus
    Roman general famous for self-indulgence and giving lavish banquets (circa 110-57 BC)
  2175. lumber
    the wood of trees prepared for use as building material
  2176. lumen
    a cavity or passage in a tubular organ
  2177. lunate
    resembling the new moon in shape
  2178. lustrous
    reflecting light
  2179. lutein
    yellow carotenoid pigments in plants and animal fats and egg yolks
  2180. luxuriousness
    wealth as evidenced by sumptuous living
  2181. lyrate
    (of a leaf shape) having curvature suggestive of a lyre
  2182. machete
    a large knife used as a weapon or for cutting vegetation
  2183. machinate
    arrange by systematic planning and united effort
  2184. macrocyte
    abnormally large red blood cell
  2185. macroevolution
    evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups
  2186. macroglia
    tissue consisting of large stellate neuroglial cells
  2187. Macropodidae
    kangaroos; wallabies
  2188. macrosporangium
    a plant structure that produces megaspores
  2189. macrospore
    larger of the two types of spore produced in heterosporous plants; develops in ovule into a female gametophyte
  2190. maculate
    morally blemished; stained or impure
  2191. mainsheet
    (nautical) a line (rope or chain) that regulates the angle at which a sail is set in relation to the wind
  2192. mainspring
    the most important spring in a mechanical device
  2193. maleate
    a salt or ester of maleic acid
  2194. mallee
    any of several low-growing Australian eucalypts
  2195. mammillaria
    any cactus of the genus Mammillaria
  2196. manorial
    of or relating to or based on the manor
  2197. manual of arms
    (military) a prescribed drill in handling a rifle
  2198. manure
    any animal or plant material used to fertilize land
  2199. many-lobed
    having many lobes
  2200. Maquis
    a guerrilla fighter in the French underground in World War II
  2201. margin
    the boundary line or area immediately inside the boundary
  2202. marginal
    at or constituting a border or edge
  2203. marginality
    the property of being marginal or on the fringes
  2204. maritime
    relating to ships or navigation
  2205. marl
    a loose and crumbling earthy deposit consisting mainly of calcite or dolomite; used as a fertilizer for soils deficient in lime
  2206. mat
    a small pad of material that is used to protect a surface
  2207. matrix
    an enclosure within which something originates or develops
  2208. matted
    tangled in a dense mass
  2209. mattock
    a kind of pick that is used for digging
  2210. maturation
    the act of coming to full development
  2211. maximum
    the greatest or most complete or best possible
  2212. Maxostoma
    a genus of fish in the family Catostomidae
  2213. maze
    complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost
  2214. meadow
    a field where grass or alfalfa are grown to be made into hay
  2215. mealy
    containing meal or made of meal
  2216. mealybug
    scalelike plant-eating insect coated with a powdery waxy secretion; destructive especially of fruit trees
  2217. median
    relating to or situated in or extending toward the middle
  2218. medicine cabinet
    cabinet that holds medicines and toiletries
  2219. medlar
    small deciduous Eurasian tree cultivated for its fruit that resemble crab apples
  2220. medulla
    the inner part of an organ or structure in plant or animal
  2221. medullary
    containing or consisting of or resembling bone marrow
  2222. Megachile
    type genus of the Megachilidae: leaf-cutting bees
  2223. megagametophyte
    the female gametophyte produced by the megaspore of a plant that produces both microspore and megaspores
  2224. megasporangium
    a plant structure that produces megaspores
  2225. megaspore
    larger of the two types of spore produced in heterosporous plants; develops in ovule into a female gametophyte
  2226. megasporophyll
    in non-flowering plants, a sporophyll that bears only megasporangia
  2227. meiosis
    cell division in sexually reproducing organisms
  2228. membranous
    characterized by formation of a membrane
  2229. mendacious
    given to lying
  2230. mendelevium
    a radioactive transuranic element synthesized by bombarding einsteinium with alpha particles (Md is the current symbol for mendelevium but Mv was formerly the symbol)
  2231. mentum
    the protruding part of the lower jaw
  2232. mericarp
    a carpel with one seed
  2233. meristem
    undifferentiated tissue from which new cells are formed, as at the tip of a stem or root
  2234. mesic
    having or characterized by moderate or a well-balanced supply of moisture
  2235. mesocarp
    the middle layer of a pericarp
  2236. mesophyte
    land plant growing in surroundings having an average supply of water; compare xerophyte and hydrophyte
  2237. metabolism
    the organic processes that are necessary for life
  2238. meteor swarm
    a group of meteoroids with similar paths
  2239. meteortropism
    an effect of climate on biological processes
  2240. metropolis
    a large and densely populated urban area
  2241. mezzo-soprano
    a soprano with a voice between soprano and contralto
  2242. microevolution
    evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
  2243. microfossil
    a fossil that must be studied microscopically
  2244. microgametophyte
    the male gametophyte produced by a microspore
  2245. microgliacyte
    a cell of the microglia that may become phagocytic and collect waste products of nerve tissue
  2246. Micronase
    an oral antidiabetic drug (trade names DiaBeta and Micronase) that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas
  2247. micronutrient
    a substance needed only in small amounts for normal body function (e.g., vitamins or minerals)
  2248. micropylar
    of or relating to a micropyle
  2249. micropyle
    minute opening in the wall of an ovule through which the pollen tube enters
  2250. microsecond
    one millionth of a second; one thousandth of a millisecond
  2251. microsporangium
    a plant structure that produces microspores
  2252. microspore
    smaller of the two types of spore produced in heterosporous plants; develops in the pollen sac into a male gametophyte
  2253. microsporophyll
    in non-flowering plants, a sporophyll that bears only microsporangia
  2254. microvolt
    a unit of potential equal to one millionth of a volt
  2255. midrib
    the vein in the center of a leaf
  2256. midvein
    the vein in the center of a leaf
  2257. mildew
    a fungus that produces a superficial (usually white) growth on organic matter
  2258. militarily
    with respect to the military
  2259. military hospital
    hospital for soldiers and other military personnel
  2260. mind-altering
    producing mood changes or distorted perception
  2261. Ming
    the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644
  2262. minimum
    the smallest possible quantity
  2263. misapply
    apply to a wrong thing or person; apply badly or incorrectly
  2264. Missoula
    a university town in western Montana
  2265. mitochondrion
    an organelle containing enzymes responsible for producing energy
  2266. mitosis
    the process by which a cell divides into two smaller cells
  2267. moat
    ditch dug as a fortification and usually filled with water
  2268. monandrous
    having only one husband at a time
  2269. monetization
