If you say, "my family — they're crazy," you're probably talking about a group of people who are related to you by blood or marriage. Sometimes the word family specifically means a group of parents and children, so you could be referring to your crazy parents or kids.

Family is used many different ways. It can mean "household," or the people you live with, or it can refer to a partner and the children you are raising together. Your family can include people you've never met, like distant cousins, if you're using it to talk about the wider group of all of your relatives. There's also the scientific term family, which is a term that ranks the way different organisms are related to each other.

Primary Meanings of family

primary social group; parents and children
a collection of things sharing a common attribute
a loose affiliation of gangsters in charge of organized criminal activities
an association of people who share common beliefs or activities
Full Definitions of family

n primary social group; parents and children

“he wanted to have a good job before starting a family
family unit
Bronte sisters
a 19th century family of three sisters who all wrote novels
Marx Brothers
a family of United States comedians consisting of four brothers with an anarchic sense of humor
show 5 types...
hide 5 types...
couple, match, mates
a pair of people who live together
man and wife, marriage, married couple
two people who are married to each other
power couple
a couple both of whom have high-powered careers or are politically influential
a couple who both have careers and no children (an acronym for dual income no kids)
mixed marriage
marriage of two people from different races or different religions or different cultures
Type of:
clan, kin, kin group, kindred, kinship group, tribe
group of people related by blood or marriage

n a social unit living together

“he moved his family to Virginia”
home, house, household, menage
show 6 types...
hide 6 types...
broken home
a family in which the parents have separated or divorced
conjugal family, nuclear family
a family consisting of parents and their children and grandparents of a marital partner
extended family
a family consisting of the nuclear family and their blood relatives
foster family
the family of a fosterling
foster home
a household in which an orphaned or delinquent child is placed (usually by a social-service agency)
menage a trois
household for three; an arrangement where a married couple and a lover of one of them live together while sharing sexual relations
Type of:
social unit, unit
an organization regarded as part of a larger social group

n people descended from a common ancestor

“his family has lived in Massachusetts since the Mayflower”
family line, folk, kinfolk, kinsfolk, phratry, sept
show 39 types...
hide 39 types...
members of a family line
the people of your home locality (especially your own family)
aristocratic family line
a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
gens, name
family based on male descent
royal family, royal house, royal line, royalty
royal persons collectively
Bourbon, Bourbon dynasty
a European royal line that ruled in France (from 1589-1793) and Spain and Naples and Sicily
Capetian dynasty
a Frankish dynasty founded by Hugh Capet that ruled from 987 to 1328
Carlovingian dynasty, Carolingian dynasty
a Frankish dynasty founded by Charlemagne's father that ruled from 751 to 987
Flavian dynasty
a dynasty of Roman Emperors from 69 to 96 including Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian
Han, Han dynasty
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization
Hanover, Hanoverian line, House of Hanover
the English royal house that reigned from 1714 to 1901 (from George I to Victoria)
Habsburg, Hapsburg
a royal German family that provided rulers for several European states and wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 to 1806
a German noble family that ruled Brandenburg and Prussia
House of Lancaster, Lancaster, Lancastrian line
the English royal house that reigned from 1399 to 1461; its emblem was a red rose
Liao, Liao dynasty
the dynasty that ruled much of Manchuria and northeastern China from 947 to 1125
Merovingian, Merovingian dynasty
a Frankish dynasty founded by Clovis I that reigned in Gaul and Germany from about 500 to 750
Ming, Ming dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644
Ottoman, Ottoman dynasty
the Turkish dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century to its dissolution after World War I
Plantagenet, Plantagenet line
the family name of a line of English kings that reigned from 1154 to 1485
Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy
an ancient dynasty of Macedonian kings who ruled Egypt from 323 BC to 30 BC; founded by Ptolemy I and ended with Cleopatra
Ch'in, Ch'in dynasty, Qin, Qin dynasty
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
Ch'ing, Ch'ing dynasty, Manchu, Manchu dynasty, Qing, Qing dynasty
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during the Qing dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu
Romanoff, Romanov
the Russian imperial line that ruled from 1613 to 1917
the name of the royal family that ruled Great Britain from 1901-1917; the name was changed to Windsor in 1917 in response to anti-German feelings in World War I
any one of the Turkish dynasties that ruled Asia Minor from the 11th to the 13th centuries; they successfully invaded Byzantium and defended the Holy Land against Crusaders
Shang, Shang dynasty
the imperial dynasty ruling China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries BC
the royal family that ruled Scotland from 1371-1714 and ruled England from 1603 to 1649 and again from 1660 to 1714
Song, Song dynasty, Sung, Sung dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279; noted for art and literature and philosophy
Tang, Tang dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907
House of Tudor, Tudor
an English dynasty descended from Henry Tudor; Tudor monarchs ruled from Henry VII to Elizabeth I (from 1485 to 1603)
Omayyad, Ommiad, Umayyad
the first dynasty of Arab caliphs whose capital was Damascus
French royal house from 1328 to 1589
Wei, Wei dynasty
any of several imperial dynasties of China ruling from 220 to 265 and from 386 to 556
House of Windsor, Windsor
the British royal family since 1917
House of York, York
the English royal house (a branch of the Plantagenet line) that reigned from 1461 to 1485; its emblem was a white rose
Mongol dynasty, Yuan, Yuan dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368
Chou, Chou dynasty, Chow, Chow dynasty, Zhou, Zhou dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century
Type of:
ancestry, blood, blood line, bloodline, descent, line, line of descent, lineage, origin, parentage, pedigree, stemma, stock
the descendants of one individual

n a person having kinship with another or others

“he's family
kin, kinsperson
(anthropology) kin by marriage
Type of:
relation, relative
a person related by blood or marriage

n a collection of things sharing a common attribute

category, class
show 18 types...
hide 18 types...
grammatical category, syntactic category
(grammar) a category of words having the same grammatical properties
paradigm, substitution class
the class of all items that can be substituted into the same position (or slot) in a grammatical sentence (are in paradigmatic relation with one another)
brass family
(music) the family of brass instruments
violin family
(music) the family of bowed stringed instruments
woodwind family
(music) the family of woodwind instruments
a type or class
either of the two categories (male or female) into which most organisms are divided
a class of nouns or pronouns or adjectives in Indo-European languages having the same (or very similar) inflectional forms
a class of verbs having the same inflectional forms
a class of one kind of unit in a system of numbers or measures or weights or money
histocompatibility complex
a family of fifty or more genes on the sixth human chromosome that code for proteins on the surfaces of cells and that play a role in the immune response
case, grammatical case
nouns or pronouns or adjectives (often marked by inflection) related in some way to other words in a sentence
form class, part of speech, word class
one of the traditional categories of words intended to reflect their functions in a grammatical context
the grammatical category for the forms of nouns and pronouns and verbs that are used depending on the number of entities involved (singular or dual or plural)
a grammatical category used in the classification of pronouns, possessive determiners, and verb forms according to whether they indicate the speaker, the addressee, or a third party
gender, grammatical gender
a grammatical category in inflected languages governing the agreement between nouns and pronouns and adjectives; in some languages it is quite arbitrary but in Indo-European languages it is usually based on sex or animateness
a grammatical category of verbs used to express distinctions of time
participant role, semantic role
(linguistics) the underlying relation that a constituent has with the main verb in a clause
Type of:
accumulation, aggregation, assemblage, collection
several things grouped together or considered as a whole

