The verb extirpate originally literally meant "to weed out by the roots." Now you'd use it when you want to get rid of something completely as if pulling it up by the root.

Use the verb extirpate when you mean to destroy completely or get rid of completely. You can try to extirpate all the bedbugs that came home with you from your vacation, but you will probably be afraid that some resisted the exterminator to munch on you later.

Primary Meanings of extirpate

destroy completely, as if down to the roots
surgically remove (an organ)
Full Definitions of extirpate

v destroy completely, as if down to the roots

eradicate, exterminate, root out, uproot
Type of:
destroy, destruct
do away with, cause the destruction or undoing of

v pull up by or as if by the roots

deracinate, root out, uproot
pull up (weeds) by their roots
Type of:
displace, move
cause to move or shift into a new position or place, both in a concrete and in an abstract sense

v surgically remove (an organ)

Type of:
remove, take, take away, withdraw
remove something concrete, as by lifting, pushing, or taking off, or remove something abstract

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