    establishing something as the legal tender of a country
  2270. mono
    an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  2271. monocarpic
    dying after bearing fruit only once
  2272. monochromat
    a person who is completely color-blind
  2273. monoclinous
    having pistils and stamens in the same flower
  2274. monocotyledon
    a monocotyledonous flowering plant
  2275. monoculture
    the cultivation of a single crop
  2276. monocyte
    a type of granular leukocyte that functions in the ingestion of bacteria
  2277. monoecious
    having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animal
  2278. monogamous
    having one mate
  2279. monomorphemic
    consisting of only one morpheme
  2280. Monophysitic
    of or relating to Monophysitism
  2281. monoploid
    of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
  2282. monopteral
    having circular columniation
  2283. monorail
    a railway having a single track
  2284. monorchism
    failure of one testes to descend into the scrotum
  2285. monotypic
    consisting of only one type
  2286. montane
    of or inhabiting mountainous regions
  2287. moor
    come into or dock at a wharf
  2288. mooring line
    a line that holds an object in place
  2289. morphology
    the study of the structure of animals and plants
  2290. mortified
    made to feel uncomfortable because of shame or wounded pride
  2291. mosaic
    design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
  2292. moss
    tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants
  2293. mother cell
    cell from which another cell of an organism develops
  2294. motile
    capable of movement
  2295. mottled
    having spots or patches of color
  2296. mount
    go up, advance, or increase
  2297. mouth
    the opening through which food is taken in
  2298. Mrs. Gandhi
    daughter of Nehru who served as prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977 (1917-1984)
  2299. mucilage
    a gelatinous substance secreted by plants
  2300. mucor
    any mold of the genus Mucor
  2301. mucous
    of or secreting or covered with or resembling mucus
  2302. mud
    water soaked soil; soft wet earth
  2303. mud digger
    a laborer who digs ditches
  2304. mud flat
    a tract of low muddy land near an estuary
  2305. mufti
    a jurist who interprets Muslim religious law
  2306. mulch
    small pieces of organic material spread on soil
  2307. multi-billionaire
    a very rich person whose material wealth is valued at many billions of dollars
  2308. multicellular
    consisting of many basic structural and functional units
  2309. multilane
    (of roads and highways) having two or more lanes for traffic
  2310. multiple fruit
    fruit consisting of many individual small fruits or drupes derived from separate ovaries within a common receptacle: e.g. blackberry; raspberry; pineapple
  2311. multivariate
    pertaining to any procedure involving two or more variables
  2312. mutant
    an animal that has undergone mutation
  2313. mutinous
    characterized by a rebellion against authority
  2314. mutualism
    the relation between two organisms that benefit each other
  2315. mycelium
    the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae
  2316. mycology
    the branch of botany that studies fungi and fungus-caused diseases
  2317. myocardial
    of or relating to the myocardium
  2318. myrmecophilous
    living symbiotically with ants
  2319. myrmecophyte
    plant that affords shelter or food to ants that live in symbiotic relations with it
  2320. naked
    completely unclothed
  2321. nanocephalic
    having an abnormally small head and underdeveloped brain
  2322. nanotube
    a fullerene molecule having a cylindrical or toroidal shape
  2323. naphthalene
    a white crystalline strong-smelling hydrocarbon made from coal tar or petroleum and used in organic synthesis and as a fumigant in mothballs
  2324. Narcan
    a potent narcotic antagonist (trade name Narcan) especially effective with morphine
  2325. narcotic
    a drug that produces numbness or stupor
  2326. natural law
    a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society
  2327. natural selection
    a process in which organisms evolve to adapt to environment
  2328. naturalize
    make into a citizen
  2329. navicular
    the largest wrist bone on the thumb side
  2330. NEC
    an acute inflammatory disease occurring in the intestines of premature infants; necrosis of intestinal tissue may follow
  2331. neck
    the part of an organism (human or animal) that connects the head to the rest of the body
  2332. necrosis
    the localized death of living cells
  2333. nectar
    a sweet liquid secretion that is attractive to pollinators
  2334. nectariferous
    possessing nectaries
  2335. nectary
    a gland that secretes nectar
  2336. needle
    a sharp pointed implement (usually steel)
  2337. needlelike
    ending in a sharp point
  2338. nematode
    unsegmented worms with elongated rounded body pointed at both ends; mostly free-living but some are parasitic
  2339. neotenic
    of or relating to or characterized by neoteny
  2340. neoteny
    an evolutionary trend to be born earlier so that development is cut off at an earlier stage and juvenile characteristics are retained in adults of the species
  2341. nerve
    a bundle of fibers running to organs and tissues of the body
  2342. nerve end
    the terminal structure of an axon that does not end at a synapse
  2343. netted
    having open interstices or resembling a web
  2344. neurotropism
    an affinity for neural tissues
  2345. neuter
    having no or imperfectly developed or nonfunctional sex organs
  2346. neutralised
    made neutral in some respect
  2347. neve
    the upper part of a glacier where the snow turns to ice
  2348. niche
    a small concavity
  2349. nightshade
    any of numerous shrubs or herbs or vines of the genus Solanum; most are poisonous though many bear edible fruit
  2350. nitrification
    the chemical process in which a nitro group is added to an organic compound (or substituted for another group in an organic compound)
  2351. nitrogen fixation
    the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria
  2352. nocturnal
    belonging to or active during the night
  2353. node
    any thickened enlargement
  2354. nodulose
    having minute nodules
  2355. noise level
    the amplitude level of the undesired background noise
  2356. nomenclature
    a system of words used to name things in a discipline
  2357. nomogram
    a graphic representation of numerical relations
  2358. non
    negation of a word or group of words
  2359. nongovernmental organization
    an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government
  2360. nonresonant
    not reverberant; lacking a tendency to reverberate
  2361. nostoc
    found in moist places as rounded jellylike colonies
  2362. notch
    a small cut
  2363. noxiousness
    the quality of being noxious
  2364. nucellus
    central part of a plant ovule; contains the embryo sac
  2365. nucleolus
    a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus
  2366. nucleus
    a part of the cell responsible for growth and reproduction
  2367. nullipara
    (obstetrics) a woman who has never give birth to a child
  2368. numerous
    amounting to a large indefinite number
  2369. nut
    usually large hard-shelled seed
  2370. nutlet
    a small nut
  2371. o.d.