n (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more genera

“sharks belong to the fish family
show 1025 types...
hide 1025 types...
a family of threadlike RNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees)
bacteria family
a family of bacteria
protoctist family
any of the families of Protoctista
Endamoebidae, family Endamoebidae
a large family of endoparasitic amebas that invade the digestive tract
fish family
any of various families of fish
chordate family
any family in the phylum Chordata
bird family
a family of warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrates characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings
amphibian family
any family of amphibians
reptile family
a family of reptiles
arthropod family
any of the arthropods
mammal family
a family of mammals
coelenterate family
a family of coelenterates
ctenophore family
a family of ctenophores
worm family
a family of worms
mollusk family
a family of mollusks
Panorpidae, family Panorpidae
a family of insects of the order Mecoptera
Bittacidae, family Bittacidae
a family of predacious tropical insects of the order Mecoptera
echinoderm family
a family of echinoderms
form family
(biology) an artificial taxonomic category for organisms of which the true relationships are obscure
moss family
a family of mosses
liliopsid family, monocot family
family of flowering plants having a single cotyledon (embryonic leaf) in the seed
dicot family, magnoliopsid family
family of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination
fungus family
includes lichen families
plant family
a family of plants
fern family
families of ferns and fern allies
Rhizobiaceae, family Rhizobiaceae
a small family of rod-shaped bacteria
Bacillaceae, family Bacillaceae
typically rod-shaped usually Gram-positive bacteria that produce endospores
Myxophyceae, Schizophyceae, family Myxophyceae, family Schizophyceae
former terms for Cyanophyceae
Nostocaceae, family Nostocaceae
blue-green algae
Oscillatoriaceae, family Oscillatoriaceae
blue green algae
Pseudomonodaceae, family Pseudomonodaceae
rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria; include important plant and animal pathogens
Athiorhodaceae, family Athiorhodaceae
small motile sulphur bacteria
Thiobacteriaceae, family Thiobacteriaceae
free-living coccoid to rod-shaped bacteria that derive energy from oxidizing sulfur or sulfur compounds
Spirillaceae, family Spirillaceae
rigid spirally curved elongate bacteria
Bacteroidaceae, family Bacteroidaceae
family of bacteria living usually in the alimentary canal or on mucous surfaces of warm-blooded animals; sometimes associated with acute infective processes
Corynebacteriaceae, family Corynebacteriaceae
a large family of mostly Gram-positive and aerobic and nonmotile rod-shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales
Enterobacteriaceae, family Enterobacteriaceae
a large family of Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales
Rickettsiaceae, family Rickettsiaceae
microorganism resembling bacteria inhabiting arthropod tissues but capable of causing disease in vertebrates
Chlamydiaceae, family Chlamydiaceae
Gram-negative parasites in warm-blooded vertebrates
Mycoplasmataceae, family Mycoplasmataceae
pleomorphic Gram-negative nonmotile microorganism similar to both viruses and bacteria; parasitic in mammals
Actinomycetaceae, family Actinomycetaceae
filamentous anaerobic bacteria
Streptomycetaceae, family Streptomycetaceae
higher bacteria typically aerobic soil saprophytes
Mycobacteriaceae, family Mycobacteriaceae
a family of bacteria
Myxobacteriaceae, Polyangiaceae, family Myxobacteriaceae, family Polyangiaceae
bacteria living mostly in soils and on dung
Micrococcaceae, family Micrococcaceae
spherical or elliptical usually aerobic eubacteria that produce yellow or orange or red pigment; includes toxin-producing forms as well as harmless commensals and saprophytes
Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacteriaceae, family Lactobacillaceae, family Lactobacteriaceae
lactic acid bacteria and important pathogens; bacteria that ferment carbohydrates chiefly into lactic acid
Spirochaetaceae, family Spirochaetaceae
large coarsely spiral bacteria; free-living in fresh or salt water or commensal in bodies of oysters
Treponemataceae, family Treponemataceae
small spirochetes some parasitic or pathogenic
Globigerinidae, family Globigerinidae
a family of protoctists
Nummulitidae, family Nummulitidae
a family of fossil protoctists
Arcellidae, family Arcellidae
soil and freshwater protozoa; cosmopolitan in distribution
Tribonemaceae, family Tribonemaceae
simple filamentous freshwater yellow-green algae
Laminariaceae, family Laminariaceae
large family of marine brown algae including many economically important large kelps chiefly of northern waters
Fucaceae, family Fucaceae
small family of brown algae: gulfweeds; rockweeds
Euglenaceae, family Euglenaceae
considered green algae
Ulvaceae, family Ulvaceae, sea-lettuce family
thin flat or tubular green algae
Volvocaceae, family Volvocaceae
unicellular or colonial biflagellate free-swimming flagellates
Chlamydomonadaceae, family Chlamydomonadaceae
green algae some of which are colored red by hematochrome
Zygnemataceae, family Zygnemataceae
pond scums: common freshwater algae forming green slimy masses
Oedogoniaceae, family Oedogoniaceae
filamentous green algae
Characeae, family Characeae
green algae superficially resembling horsetail ferns: stoneworts
Desmidiaceae, family Desmidiaceae
unicellular algae
Gigartinaceae, family Gigartinaceae
a family of protoctist
Rhodymeniaceae, family Rhodymeniaceae
a family of protoctist
Bangiaceae, family Bangiaceae
a family of protoctist
Peridiniidae, family Peridiniidae
marine and freshwater dinoflagellates
Eimeriidae, family Eimeriidae
a family of protoctist in the order Coccidia
Plasmodiidae, family Plasmodiidae
malaria parasites
Haemoproteidae, family Haemoproteidae
bird parasites
Babesiidae, family Babesiidae
piroplasms and cattle pathogens
Cobitidae, family Cobitidae
Cyprinidae, family Cyprinidae
a family of fish including: carp; tench; roach; rudd; dace
Electrophoridae, family Electrophoridae
small family comprising the electric eels
Catostomidae, family Catostomidae
suckers; closely related to the family Cyprinidae
Cyprinodontidae, family Cyprinodontidae
large family of small soft-finned fishes; killifishes; flagfishes; swordtails; guppies
Poeciliidae, family Poeciliidae
Holocentridae, family Holocentridae
squirrelfishes and soldierfishes
Anomalopidae, family Anomalopidae
a family of fish including: flashlight fishes
Zeidae, family Zeidae