    dose too heavily
  2372. obelisk
    a stone pillar tapering towards a pyramidal top
  2373. obi
    a religious belief of African origin involving witchcraft and sorcery; practiced in parts of the West Indies and tropical Americas
  2374. oblanceolate
    having a broad rounded apex and a tapering base
  2375. oblate
    having the equatorial diameter greater than the polar diameter; being flattened at the poles
  2376. obligate
    force somebody to do something
  2377. oblique
    slanting or inclined in direction or course or position
  2378. oblong
    deviating from a shape by being elongated in one direction
  2379. obovate
    egg-shaped with the narrower end at the base
  2380. obscure
    not clearly understood or expressed
  2381. obsolescent
    becoming disused or outdated
  2382. obsolete
    no longer in use
  2383. obtuse
    of an angle, between 90 and 180 degrees
  2384. ocellated
    having ocelli
  2385. ochre
    any of various earths containing silica and alumina and ferric oxide; used as a pigment
  2386. Octopodidae
    a family of Octopoda
  2387. ocular
    of or relating to or resembling the eye
  2388. odd-pinnate
    (a leaf shape) pinnate with a single leaflet at the apex
  2389. odontoglossum
    any of numerous and diverse orchids of the genus Odontoglossum having racemes of few to many showy usually large flowers in many colors
  2390. odoriferous
    emitting a smell, especially an unpleasant smell
  2391. Oedogonium
    type genus of Oedogoniaceae
  2392. officiant
    a clergyman who officiates at a religious ceremony or service
  2393. offprint
    a separately printed article that originally appeared in a larger publication
  2394. offset
    a compensating equivalent
  2395. oleaceous
    of or pertaining to or characteristic of trees or shrubs of the olive family
  2396. oleaginous
    containing an unusual amount of grease or oil
  2397. Oleandraceae
    one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  2398. omen
    a sign of a thing about to happen
  2399. omentum
    a fold of peritoneum supporting the viscera
  2400. one-year-old
    one year of age
  2401. ontogeny
    the process of an individual organism growing organically
  2402. oocyte
    a female gametocyte that develops into an ovum after two meiotic divisions
  2403. oospore
    a thick-walled sexual spore that develops from a fertilized oosphere in some algae and fungi
  2404. opaque
    not transmitting or reflecting light or radiant energy
  2405. operculate
    having an operculum
  2406. operculum
    a hard flap serving as a cover for (a) the gill slits in fishes or (b) the opening of the shell in certain gastropods when the body is retracted
  2407. Ophiophagus hannah
    large cobra of southeastern Asia and the East Indies
  2408. opposite
    being directly across from each other
  2409. optical
    relating to or using sight
  2410. orangery
    a place where oranges are grown
  2411. orate
    make speeches
  2412. orb
    an object with a spherical shape
  2413. orbicular
    circular or nearly circular
  2414. orbiculate
    circular or nearly circular
  2415. orchard
    garden consisting of a small cultivated wood
  2416. order
    logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements
  2417. order form
    a form to use when placing an order
  2418. organelle
    a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
  2419. organic
    having properties characteristic of living beings
  2420. organically
    in an organic manner
  2421. ornamental
    serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose
  2422. Orphic
    ascribed to Orpheus or characteristic of ideas in works ascribed to Orpheus
  2423. Orthodox Jew
    Jew who practices strict observance of Mosaic law
  2424. orthotropous
    completely straight with the micropyle at the apex
  2425. osmosis
    diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane
  2426. osseous
    composed of or containing bone
  2427. ostiole
    a small pore especially one in the reproductive bodies of certain algae and fungi through which spores pass
  2428. outclass
    cause to appear in a lower class
  2429. oval
    rounded like an egg
  2430. ovary
    (vertebrates) one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone
  2431. ovate
    rounded like an egg
  2432. overstock
    stock excessively
  2433. overstrung
    being in a tense state
  2434. overtop
    look down on
  2435. overwinter
    spend the winter
  2436. Ovid
    Roman poet remembered for his elegiac verses on love
  2437. oviform
    rounded like an egg
  2438. oviparous
  2439. ovoid
    rounded like an egg
  2440. ovule
    a small or immature ovum
  2441. oxalate
    a salt or ester of oxalic acid
  2442. pachycheilia
    an abnormal thickness of the lips
  2443. pachydermous
    of or relating to or characteristic of pachyderms
  2444. pack ice
    a large expanse of floating ice
  2445. packet boat
    a boat for carrying mail
  2446. pagoda
    an Asian temple
  2447. paired
    used of gloves, socks, etc.