a family of fish in the order Zeomorphi
Caproidae, family Caproidae
Fistulariidae, family Fistulariidae
Gasterosteidae, family Gasterosteidae
Syngnathidae, family Syngnathidae
Macrorhamphosidae, family Macrorhamphosidae
bellows fishes
Centriscidae, family Centriscidae
Aulostomidae, family Aulostomidae
Amphioxidae, Branchiostomidae, family Amphioxidae, family Branchiostomidae
Salpidae, family Salpidae
a small family of tunicates in the class Thaliacea
Doliolidae, family Doliolidae
oceanic tunicates
Petromyzontidae, family Petromyzontidae
Myxinidae, family Myxinidae
slime-producing marine animals: hagfishes
Chimaeridae, family Chimaeridae
a family of Holocephali
Hexanchidae, family Hexanchidae
primitive sharks
Lamnidae, family Lamnidae
oceanic sharks
Isuridae, family Isuridae
in some classifications another name for the family Lamnidae
Cetorhinidae, family Cetorhinidae
in some older classifications considered the family of the basking sharks
Alopiidae, family Alopiidae
thresher sharks
Orectolobidae, family Orectolobidae
nurse sharks and carpet sharks
Carchariidae, Odontaspididae, family Carchariidae, family Odontaspididae
sand sharks; in some classifications coextensive with family Carcharhinidae
Rhincodontidae, family Rhincodontidae
small-toothed sharks comprising only one species
Scyliorhinidae, family Scyliorhinidae
small bottom-dwelling sharks
Carcharhinidae, family Carcharhinidae
largest family of living sharks; found worldwide especially in tropical waters; dorsal fin lacks spines: requiem sharks including tiger sharks and soupfin sharks
Triakidae, family Triakidae
small sharks with smooth skins and lacking spines on their dorsal fins
Squalidae, family Squalidae
dogfishes having a spine in each dorsal fin
Sphyrnidae, family Sphyrnidae
hammerhead sharks; bonnethead sharks
Squatinidae, family Squatinidae
bottom-dwelling ray-like sharks
Torpedinidae, family Torpedinidae
electric rays
Pristidae, family Pristidae
large primitive rays with elongated snouts
Rhinobatidae, family Rhinobatidae
primitive rays with guitar-shaped bodies
Dasyatidae, family Dasyatidae
sting rays
Myliobatidae, family Myliobatidae
eagle rays
Mobulidae, family Mobulidae
large rays lacking venomous spines: mantas
Rajidae, family Rajidae
bottom-dwelling tropical rays: skates
Struthionidae, family Struthionidae
tall terrestrial birds: ostriches
Casuaridae, family Casuaridae
a family of large ostrich-like birds including cassowaries
Apterygidae, family Apterygidae
coextensive with the order Apterygiformes
Rheidae, family Rheidae
a family of birds coextensive with the order Rheiformes
Aepyornidae, family Aepyornidae
coextensive with the order Aepyorniformes
Dinornithidae, family Dinornithidae
Meliphagidae, family Meliphagidae
honey eaters
Prunellidae, family Prunellidae
hedge sparrow
Alaudidae, family Alaudidae
Motacillidae, family Motacillidae
pipits and wagtails
Fringillidae, family Fringillidae
finches: goldfinches; bullfinches; chaffinches; siskins; canaries; cardinals; grosbeaks; crossbills; linnets; buntings
Carduelinae, subfamily Carduelinae
used in some classifications for a subgroup of finches
Emberizidae, subfamily Emberizidae, subfamily Emberizinae
buntings and some New World sparrows
Coerebidae, Dacninae, family Coerebidae, family Dacninae
the honeycreepers
Passeridae, family Passeridae
true sparrows: Old world birds formerly considered weaverbirds
Ploceidae, family Ploceidae
Drepanididae, family Drepanididae
Hawaiian honeycreepers
Menuridae, family Menuridae
Atrichornithidae, family Atrichornithidae
Eurylaimidae, family Eurylaimidae
coextensive with the suborder Eurylaimi
Tyrannidae, superfamily Tyrannidae
New World tyrant flycatchers most numerous in Central America and South America but also in the United States and Canada
Cotingidae, family Cotingidae
cotingas; umbrella birds
Pipridae, family Pipridae
Furnariidae, family Furnariidae
e.g. ovenbirds
Formicariidae, family Formicariidae
Dendrocolaptidae, family Dendrocolaptidae
woodhewers or woodcreepers
Pittidae, family Pittidae
Muscicapidae, family Muscicapidae
Old World (true) flycatchers
Turdidae, family Turdidae
thrushes; in some classifications considered a subfamily (Turdinae) of the family Muscicapidae
Turdinae, subfamily Turdinae
alternative classification for the thrushes
Sylviidae, family Sylviidae
in some classifications considered a subfamily (Sylviinae) of the family Muscicapidae: Old World (true) warblers; American kinglets and gnatcatchers
Sylviinae, subfamily Sylviinae
alternative classification for the Old World warblers
Timaliidae, family Timaliidae
Parulidae, family Parulidae
New World warblers
Paradisaeidae, family Paradisaeidae
birds of paradise
Icteridae, family Icteridae
American orioles; American blackbirds; bobolinks; meadowlarks
Oriolidae, family Oriolidae
Old World orioles
Sturnidae, family Sturnidae
Old World starlings
Corvidae, family Corvidae
crow; raven; rook; jackdaw; chough; magpie; jay
Garrulinae, subfamily Garrulinae
subfamily of the crow family: jays
Cracticidae, family Cracticidae
Australian birds formerly included in the family Laniidae
Troglodytidae, family Troglodytidae
Mimidae, family Mimidae
sometimes considered a subfamily of Troglodytidae: mockingbirds; catbirds; thrashers
Acanthisittidae, Xenicidae, family Acanthisittidae, family Xenicidae
alternative names for the family comprising the New Zealand wrens
Certhiidae, family Certhiidae
Sittidae, family Sittidae
Paridae, family Paridae
titmice and chickadees
Irenidae, family Irenidae
a family of birds of the suborder Oscines
Hirundinidae, family Hirundinidae
swallows and martins
Artamidae, family Artamidae
wood swallows
Thraupidae, family Thraupidae
Laniidae, family Laniidae
Malaconotinae, subfamily Malaconotinae
an African bush shrikes
Ptilonorhynchidae, family Ptilonorhynchidae
Cinclidae, family Cinclidae
water ouzels
Vireonidae, family Vireonidae
small insectivorous American songbirds
Bombycillidae, family Bombycillidae
a family of birds of the suborder Oscines
Accipitridae, family Accipitridae
hawks; Old World vultures; kites; harriers; eagles
Falconidae, family Falconidae
a family of birds of the order Falconiformes
Pandionidae, family Pandionidae
Sagittariidae, family Sagittariidae
secretary birds
Cathartidae, family Cathartidae
condors; turkey buzzards; king vultures
Strigidae, family Strigidae
a family of nocturnal birds of the order Strigiformes
Tytonidae, family Tytonidae
comprising only the barn owls
Salamandridae, family Salamandridae
Ambystomatidae, family Ambystomatidae
New World salamanders
Cryptobranchidae, family Cryptobranchidae
large aquatic salamanders: hellbenders; giant salamanders
Dicamptodontidae, family Dicamptodontidae