  2448. palate
    the surface of the mouth separating oral and nasal cavities
  2449. palatinate
    a territory under the jurisdiction of a count palatine
  2450. pale
    a wooden strip forming part of a fence
  2451. paleobotany
    the study of fossil plants
  2452. paleontological
    of or relating to paleontology
  2453. paleontology
    the earth science that studies fossil organisms
  2454. Palestrina
    Italian composer (1526-1594)
  2455. palisade
    a strong fence made of stakes driven into the ground
  2456. palm
    the inner surface of the hand
  2457. palmate
    having three toes connected by a thin fold of skin
  2458. palmatifid
    of a leaf shape; palmately cleft rather than lobed
  2459. Palmetto State
    a state in the Deep South; one of the original 13 colonies
  2460. pampas
    the vast grassy plains of northern Argentina
  2461. pan
    shallow container made of metal
  2462. panacea
    hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases
  2463. Panadol
    an analgesic for mild pain but not for inflammation
  2464. pandurate
    having rounded ends and a contracted center
  2465. panicle
    compound raceme or branched cluster of flowers
  2466. panicled
    having panicles; occurring in panicles
  2467. paniculate
    having a panicle
  2468. pantropical
    distributed throughout the tropics
  2469. Papilionaceae
    leguminous plants whose flowers have butterfly-shaped corollas; commonly included in the family Leguminosae
  2470. papilla
    a small projection of tissue at the base of a hair or tooth or feather
  2471. papillate
    resembling or covered with papillae
  2472. papillose
    of or relating to or resembling papilla
  2473. papoose
    an American Indian infant
  2474. pappose
    (of plants such as dandelions and thistles) having pappi or tufts of featherlike hairs or delicate bristles
  2475. pappus
    calyx composed of scales or bristles or featherlike hairs in plants of the Compositae such as thistles and dandelions
  2476. papule
    a small inflamed elevation of skin that is nonsuppurative
  2477. Paraclete
    the third person in the Trinity
  2478. parallelepiped
    a prism whose bases are parallelograms
  2479. paraphysis
    a sterile simple or branched filament or hair borne among sporangia; may be pointed or clubbed
  2480. paraplegic
    suffering total immobilization of the lower half of the body
  2481. parasite
    an animal or plant that lives in or on a host
  2482. parasitism
    when one organism benefits from another by causing damage
  2483. paratyphoid
    any of a variety of infectious intestinal diseases resembling typhoid fever
  2484. parenchyma
    animal tissue that constitutes the essential part of an organ as contrasted with e.g. connective tissue and blood vessels
  2485. parietal
    of or relating to or associated with the parietal bones in the cranium
  2486. paripinnate
    pinnate with a pair of leaflets at the apex
  2487. parkland
    a large area of land preserved in its natural state as public property
  2488. Parks
    United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national Civil Rights movement (born in 1913)
  2489. paroicous
    having male and female reproductive organs separate in a single gametoecium
  2490. parotitis
    inflammation of one or both parotid glands
  2491. parted
    having a margin incised almost to the base so as to create distinct divisions or lobes
  2492. parterre
    an ornamental flower garden
  2493. parthenogenetic
    (of reproduction) not involving the fusion of male and female gametes in reproduction
  2494. partial
    being or affecting only a segment
  2495. partita
    (music) an instrumental suite common in the 18th century
  2496. partition
    separation by the creation of a boundary that divides
  2497. Parula
    type genus of the Parulidae: wood warblers
  2498. pasture
    a field covered with grass and suitable for grazing
  2499. patellar
    near or relating to the patella or kneecap
  2500. patent
    a document granting an inventor sole rights to an invention
  2501. pathogen
    any disease-producing agent
  2502. pathological
    relating to the study of diseases
  2503. patina
    a fine coating of oxide on the surface of a metal
  2504. pearlite
    a lamellar mixture of cementite and ferrite formed during the cooling of austenite; a constituent of steel and cast iron
  2505. peat bog
    wet spongy ground of decomposing vegetation
  2506. peat moss
    any of various pale or ashy mosses of the genus Sphagnum whose decomposed remains form peat
  2507. peavey
    a stout lever with a sharp spike; used for handling logs
  2508. pectin
    any of various water-soluble colloidal carbohydrates that occur in ripe fruit and vegetables; used in making fruit jellies and jams
  2509. pectinate
    like a comb
  2510. peculate
    appropriate fraudulently for one's own use
  2511. pedate
    having or resembling a foot
  2512. pedicel
    a small stalk bearing a single flower of an inflorescence
  2513. Pediculati
    anglers and batfishes
  2514. peduncle
    stalk bearing an inflorescence or solitary flower
  2515. peg
    a wooden pin pushed or driven into a surface
  2516. pellucid
    transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity
  2517. pelota
    a Basque or Spanish game played in a court with a ball and a wickerwork racket
  2518. peltate
    (of a leaf shape) round, with the stem attached near the center of the lower surface rather than the margin (as a nasturtium leaf for example)
  2519. pendant
    an adornment that hangs from a piece of jewelry
  2520. pendulous
    hanging loosely or bending downward
  2521. pendulum
    an apparatus in which an object is mounted to swing freely
  2522. penny bank
    a child's coin bank (often shaped like a pig)
  2523. pentamerous
    divided into five parts
  2524. pentangular
    of or relating to or shaped like a pentagon
  2525. pentathlete
    an athlete who competes in a pentathlon
  2526. pep
    liveliness and energy
  2527. perambulator
    a small vehicle with four wheels in which a baby or child is pushed around
  2528. Percina
    a genus of Percidae
  2529. percoid
    any of numerous spiny-finned fishes of the order Perciformes
  2530. perennate
    survive from season to season, of plants
  2531. perennial
    lasting an indefinitely long time
  2532. perfect
    being complete of its kind and without defect or blemish
  2533. perfoliate
    having the base united around the stem
  2534. perforate
    make a hole into or between, as for ease of separation
  2535. pergola
    a framework that supports climbing plants
  2536. perianth
    collective term for the outer parts of a flower consisting of the calyx and corolla and enclosing the stamens and pistils
  2537. pericardium
    a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart
  2538. pericarp
    the ripened and variously modified walls of a plant ovary
  2539. perigone
    collective term for the outer parts of a flower consisting of the calyx and corolla and enclosing the stamens and pistils
  2540. perigonium
    collective term for the outer parts of a flower consisting of the calyx and corolla and enclosing the stamens and pistils
  2541. periodicity
    the quality of recurring at regular intervals
  2542. peripheral
    on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary
  2543. perisperm
    the nutritive tissue outside the sac containing the embryo in some seeds
  2544. peristome
    (botany) fringe of toothlike appendages surrounding the mouth of a moss capsule
  2545. perithecium
    flask-shaped ascocarp
  2546. peritrichous
    covered all over with uniformly distributed flagella
  2547. permafrost
    ground that is permanently frozen
  2548. permanganate
    a dark purple salt of permanganic acid
  2549. persistent
    stubbornly unyielding
  2550. personate
    pretend to be someone you are not
  2551. petal
    part of the perianth that is usually brightly colored
  2552. petallike
    resembling a petal
  2553. petaloid
    resembling a flower petal
  2554. petiole
    the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf
  2555. petiolule
    the stalk of a leaflet
  2556. phanerogam
    plant that reproduces by means of seeds not spores
  2557. phellem
    outer tissue of bark; a protective layer of dead cells
  2558. phenotype
    what an organism looks like
  2559. phenotypic
    of or relating to or constituting a phenotype
  2560. pheromone
    a chemical substance secreted externally by some animals (especially insects) that influences the physiology or behavior of other animals of the same species
  2561. Philophylla
    leaf miners
  2562. phloem
    (botany) tissue that conducts synthesized food substances (e.g., from leaves) to parts where needed; consists primarily of sieve tubes
  2563. photoemission
    an emission of photoelectrons
  2564. photogenic
    looking attractive in photographs
  2565. photography
    the process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces
  2566. photophobia
    pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light
  2567. photosynthesis
    synthesis of compounds in plants aided by radiant energy
  2568. phototropism
    an orienting response to light
  2569. phrenology
    study of the shape of the skull to determine character
  2570. phylloclad
    a flattened stem resembling and functioning as a leaf
  2571. phylloclade
    a flattened stem resembling and functioning as a leaf
  2572. phyllode
    an expanded petiole taking on the function of a leaf blade
  2573. phyllodial
    having a phyllode
  2574. Phyllostachys
    medium and large bamboos
  2575. phylogenesis
    (biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
  2576. phylogenetic
    of or relating to the evolutionary development of organisms
  2577. phylogeny
    evolutionary development of a species or group of organisms
  2578. phylum
    the major taxonomic group of animals and plants
  2579. phytochemistry
    the branch of organic chemistry dealing with the chemistry of plants
  2580. phytology
    the branch of biology that studies plants
  2581. phytoplankton
    photosynthetic or plant constituent of plankton
  2582. phytotoxin
    any substance produced by plants that is similar in its properties to extracellular bacterial toxin
  2583. piano player
    a person who plays the piano
  2584. pick
    look for and gather
  2585. pick apart
    find fault with
  2586. pier
    a platform built out from the shore into the water
  2587. pillar box
    a red pillar-shaped letter box
  2588. pilose
    covered with hairs especially fine soft ones
  2589. pilosebaceous
    of or relating to a hair follicle and its sebaceous gland
  2590. pilot burner
    small auxiliary gas burner that provides a flame to ignite a larger gas burner
  2591. pilotless
    lacking a pilot
  2592. pin-tailed grouse
    sandgrouse of Europe and Africa having elongated middle tail feathers
  2593. pinch bar
    a lever with a pointed projection that serves as a fulcrum
  2594. pinna
    division of a usually pinnately divided leaf
  2595. pinnate
    featherlike; having leaflets on each side of a common axis
  2596. pinnate-leafed
    having pinnate leaves
  2597. pinnatifid
    (of a leaf shape) cleft nearly to the midrib in broad divisions not separated into distinct leaflets
  2598. pinnatiped
    aquatic carnivorous mammal having a streamlined body specialized for swimming with limbs modified as flippers
  2599. pinnatisect
    (of a leaf shape) cleft nearly to the midrib in narrow divisions not separated into distinct leaflets
  2600. pinnule
    division of a usually pinnately divided leaf
  2601. Pinot Chardonnay
    dry white table wine resembling Chablis but made from Chardonnay grapes
  2602. Pinus strobus
    tall-growing pine of eastern North America
  2603. pinwheel flower
    tropical shrub having glossy foliage and fragrant nocturnal flowers with crimped or wavy corollas; northern India to Thailand
  2604. pip
    a small hard seed found in some fruits
  2605. Piscidia
    genus of shrubs or small trees having indehiscent pods with black seeds; roots and bark yield fish poisons
  2606. pistil
    the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
  2607. pistillate
    having gynoecia, or pistils, the ovule-bearing organ of a seed plant
  2608. pistillode
    a sterile vestigial pistil remaining in a staminate flower
  2609. pitch
    the high or low quality of a sound
  2610. pitcher
    (baseball) the person who does the pitching
  2611. pitcher-shaped
    shaped in the form of a pitcher
  2612. pith
    spongelike central cylinder of the stems of flowering plants
  2613. pitted
    pitted with cell-like cavities (as a honeycomb)
  2614. placenta
    the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
  2615. placentation
    the formation of the placenta in the uterus
  2616. Plagianthus
    small genus of shrubs and trees of Australia and New Zealand