large and small highly aquatic salamanders
Plethodontidae, family Plethodontidae
small mostly terrestrial New World salamanders having neither lungs nor gills as adults
Amphiumidae, family Amphiumidae
congo snakes
Sirenidae, family Sirenidae
Ranidae, family Ranidae
a family nearly cosmopolitan in distribution: true frogs
Leptodactylidae, family Leptodactylidae
New World frogs; in some classifications essentially coextensive with the family Bufonidae
Polypedatidae, family Polypedatidae
Old World tree frogs
Ascaphidae, family Ascaphidae
family of one species of frog: tailed frog
Leiopelmatidae, Liopelmidae, family Leiopelmatidae, family Liopelmidae
primitive New Zealand frogs
Bufonidae, family Bufonidae
true toads
Discoglossidae, family Discoglossidae
family of Old World toads having a fixed disklike tongue
Pelobatidae, family Pelobatidae
the amphibian family of spadefoot toads
Hylidae, family Hylidae
the amphibian family of tree frogs
Brevicipitidae, Microhylidae, family Brevicipitidae, family Microhylidae
narrow-mouthed toads and sheep frogs; some burrow and some are arboreal; found worldwide
Pipidae, family Pipidae
tongueless frogs
Xenopodidae, family Xenopodidae
in some classifications the family of the genus Xenopus which is otherwise included in the family Pipidae
Caeciliadae, Caeciliidae, family Caeciliadae, family Caeciliidae
coextensive with the order Gymnophiona: legless amphibians
Chelonidae, Cheloniidae, family Chelonidae, family Cheloniidae
green turtles; hawksbills
Dermochelyidae, family Dermochelyidae
sea turtles
Chelydridae, family Chelydridae
snapping turtles
Kinosternidae, family Kinosternidae
mud turtles; musk turtles
Emydidae, family Emydidae
box and water turtles
Testudinidae, family Testudinidae
land tortoises
Trionychidae, family Trionychidae
soft-shelled turtles
Gekkonidae, family Gekkonidae
Pygopodidae, family Pygopodidae
Australian and Tasmanian lizards
Iguania, Iguanidae, family Iguania, family Iguanidae
New World lizards
Amphisbaenidae, family Amphisbaenidae
worm lizards
Xantusiidae, family Xantusiidae
night lizards
Scincidae, family Scincidae
Teiidae, family Teiidae
whiptails; etc.
Agamidae, family Agamidae
an Old World reptile family of Sauria
Anguidae, family Anguidae
alligator lizards
Xenosauridae, family Xenosauridae
monotypic family of Mexican lizards
Anniellidae, family Anniellidae
legless lizards
Lanthanotidae, family Lanthanotidae
stout-bodied lizards
Helodermatidae, family Helodermatidae
only known venomous lizards
Lacertidae, family Lacertidae
Old World lizards
Chamaeleonidae, Chamaeleontidae, Rhiptoglossa, family Chamaeleonidae, family Chamaeleontidae, family Rhiptoglossa
Old World chameleons; in some classifications they are considered a superfamily of Sauria
Varanidae, family Varanidae
monitor lizards
Crocodylidae, family Crocodylidae
true crocodiles
Alligatoridae, family Alligatoridae
alligators; caimans
Gavialidae, family Gavialidae
Ceratopsidae, family Ceratopsidae
American ceratopsian dinosaurs
Hadrosauridae, family Hadrosauridae
duck-billed dinosaurs; upper Cretaceous
Iguanodontidae, family Iguanodontidae
Titanosauridae, family Titanosauridae
herbivorous dinosaurs of the Cretaceous
Megalosauridae, family Megalosauridae
Dromaeosauridae, family Dromaeosauridae
swift-running bipedal dinosaurs
Edaphosauridae, family Edaphosauridae
a family of reptiles of the order Pelycosauria
Pterodactylidae, family Pterodactylidae
a reptile family in the order Pterosauria
Ichthyosauridae, family Ichthyosauridae
later ichthyosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous; widely distributed in both hemispheres
Colubridae, family Colubridae
nonvenomous snakes; about two-thirds of all living species
Typhlopidae, family Typhlopidae
blind snakes
Leptotyphlopidae, family Leptotyphlopidae
blind snakes
Boidae, family Boidae
boas and pythons
Pythoninae, subfamily Pythoninae
Old World boas: pythons; in some classifications considered a separate family from Boidae
Pythonidae, family Pythonidae
in some classifications a family separate from Boidae comprising Old World boas
Elapidae, family Elapidae
cobras; kraits; mambas; coral snakes; Australian taipan and tiger snakes
Hydrophidae, family Hydrophidae
sea snakes
Viperidae, family Viperidae
Old World vipers
Crotalidae, family Crotalidae
New World vipers: pit vipers
Phalangiidae, family Phalangiidae
a family of Phalangida
Argiopidae, family Argiopidae, orb-weaver
spiders that spin orb webs; cosmopolitan in distribution
Theridiidae, family Theridiidae
a family of comb-footed spiders
Theraphosidae, family Theraphosidae
large tropical spiders; tarantulas
Lycosidae, family Lycosidae
wolf spiders
Ctenizidae, family Ctenizidae
large burrowing spiders
Ixodidae, family Ixodidae
hard ticks
Argasidae, family Argasidae
soft ticks
Acaridae, family Acaridae
Trombidiidae, family Trombidiidae
Trombiculidae, family Trombiculidae
Sarcoptidae, family Sarcoptidae
small whitish mites
Tetranychidae, family Tetranychidae
plant-feeding mites
Scutigeridae, family Scutigeridae
a family of Chilopoda
Geophilidae, family Geophilidae
small extremely elongate centipedes that live in earth
Limulidae, family Limulidae
horseshoe crabs
Meleagrididae, family Meleagrididae
turkeys and some extinct forms
Tetraonidae, family Tetraonidae
Cracidae, family Cracidae
curassows; guans; chachalacas
Megapodiidae, family Megapodiidae
Phasianidae, family Phasianidae
pheasants; quails; partridges
Perdicidae, Perdicinae, subfamily Perdicidae, subfamily Perdicinae
Old World partridges
Numididae, Numidinae, subfamily Numididae, subfamily Numidinae
guinea fowl and related birds of Africa and Madagascar
Opisthocomidae, family Opisthocomidae
comprising the hoatzins
Tinamidae, family Tinamidae
comprising the tinamous
Raphidae, family Raphidae
extinct dodos and solitaires
Columbidae, family Columbidae
doves and pigeons
Pteroclididae, family Pteroclididae
Psittacidae, family Psittacidae
coextensive with the order Psittaciformes
Loriinae, subfamily Loriinae
Cuculidae, family Cuculidae
includes cuckoo; ani; roadrunner
Musophagidae, family Musophagidae
Coraciidae, family Coraciidae
Alcedinidae, family Alcedinidae
Meropidae, family Meropidae
Bucerotidae, family Bucerotidae
Upupidae, family Upupidae
Phoeniculidae, family Phoeniculidae
wood hoopoes
Momotidae, family Momotidae
a family of birds of the order Coraciiformes
Todidae, family Todidae
a family of birds of the order Coraciiformes
Apodidae, family Apodidae
swifts; in former classifications included in the order Coraciiformes
Hemiprocnidae, family Hemiprocnidae
tree swifts
Trochilidae, family Trochilidae
Caprimulgidae, family Caprimulgidae