  2617. plankton
    aggregate of small organisms that float or drift in water
  2618. plant
    a living organism without the power to move
  2619. plant part
    any part of a plant or fungus
  2620. plant process
    a natural projection or outgrowth from a plant body or organ
  2621. plantation
    an estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale
  2622. plantlet
    a young plant or a small plant
  2623. plasticity
    the property of being physically malleable
  2624. plastid
    any of various small particles in the cytoplasm of the cells of plants and some animals containing pigments or starch or oil or protein
  2625. plate
    dish on which food is served or from which food is eaten
  2626. pleach
    form or weave into a braid or braids
  2627. pleat
    any of various types of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and then pressing or stitching into shape
  2628. pleomorphic
    relating to or characterized by pleomorphism
  2629. pleura
    the thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest
  2630. pleurisy root
    erect perennial of eastern and southern United States having showy orange flowers
  2631. pleurocarpous
    (of mosses) having the archegonia on short lateral branches
  2632. plica
    a folded part (as in skin or muscle)
  2633. plicate
    fold into pleats, "Pleat the cloth"
  2634. plow
    a farm tool for breaking up or turning over soil
  2635. plug
    blockage consisting of an object designed to fill a hole tightly
  2636. plum pudding
    a rich steamed or boiled pudding that resembles cake
  2637. plume
    the feather of a bird
  2638. plumose
    having an ornamental plume or feathery tuft
  2639. plumule
    down feather of young birds; persists in some adult birds
  2640. Pluvianus
  2641. pneumatophore
    an air-filled root (submerged or exposed) that can function as a respiratory organ of a marsh or swamp plant
  2642. pneumonectomy
    surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)
  2643. pod
    the vessel that contains the seeds of a plant
  2644. podetium
    an organ or body resembling a stalk
  2645. Podocarpus
    evergreen trees or shrubs
  2646. polarity
    a relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies
  2647. pole vaulting
    a competition that involves jumping over a high crossbar with the aid of a long pole
  2648. Polioptila
    New World gnatcatchers
  2649. pollard
    a tree with limbs cut back to promote a more bushy growth of foliage
  2650. pollen
    the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant
  2651. pollen tube
    (botany) a slender tubular outgrowth from a pollen grain when deposited on the stigma for a flower; it penetrates the style and conveys the male gametes to the ovule
  2652. pollinate
    fertilize by transfering pollen
  2653. pollinator
    an insect that carries pollen from one flower to another
  2654. pollinium
    a coherent mass of pollen grains (as in orchids)
  2655. pollinosis
    a seasonal rhinitis resulting from an allergic reaction to pollen
  2656. polyandrous
    having more than one husband at a time
  2657. polyatomic
    of or relating to a molecule made up of more than two atoms
  2658. polyethylene
    a lightweight thermoplastic
  2659. polygamous
    having more than one mate at a time
  2660. polymorphic
    having or occurring in several distinct forms
  2661. polypetalous
    having a corolla composed of many separated or distinct petals
  2662. polyploidy
    the condition of being polyploid
  2663. Polypodium
    a genus of ferns belonging to the family Polypodiaceae and having rounded naked sori
  2664. Polystichum
    small to medium-sized terrestrial ferns especially holly ferns; in some classification systems placed in Polypodiaceae
  2665. pome
    a fleshy fruit having seed chambers and an outer fleshy part
  2666. pompon
    decoration consisting of a ball of tufted wool or silk
  2667. pond
    a small lake
  2668. pondweed
    any of several submerged or floating freshwater perennial aquatic weeds belonging to the family Potamogetonaceae
  2669. pool
    a small body of standing water (rainwater) or other liquid
  2670. population
    the people who inhabit a territory or state
  2671. pore
    any tiny hole admitting passage of a liquid
  2672. porose
    forming a continuous series of pores
  2673. portentous
    of momentous or ominous significance
  2674. Portland cement
    a cement that hardens under water
  2675. postbox
    public box for deposit of mail
  2676. posterior
    located at or near the end of a structure
  2677. potato fern
    large Australasian evergreen fern with an edible rhizome sometimes used as a vegetable by indigenous people
  2678. potbound
    (of a potted plant) grown too large for its container resulting in matting or tangling of the roots
  2679. potherb
    any of various herbaceous plants whose leaves or stems or flowers are cooked and used for food or seasoning
  2680. pothole
    a pit or hole produced by wear or weathering
  2681. potomania
    an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  2682. poultice
    a medical dressing spread on a cloth and applied to the skin
  2683. poverty grass
    small heathlike plant covered with white down growing on beaches in northeastern North America
  2684. powdery mildew
    any of various fungi of the genus Erysiphe producing powdery conidia on the host surface
  2685. power takeoff
    a device that transfers power from an engine (as in a tractor or other motor vehicle) to another piece of equipment (as to a pump or jackhammer)
  2686. practicality
    concerned with actual use rather than theoretical possibilities
  2687. prairia Sabbatia
    prairie herb with solitary lilac-colored flowers
  2688. prairie
    a treeless grassy plain
  2689. prairie soil
    a type of soil occurring under grasses in temperate climates
  2690. praline
    cookie-sized candy made of brown sugar and butter and pecans
  2691. precocious
    characterized by exceptionally early development
  2692. prickle
    a small sharp-pointed tip resembling a spike on a stem or leaf
  2693. primary care
    the medical care received on first contact with the medical system (before being referred elsewhere)
  2694. primordium
    an organ in its earliest stage of development
  2695. primrose
    any of numerous short-stemmed plants of the genus Primula having tufted basal leaves and showy flowers clustered in umbels or heads
  2696. prince
    a male member of a royal family other than the sovereign
  2697. priority
    status established in order of importance or urgency
  2698. Priscoan
    the earliest eon in the history of the Earth from the first accretion of planetary material (around 4,600 million years ago) until the date of the oldest known rocks (about 3,800 million years ago); no evidence of life
  2699. prismatic
    of or relating to or resembling or constituting a prism
  2700. prison camp
    a camp for prisoners of war
  2701. privatization
    changing something from state to individual ownership
  2702. Prix de Rome
    an annual prize awarded by the French government in a competition of painters and artists and sculptors and musicians and architects; the winner in each category receives support for a period of study in Rome
  2703. pro-lifer
    an advocate of full legal protection for embryos and fetuses
  2704. proboscis
    a long flexible snout as of an elephant
  2705. Procardia
    calcium blocker
  2706. proctoplasty
    reconstructive surgery of the anus or rectum
  2707. procumbent
    having stems that trail along the ground without putting down roots
  2708. prodigious
    great in size, force, extent, or degree
  2709. projecting
    extending out above or beyond a surface or boundary
  2710. prokaryote
    a unicellular organism lacking membrane-bound nuclei
  2711. proliferate
    grow rapidly
  2712. prominent
    conspicuous in position or importance
  2713. propagate
    multiply through reproduction
  2714. prophyll
    a plant structure resembling a leaf
  2715. prorate
    make a proportional settlement or distribution
  2716. prostate
    a firm muscular gland in males at the neck of the urethra
  2717. prostrate
    stretched out and lying at full length along the ground
  2718. prostration
    the act of assuming a prostrate position
  2719. protector
    a person who cares for persons or property
  2720. protectorate
    a state or territory partly controlled by a stronger state
  2721. proteinaceous
    relating to or of the nature of protein
  2722. prothalamium
    a song in celebration of a marriage
  2723. protoheme
    a complex red organic pigment containing iron and other atoms to which oxygen binds
  2724. protology
    the study of origins and first things
  2725. protoplasm
    the substance of a living cell
  2726. Protropin
    trade name of a synthetic human growth hormone given to children deficient in the hormone; use by athletes and weightlifters is banned
  2727. proverbial
    widely known and spoken of
  2728. proximal
    situated nearest to point of attachment or origin
  2729. proximate
    very close in space or time
  2730. prune
    cultivate, tend, and cut back the growth of
  2731. pruning saw
    a handsaw used for pruning trees
  2732. pruning shears
    shears with strong blades used for light pruning of woody plants
  2733. pseud
    a person who makes deceitful pretenses
  2734. pseudobulb
    a solid bulblike enlargement of the stem of some orchids
  2735. pseudocarp
    fruit containing much fleshy tissue besides that of the ripened ovary; as apple or strawberry
  2736. pseudopod
    temporary outgrowth used by some microorganisms as an organ of feeding or locomotion
  2737. pseudopodium
    temporary outgrowth used by some microorganisms as an organ of feeding or locomotion
  2738. pteridology
    the branch of botany that studies ferns
  2739. pteridophyte
    plants having vascular tissue and reproducing by spores
  2740. Pterocarpus
    genus of tropical trees or climbers having usually broadly winged pods
  2741. pubescence
    the time of life when sex glands become functional
  2742. pubescent
    having arrived at the onset of puberty but not fully mature
  2743. pubic louse
    a louse that infests the pubic region of the human body
  2744. publicity man
    someone employed to arrange publicity
  2745. pud
    the dessert course of a meal
  2746. puddle
    a small body of standing water (rainwater) or other liquid
  2747. pulp
    any soft or soggy mass
  2748. pulpwood
    softwood used to make paper
  2749. punctuate
    insert marks to clarify meaning
  2750. pungent
    strong and sharp to the sense of taste
  2751. purgative
    strongly laxative
  2752. purpose
    what something is used for
  2753. pustulate
    (of complexion) blemished by imperfections of the skin
  2754. pustule
    a small inflamed elevation of skin containing pus
  2755. putamen
    the outer reddish part of the lenticular nucleus
  2756. pycnidium
    flask-shaped asexual structure containing conidia
  2757. pyramidal
    resembling a pyramid
  2758. pyrene
    the small hard nutlet of a drupe or drupelet
  2759. pyrochemistry
    processes for chemical reactions at high temperatures
  2760. pyrophyllite
    a white or greenish aluminum silicate mineral
  2761. Pyrrhic victory
    a victory that is won by incurring terrible losses
  2762. pyxis
    fruit of such plants as the plantain
  2763. qualitative
    involving distinguishing attributes
  2764. rampant
    occurring or increasing in an unrestrained way
  2765. recurrent
    happening again and again
  2766. red fox
    the common Old World fox
  2767. red onion
    flat mild onion having purplish tunics
  2768. reflexed
    (of leaves) bent downward and outward more than 90 degrees
  2769. retrorse
    bent or curved backward or downward
  2770. ridicule
    language or behavior intended to mock or humiliate
  2771. rivalrous
    competitive and eager to surpass others
  2772. road construction
    the construction of roads
  2773. sacrilegious
    grossly irreverent toward what is held to be sacred
  2774. sagittiform
    like an arrow head without flaring base lobes
  2775. sanitation
    the state of being clean and conducive to health
  2776. saporous
    full of flavor
  2777. scad
    any of a number of fishes of the family Carangidae
  2778. Schizophyta
    former term for the Cyanophyta
  2779. seedsman
    a dealer in seeds
  2780. self-reliant
    (of persons) free from external control and constraint in e.g. action and judgment
  2781. septate
    of or relating to a septum
  2782. Serinus
    Old World finches; e.g. canaries and serins
  2783. Sherwood Forest
    an ancient forest in central England
  2784. shoulder strap
    a band that goes over the shoulder and supports a garment or bag
  2785. shrink from
    avoid (one's assigned duties)
  2786. SI system