Podargidae, family Podargidae
Steatornithidae, family Steatornithidae
Picidae, family Picidae
Capitonidae, family Capitonidae
Bucconidae, family Bucconidae
Indicatoridae, family Indicatoridae
honey guides
Galbulidae, family Galbulidae
Ramphastidae, family Ramphastidae
Trogonidae, family Trogonidae
coextensive with the order Trogoniformes
Anatidae, family Anatidae
swimming birds having heavy short-legged bodies and bills with a horny tip: swans; geese; ducks
Merginae, subfamily Merginae
mergansers and closely related diving birds
Anserinae, subfamily Anserinae
used in some classifications for the swans
Anhimidae, family Anhimidae
Tachyglossidae, family Tachyglossidae
Ornithorhynchidae, family Ornithorhynchidae
Didelphidae, family Didelphidae
Caenolestidae, family Caenolestidae
small marsupials of southern South America
Peramelidae, family Peramelidae
Macropodidae, family Macropodidae
kangaroos; wallabies
Potoroinae, subfamily Potoroinae
rat kangaroos
Phalangeridae, family Phalangeridae
phalangers; koalas
Vombatidae, family Vombatidae
Dasyuridae, family Dasyuridae, family Dasyurinae
dasyures; native cats; pouched mice; banded anteaters; Tasmanian devils
Notoryctidae, family Notoryctidae
pouched moles
Talpidae, family Talpidae
Chrysochloridae, family Chrysochloridae
golden moles
Soricidae, family Soricidae
Erinaceidae, family Erinaceidae
true hedgehogs
Tenrecidae, family Tenrecidae
tenrecs and extinct related forms
Potamogalidae, family Potamogalidae
otter shrews
Pennatulidae, family Pennatulidae
sea pens
Pleurobrachiidae, family Pleurobrachiidae
sea gooseberries
Cestidae, family Cestidae
coextensive with the order Cestida; ctenophores having a greatly flattened and elongated body
Fasciolidae, family Fasciolidae
a family of Trematoda
Schistosomatidae, family Schistosomatidae
a family of Trematoda
Taeniidae, family Taeniidae
a family of Cestoda
Ascaridae, family Ascaridae
large roundworms parasitic in intestines of vertebrates
Oxyuridae, family Oxyuridae
Cephalobidae, family Cephalobidae
a family of Nematoda
Tylenchidae, family Tylenchidae
a family of Nematoda
Ancylostomatidae, family Ancylostomatidae
Filariidae, family Filariidae
threadlike roundworms
Dracunculidae, family Dracunculidae
greatly elongated roundworm
Branchiobdellidae, family Branchiobdellidae
small annelid worms with the posterior end modified into an adhesive sucker; especially formerly regarded as modified leeches
Terebellidae, family Terebellidae
marine burrowing or tube-forming polychete worms usually having long thick bodies
Hirudinidae, family Hirudinidae
a family of Hirudinea
Haliotidae, family Haliotidae
Strombidae, family Strombidae
the family of conchs
Helicidae, family Helicidae
land snails including the common edible snail and some pests
Limacidae, family Limacidae
Neritidae, family Neritidae
Buccinidae, family Buccinidae
Cymatiidae, family Cymatiidae
Naticidae, family Naticidae
Littorinidae, family Littorinidae
Patellidae, family Patellidae
marine limpets
Fissurellidae, family Fissurellidae
marine limpets
Ancylidae, family Ancylidae
freshwater gastropod
Aplysiidae, Tethyidae, family Aplysiidae, family Tethyidae
sea hares
Akeridae, family Akeridae
bubble shells
Physidae, family Physidae
freshwater snails
Cypraeidae, family Cypraeidae
family of marine gastropods comprising the cowries
Myacidae, family Myacidae
soft-shell clams
Veneridae, family Veneridae
hard-shell clams
Solenidae, family Solenidae
razor clams
Tridacnidae, family Tridacnidae
large marine hard-shell clams
Cardiidae, family Cardiidae
somewhat heart-shaped sand-burrowing bivalve mollusks
Ostreidae, family Ostreidae
Pteriidae, family Pteriidae
pearl oysters
Anomiidae, family Anomiidae
saddle oysters
Arcidae, family Arcidae
ark shells
Mytilidae, family Mytilidae
marine mussels
Unionidae, family Unionidae
freshwater mussels found worldwide
Pectinidae, family Pectinidae
Teredinidae, family Teredinidae
Pholadidae, family Pholadidae
a family of Bivalvia
Nautilidae, family Nautilidae
spiral-shelled cephalopods
Octopodidae, family Octopodidae
a family of Octopoda
Argonautidae, family Argonautidae
represented solely by the genus Argonauta
Sepiidae, family Sepiidae
true cuttlefishes
Spirulidae, family Spirulidae
coextensive with the genus Spirula; included in the order Belemnoidea in some older classifications
Belemnitidae, family Belemnitidae
family of extinct Mesozoic cephalopods
Cancridae, family Cancridae
many of the best known edible crabs
Portunidae, family Portunidae
swimming crabs
Pinnotheridae, family Pinnotheridae
tiny soft-bodied crabs
Lithodidae, family Lithodidae
deep-sea crabs of cold waters
Majidae, family Majidae
spider crabs
Homaridae, family Homaridae
large-clawed lobsters
Nephropsidae, family Nephropsidae
in some classifications coextensive with the Homaridae
Palinuridae, family Palinuridae
spiny lobsters
Astacidae, Astacura, family Astacidae
Paguridae, family Paguridae
hermit crabs
Crangonidae, family Crangonidae
Palaemonidae, family Palaemonidae
Peneidae, family Peneidae
tropical prawns
Mysidae, family Mysidae
small shrimp-like crustaceans
Squillidae, family Squillidae
crustaceans that burrow in mud or under stones in shallow water along the seashore
Armadillidiidae, family Armadillidiidae
pill bugs
Oniscidae, family Oniscidae
a family of Isopoda
Porcellionidae, family Porcellionidae
sow bugs
Orchestiidae, family Orchestiidae
beach fleas
Triopidae, family Triopidae
a family of Notostraca
Balanidae, family Balanidae
stalkless barnacles
Lepadidae, family Lepadidae
goose barnacles
Peripatidae, family Peripatidae
a family of Onychophora
Peripatopsidae, family Peripatopsidae
a family of Onychophora
Ciconiidae, family Ciconiidae
Balaenicipitidae, family Balaenicipitidae
Threskiornithidae, family Ibidiidae, family Threskiornithidae
Plataleidae, family Plataleidae
Phoenicopteridae, family Phoenicopteridae
Ardeidae, family Ardeidae
herons; egrets; night herons; bitterns
Gruidae, family Gruidae
Cariamidae, family Cariamidae
crane-like South American wading birds
Rallidae, family Rallidae
rails; crakes; gallinules; coots
Otididae, family Otididae
Turnicidae, family Turnicidae
small Old World birds resembling but not related to true quail
Psophiidae, family Psophiidae
Charadriidae, family Charadriidae
plover family
Scolopacidae, family Scolopacidae
sandpiper family: sandpipers; woodcocks; snipes; tattlers; curlews; godwits; dowitchers
Recurvirostridae, family Recurvirostridae
long-legged shorebirds
Haematopodidae, family Haematopodidae
Phalaropidae, family Phalaropidae
Glareolidae, family Glareolidae
Old World shorebirds: pratincoles and coursers
Burhinidae, family Burhinidae
large wading birds resembling the plovers: stone curlews
Laridae, family Laridae
gull family: gulls and terns
Sterninae, subfamily Sterninae
Rynchopidae, family Rynchopidae
coextensive with the genus Rynchops: skimmers
Stercorariidae, family Stercorariidae
jaegers and skuas:
Alcidae, family Alcidae
web-footed diving seabirds of northern seas: auks; puffins; guillemots; murres; etc.
Gavidae, family Gavidae
loon family
Podicipedidae, family Podicipedidae
coextensive with the order Podicipitiformes
Pelecanidae, family Pelecanidae
Fregatidae, family Fregatidae
frigate birds
Sulidae, family Sulidae
gannets and boobies
Phalacrocoracidae, family Phalacrocoracidae
Anhingidae, family Anhingidae
Phaethontidae, family Phaethontidae
Spheniscidae, family Spheniscidae
comprising all existing penguins
Diomedeidae, family Diomedeidae
Procellariidae, family Procellariidae
petrels; fulmars; shearwaters;
Hydrobatidae, family Hydrobatidae
storm petrels
Pelecanoididae, family Pelecanoididae
diving petrels
Balaenidae, family Balaenidae
right whales
Balaenopteridae, family Balaenopteridae
rorquals; blue whales
Eschrichtiidae, family Eschrichtiidae
comprising only the grey whales
Physeteridae, family Physeteridae
sperm whales
Hyperodontidae, Ziphiidae, family Hyperodontidae, family Ziphiidae
beaked whales; in some especially former classifications included in the family Physeteridae
Delphinidae, family Delphinidae
Platanistidae, family Platanistidae
river dolphins
Monodontidae, family Monodontidae
Trichechidae, family Trichechidae
comprising only the manatees
Dugongidae, family Dugongidae
a family of mammals of order Sirenia including dugongs and Steller's sea cow
Otariidae, family Otariidae
eared seals: sea lions and fur seals
Phocidae, family Phocidae
earless seals
Odobenidae, family Odobenidae
walruses and extinct forms
Orycteropodidae, family Orycteropodidae
Canidae, family Canidae
dogs; wolves; jackals; foxes
Hyaenidae, family Hyaenidae
Felidae, family Felidae
cats; wildcats; lions; leopards; cheetahs; saber-toothed tigers
Ursidae, family Ursidae
bears and extinct related forms
Viverridae, Viverrinae, family Viverridae, family Viverrinae
genets; civets; mongooses
Phyllostomatidae, Phyllostomidae, family Phyllostomatidae, family Phyllostomidae
New World leaf-nosed bats
Rhinolophidae, family Rhinolophidae
Old World leaf-nosed bats
Hipposideridae, family Hipposideridae
Old World leafnose bats
Megadermatidae, family Megadermatidae
Old World false vampire bats
Vespertilionidae, family Vespertilionidae
the majority of common bats of temperate regions of the world
Molossidae, family Molossidae
mastiff bats; freetail bats
Desmodontidae, family Desmodontidae
true vampire bats
Cicindelidae, family Cicindelidae
tiger beetles
Coccinellidae, family Coccinellidae
the ladybugs
Carabidae, family Carabidae
ground beetles
Lampyridae, family Lampyridae
Cerambycidae, family Cerambycidae
long-horned beetles
Chrysomelidae, family Chrysomelidae
leaf beetles
Dermestidae, family Dermestidae
carpet beetles
Cleridae, family Cleridae
beetles that prey on other insects
Lamellicornia, superfamily Lamellicornia
scarabaeid beetles and stag beetles
Scarabaeidae, family Scarabaeidae
scarab or dung beetles
Melolonthidae, subfamily Melolonthidae
considered a separate family in some classification systems
Cetoniidae, subfamily Cetoniidae
considered a separate family in some classification systems
Lucanidae, family Lucanidae
stag beetles
Elateridae, family Elateridae
click beetles and certain fireflies
Dytiscidae, family Dytiscidae
water beetles
Gyrinidae, family Gyrinidae
whirligig beetles
Anobiidae, family Anobiidae
deathwatch beetles
Curculionidae, family Curculionidae
true weevils: snout beetles
Meloidae, family Meloidae
blister beetles
Ipidae, Scolytidae, family Ipidae, family Scolytidae
large family of bark-boring or wood-boring short-beaked beetles; very destructive to forest and fruit trees
Staphylinidae, family Staphylinidae
rove beetles
Tenebrionidae, family Tenebrionidae
a family of arthropods including darkling beetles and mealworms
Bruchidae, family Bruchidae
seed beetles
Pediculidae, family Pediculidae
true lice: human lice and related forms
Phthiriidae, family Phthiriidae
crab lice
Pulicidae, family Pulicidae
many common fleas attacking humans and domestic animals
Cecidomyidae, family Cecidomyidae
gall midges
Muscoidea, superfamily Muscoidea
two-winged flies especially the families: Muscidae; Gasterophilidae; Calliphoridae; Tachinidae
Muscidae, family Muscidae
two-winged flies especially the housefly
Glossinidae, family Glossinidae
flies closely related to the Muscidae: tsetse flies
Calliphoridae, family Calliphoridae
Tachinidae, family Tachinidae
parasites on other insects
Gasterophilidae, family Gasterophilidae
horse botflies
Cuterebridae, family Cuterebridae
New World botflies
Hypodermatidae, Oestridae, family Hypodermatidae, family Oestridae
warble flies
Tabanidae, family Tabanidae
Bombyliidae, family Bombyliidae
bee flies
Asilidae, family Asilidae
robber flies
Trephritidae, Trypetidae, family Trephritidae, family Trypetidae
fruit flies; some leaf miners
Drosophilidae, family Drosophilidae
fruit flies
Hippoboscidae, family Hippoboscidae
winged or wingless dipterans: louse flies
Culicidae, family Culicidae
Ceratopogonidae, family Ceratopogonidae
biting midges; sand flies
Chironomidae, family Chironomidae
Mycetophilidae, family Mycetophylidae
fungus gnats
Psychodidae, family Psychodidae
very small two-winged flies with hairy wings that develop in moss and damp vegetable matter: sand flies
Sciaridae, family Sciaridae
fungus gnats
Tipulidae, family Tipulidae
crane flies
Simuliidae, family Simuliidae
blackflies and sand flies
Apoidea, superfamily Apoidea
Apidae, family Apidae
honeybees; carpenter bees; bumblebees
Andrenidae, family Andrenidae
a large family of solitary short-tongued bees most of which burrow in the ground
Halictidae, family Halictidae
a family of small solitary bees; many are valuable pollinators for agriculture
Megachilidae, family Megachilidae
leaf-cutting and mason bees
Vespidae, family Vespidae
an arthropod family of the order Hymenoptera including: yellow jackets; hornets; mason wasps
Sphecoidea, superfamily Sphecoidea
families Sphecidae and Stizidae
Sphecidae, family Sphecidae
mud daubers; some digger wasps
Stizidae, family Stizidae
cicada killers
Cynipidae, family Cynipidae
a family of Hymenoptera
Chalcidae, Chalcididae, family Chalcidae, family Chalcididae
an arthropod family including: chalcidflies
Ichneumonidae, family Ichneumonidae
ichneumon flies
Tenthredinidae, family Tenthredinidae
Formicidae, family Formicidae
Dorylinae, subfamily Dorylinae
army ants