    a complete metric system of units of measurement for scientists; fundamental quantities are length (meter) and mass (kilogram) and time (second) and electric current (ampere) and temperature (kelvin) and amount of matter (mole) and luminous intensity (candela)
  2787. signification
    the message that is intended or expressed or signified
  2788. small cane
    small cane of watery or moist areas in southern United States
  2789. Spermatophyta
    seed plants
  2790. spicule
    small pointed structure serving as a skeletal element in various marine and freshwater invertebrates e.g. sponges and corals
  2791. spiculum
    small pointed structure serving as a skeletal element in various marine and freshwater invertebrates e.g. sponges and corals
  2792. sporulate
    produce spores
  2793. Stegocephalia
    in former classifications a division of class Amphibia comprising all pre-Jurassic and some later extinct large salamandriform amphibia
  2794. stipulate
    make an express demand or provision in an agreement
  2795. stun baton
    a weapon designed to disable a victim temporarily by delivering a nonlethal high-voltage electric shock
  2796. Sturnella
    a genus of passerine birds including the meadowlarks
  2797. Stylophorum
    wood poppies
  2798. stylus
    a pointed tool for writing, drawing, or engraving
  2799. subcortical
    of or relating to or being or involving nerve centers below the cerebral cortex
  2800. subspecies
    a taxonomic group that is a division of a species
  2801. subterminal
    near but not precisely at an end
  2802. suffrutescent
    of a plant
  2803. suricate
    burrowing diurnal meerkat of southern Africa
  2804. Surmontil
    tricyclic antidepressant drug (trade name Surmontil) used to treat depression and anxiety and (sometimes) insomnia
  2805. Tabasco
    a Mexican state on the Gulf of Campeche
  2806. tablecloth
    a covering spread over a dining table
  2807. tabloid
    newspaper with half-size pages
  2808. take effect
    go into effect or become effective or operative
  2809. teammate
    a fellow member of a team
  2810. technophobe
    a person who dislikes or avoids new technology
  2811. terahertz
    one trillion periods per second
  2812. Thallophyta
    used only in former classifications: comprising what is now considered a heterogeneous assemblage of flowerless and seedless organisms: algae; bacteria; fungi; lichens
  2813. Tongan
    of or relating to the island monarchy of Tonga or its people
  2814. topicalization
    (linguistics) emphasis placed on the topic or focus of a sentence by preposing it to the beginning of the sentence; placing the topic at the beginning of the sentence is typical for English
  2815. torticollis
    an unnatural condition in which the head leans to one side because the neck muscles on that side are contracted
  2816. Tracheophyta
    in former classifications: comprising plants with a vascular system including ferns and fern allies as well as seed plants
  2817. tracheophyte
    green plant having a vascular system: ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms
  2818. transfixed
    having your attention fixated as though by a spell
  2819. trench mouth
    an acute communicable infection of the respiratory tract and mouth marked by ulceration of the mucous membrane
  2820. trial period
    a period of time during which someone or something is tested
  2821. tricycle
    a vehicle with three wheels that is moved by foot pedals
  2822. trifurcation
    the act of splitting into three branches
  2823. triploid
    of a cell or organism having three complete sets of chromosomes
  2824. Tyndall effect
    the phenomenon in which light is scattered by very small particles in its path; it makes a beam of light visible; the scattered light is mainly blue
  2825. unaccompanied
    being without an escort
  2826. uncompress
    restore to its uncompressed form
  2827. unemphatic
    not emphasized
  2828. urochordate
    primitive marine animal having a saclike unsegmented body and a urochord that is conspicuous in the larva
  2829. vainglorious
    feeling self-importance
  2830. varicose
    abnormally swollen or knotty
  2831. variolation
    the obsolete process of inoculating a susceptible person with material taken from a vesicle of a person who has smallpox
  2832. verse line
    a line of metrical text
  2833. versicle
    a short verse said or sung by a priest or minister in public worship and followed by a response from the congregation
  2834. vertiginous
    having or causing a whirling sensation; liable to falling
  2835. vinyl resin
    a thermoplastic derived by polymerization from compounds containing the vinyl group
  2836. viricidal
    tending to destroy viruses
  2837. visual area
    the cortical area that receives information from the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
  2838. visual space
    the visual perception of space
  2839. volute
    ornament consisting of a curve on a plane that winds around a center with an increasing distance from the center
  2840. Wajda
    Polish filmmaker (born in 1929)
  2841. water plant
    a plant that grows partly or wholly in water whether rooted in the mud, as a lotus, or floating without anchorage, as the water hyacinth
  2842. water pore
    a pore that exudes water on the surface or margin of a leaf of higher plants
  2843. water travel
    travel by water
  2844. water violet
    featherfoil of Europe and western Asia having submerged and floating leaves and violet flowers
  2845. Wei dynasty
    any of several imperial dynasties of China ruling from 220 to 265 and from 386 to 556
  2846. wintergreen
    any of several evergreen perennials of the genus Pyrola
  2847. woolly sunflower
    any plant of the genus Eriophyllum
  2848. work flow
    progress (or rate of progress) in work being done
  2849. working class
    a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
  2850. world record
    the best record in the whole world
  2851. wristlet
    a band or bracelet worn around the wrist
  2852. xeroderma
    a mild form of ichthyosis characterized by abnormal dryness and roughness of the skin
  2853. xerography
    forming an image by the action of light on a specially coated charged plate; the latent image is developed with powders that adhere only to electrically charged areas
  2854. Zimmer frame
    a light enclosing framework (trade name Zimmer) with rubber castors or wheels and handles; helps invalids or the handicapped or the aged to walk

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