Termitidae, family Termitidae
Rhinotermitidae, family Rhinotermitidae
large widely distributed family of termites of temperate to tropical regions
Mastotermitidae, family Mastotermitidae
primitive termites
Kalotermitidae, family Kalotermitidae
primitive termites of warm regions
Acrididae, Locustidae, family Acrididae, family Locustidae
short-horned grasshoppers; true locusts
Tettigoniidae, family Tettigoniidae
long-horned grasshoppers; katydids
Stenopelmatidae, family Stenopelmatidae
long-horned grasshoppers
Gryllidae, family Gryllidae
Phasmatidae, Phasmidae, family Phasmatidae, family Phasmidae
stick insects
Phillidae, Phyllidae, family Phillidae, family Phyllidae
leaf insects
Blattidae, family Blattidae
domestic cockroaches
Cryptocercidae, family Cryptocercidae
a family of Blattodea
Manteidae, Mantidae, family Manteidae, family Mantidae
Capsidae, Miridae, family Capsidae, family Miridae
leaf bugs
Tingidae, family Tingidae
lace bugs
Lygaeidae, family Lygaeidae
lygaeid bugs
Coreidae, family Coreidae
squash bugs and leaf-footed bugs
Cimicidae, family Cimicidae
wingless flat-bodied bloodsucking insects
Notonectidae, family Notonectidae
aquatic carnivorous insects
Belostomatidae, family Belostomatidae
water bugs
Nepidae, family Nepidae
water scorpions
Corixidae, family Corixidae
water bugs
Gerridae, Gerrididae, family Gerridae, family Gerrididae
an arthropod family that includes water striders
Reduviidae, family Reduviidae
assassin bugs
Pyrrhocoridae, family Pyrrhocoridae
Aleyrodidae, family Aleyrodidae
Coccoidea, superfamily Coccoidea
scale insects and mealybugs
Coccidae, family Coccidae
scale insects
Diaspididae, family Diaspididae
armored scales
Dactylopiidae, family Dactylopiidae
cochineal insects
Pseudococcidae, family Pseudococcidae
scalelike insects: mealybugs
Aphidoidea, superfamily Aphidoidea
plant lice
Aphididae, family Aphididae
small soft-bodied plant lice
Adelgidae, family Adelgidae
plant lice
Phylloxeridae, family Phylloxeridae
plant lice
Chermidae, Psyllidae, family Chermidae, family Psyllidae
jumping plant lice
Cicadidae, family Cicadidae
Cercopidae, family Cercopidae
froghoppers or spittlebugs
Cicadellidae, family Cicadellidae
Jassidae, family Jassidae
family of small leafhoppers coextensive with the Cicadellidae and not distinguished from it in some classifications
Membracidae, family Membracidae
plant hoppers: treehoppers
Fulgoridae, family Fulgoridae
plant hoppers: lantern flies
Psocidae, family Psocidae
a family of small soft-bodied insects that feed on decaying vegetation; related to booklice
Atropidae, family Atropidae
Ephemeridae, family Ephemeridae
Myrmeleontidae, family Myrmeleontidae
Chrysopidae, family Chrysopidae
green lacewings
Hemerobiidae, family Hemerobiidae
brown lacewings
Corydalidae, family Corydalidae
Sialidae, family Sialidae
an arthropod family including: alderflies
Raphidiidae, family Raphidiidae
a family of arthropods of the suborder Megaloptera, including snakeflies
Mantispidae, family Mantispidae
Sisyridae, family Sisyridae
an arthropod family of the order Neuroptera that includes spongeflies
Lepismatidae, family Lepismatidae
Machilidae, family Machilidae
jumping bristletails
Thripidae, family Thripidae
Forficulidae, family Forficulidae
typical earwigs
Nymphalidae, family Nymphalidae
large beautifully colored butterflies
Satyridae, family Satyridae
a widely distributed family of butterflies common near the edges of woods
Danaidae, family Danaidae
small family of usually tropical butterflies: monarch butterflies
Pieridae, family Pieridae
arthropod family including cabbage butterflies; sulphur butterflies
Lycaenidae, family Lycaenidae
family of small usually brilliantly colored butterflies; males have short forelegs
Tortricidae, family Tortricidae
leaf rollers and codling moths
Lymantriidae, family Lymantriidae
tussock moths
Geometridae, family Geometridae
measuring worms
Pyralidae, Pyralididae, family Pyralidae, family Pyralididae
bee moths; corn borers; flour moths
Tineoidea, superfamily Tineoidea
clothes moths; carpet moths; leaf miners
Tineidae, family Tineidae
clothes moths
Gracilariidae, Gracillariidae, family Gracilariidae
leaf miners
Gelechiidae, family Gelechiidae
important economic pests
Noctuidae, family Noctuidae
cutworms; armyworms
Sphingidae, family Sphingidae
Bombycidae, family Bombycidae
Chinese silkworm moth
Saturniidae, family Saturniidae
important and widely distributed family of moths including some of the largest insects known
Arctiidae, family Arctiidae
tiger moths
Lasiocampidae, family Lasiocampidae
tent caterpillars; eggars; lappet moths
Antedonidae, family Antedonidae
feather stars
Holothuridae, family Holothuridae
a family of Holothuroidea
Leporidae, family Leporidae
hares and rabbits
Ochotonidae, family Ochotonidae
pikas and extinct forms
Muroidea, superfamily Muroidea
a superfamily of rodents essentially equal to the suborder Myomorpha but with the Dipodidae excluded
Muridae, family Muridae
originally Old World rats now distributed worldwide; distinguished from the Cricetidae by typically lacking cheek pouches
Hydromyinae, subfamily Hydromyinae
water rats of Australia and New Guinea
Cricetidae, family Cricetidae
mostly small New World rodents including New World mice and lemmings and voles and hamsters
Gerbillinae, subfamily Gerbillinae
Hystricidae, family Hystricidae
Old World porcupines
Erethizontidae, family Erethizontidae
New World arboreal porcupines
Heteromyidae, family Heteromyidae
small New World burrowing mouselike rodents with fur-lined cheek pouches and hind limbs and tail adapted to leaping; adapted to desert conditions: pocket mice; kangaroo mice; kangaroo rats
Zapodidae, family Zapodidae
jumping mice
Dipodidae, family Dipodidae
Old World jerboas
Gliridae, family Gliridae
dormice and other Old World forms
Geomyidae, family Geomyidae
North American pocket gophers
Sciuridae, family Sciuridae
a mammal family of true squirrels including: ground squirrels; marmots; chipmunks; flying squirrels; spermophiles
Petauristidae, subfamily Petauristidae
Old World flying squirrels
Castoridae, family Castoridae
Aplodontiidae, family Aplodontiidae
mountain beavers
Caviidae, family Caviidae
a family of Hystricomorpha
Hydrochoeridae, family Hydrochoeridae
Dasyproctidae, family Dasyproctidae
agoutis and pacas
Capromyidae, family Capromyidae
Chinchillidae, family Chinchillidae
small bushy-tailed South American burrowing rodents
Spalacidae, family Spalacidae
mole rats
Bathyergidae, family Bathyergidae
mole rats; sand rats
Uintatheriidae, family Uintatheriidae
an extinct family of Dinocerata
Procaviidae, family Procaviidae
includes all recent members of the order Hyracoidea
Equidae, family Equidae
horses; asses; zebras; extinct animals
Rhinocerotidae, family Rhinocerotidae, rhinoceros family
Tapiridae, family Tapiridae
tapirs and extinct related forms
Suidae, family Suidae
pigs; hogs; boars
Tayassuidae, family Tayassuidae
Hippopotamidae, family Hippopotamidae
Bovidae, family Bovidae
true antelopes; cattle; oxen; sheep; goats
Bovinae, subfamily Bovinae
term not used technically; essentially coextensive with genus Bos: cattle; buffalo; and sometimes includes kudu
Antilocapridae, family Antilocapridae
comprising only the pronghorns
Cervidae, family Cervidae
deer: reindeer; moose or elks; muntjacs; roe deer
Tragulidae, family Tragulidae
Camelidae, family Camelidae
camels and llamas and vicunas
Giraffidae, family Giraffidae
Mustelidae, family Mustelidae
weasels; polecats; ferrets; minks; fishers; otters; badgers; skunks; wolverines; martens
Lutrinae, subfamily Lutrinae
subdivision not used in some classifications: otters
Mephitinae, subfamily Mephitinae
subdivision not used in some classifications: skunks
Melinae, subfamily Melinae
subdivision not used in some classifications: badgers
Dasypodidae, family Dasypodidae
Bradypodidae, family Bradypodidae
a family of edentates comprising the true sloths
Megalonychidae, family Megalonychidae
mammal family consisting of the two-toed sloths
Megatheriidae, family Megatheriidae
extinct ground sloths
Mylodontidae, family Mylodontidae
extinct South American edentates
Myrmecophagidae, family Myrmecophagidae
New World anteaters
Manidae, family Manidae
coextensive with the order Pholidota
Hominidae, family Hominidae
modern man and extinct immediate ancestors of man
Pongidae, family Pongidae
usually considered as comprising orangutans; gorillas; chimpanzees; and sometimes gibbons
Hylobatidae, family Hylobatidae
used in some classifications for the lesser apes (gibbons and siamangs); sometimes considered a subfamily of Pongidae
Cercopithecidae, family Cercopithecidae
Old World monkeys: guenon; baboon; colobus monkey; langur; macaque; mandrill; mangabey; patas; proboscis monkey
Platyrrhini, superfamily Platyrrhini
New World monkeys: capuchin; douroucouli; howler monkey; saki; spider monkey; squirrel monkey; titi; uakari; woolly monkey; marmoset; tamarin
Callithricidae, family Callithricidae
Cebidae, family Cebidae
all the New World monkeys except marmosets and tamarins
Tupaiidae, family Tupaiidae
tree shrews; in some classifications tree shrews are considered prosimian primates
Lemuridae, family Lemuridae
typical lemurs; of Madagascar
Daubentoniidae, family Daubentoniidae
comprising solely the aye-aye
Lorisidae, family Lorisidae
slow-moving omnivorous nocturnal primates of tropical Asia; usually tailless
Indriidae, family Indriidae
a family of Lemuroidea
Tarsiidae, family Tarsiidae
coextensive with the genus Tarsius: tarsiers
Cynocephalidae, family Cynocephalidae
a family of Dermoptera
Elephantidae, family Elephantidae
Mammutidae, family Mammutidae, family Mastodontidae
extinct family: mastodons
Gomphotheriidae, family Gomphotheriidae
elephants extinct since the Pleistocene
Procyonidae, family Procyonidae
raccoons; coatis; cacomistles; kinkajous; and sometimes pandas
Bassariscidae, subfamily Bassariscidae
in some classifications considered a separate family
Ailuropodidae, family Ailuropodidae
in some classifications considered the family comprising the giant pandas
Latimeridae, family Latimeridae
extinct except for the coelacanth
Ceratodontidae, family Ceratodontidae
lungfishes having hornlike ridges on the teeth
Siluridae, family Siluridae
Old World catfishes
Ameiuridae, family Ameiuridae
North American catfishes
Laricariidae, family Laricariidae
armored catfish
Ariidae, family Ariidae
sea catfishes
Gadidae, family Gadidae
large family of important mostly marine food fishes
Macrouridae, Macruridae, family Macrouridae, family Macruridae
Anguillidae, family Anguillidae
eels that live in fresh water as adults but return to the sea to spawn
Muraenidae, family Muraenidae
marine eels
Congridae, family Congridae
marine eels
Gonorhynchidae, family Gonorhynchidae
coextensive with the genus Gonorhynchus
Clupeidae, family Clupeidae
herrings; shad; sardines; etc.
Engraulidae, family Engraulidae
Salmonidae, family Salmonidae
salmon and trout
Coregonidae, family Coregonidae
soft-finned fishes comprising the freshwater whitefishes; formerly included in the family Salmonidae
Osmeridae, family Osmeridae
Elopidae, family Elopidae
tarpons and ladyfishes
Albulidae, family Albulidae
Argentinidae, family Argentinidae
small marine soft-finned fishes with long silvery bodies; related to salmons and trouts
Myctophidae, family Myctophidae
deep-sea fishes comprising the lantern fishes
Synodontidae, family Synodontidae
soft-finned bottom-dwelling fishes
Chlorophthalmidae, family Chlorophthalmidae
small family of soft-finned bottom-dwellers with large eyes; relatives of lizardfishes
Osteoglossidae, family Osteoglossidae
a family of large fishes that live in freshwater; includes bandfish and bonytongues
Lampridae, family Lampridae
Trachipteridae, family Trachipteridae
Regalecidae, family Regalecidae
Ogcocephalidae, family Ogcocephalidae
batfishes: sluggish bottom-dwelling spiny fishes
Lophiidae, family Lophiidae
large-headed marine fishes comprising the anglers
Batrachoididae, family Batrachoididae
toadfishes; related to anglers and batfishes
Antennariidae, family Antennariidae
frogfishes; tropical spiny-finned marine fishes having large nearly vertical mouths; related to toadfishes and anglers
Belonidae, family Belonidae
ferocious fishes of warm regions resembling but unrelated to the freshwater gars
Exocoetidae, family Exocoetidae
flying fishes; closely related to the halfbeaks
Hemiramphidae, family Hemiramphidae
halfbeaks; marine and freshwater fishes closely related to the flying fishes but not able to glide
Scomberesocidae, Scombresocidae, family Scomberesocidae, family Scombresocidae
only sauries
Ophiodontidae, family Ophiodontidae
fishes closely related to greenlings
Anabantidae, family Anabantidae
small freshwater spiny-finned fishes of Africa and southern Asia
Percidae, family Percidae
active freshwater fishes; true perches and pike perches
Trichodontidae, family Trichodontidae
two species of elongate compressed scaleless large-eyed fishes that live in sand or mud
Ophidiidae, family Ophidiidae
eellike marine fishes
Brotulidae, family Brotulidae
chiefly deep-sea fishes related to the Ophidiidae
Carapidae, family Carapidae
pearlfishes: related to the Brotulidae
Centropomidae, family Centropomidae
a family of fish or the order Perciformes including robalos
Esocidae, family Esocidae
pikes; pickerels; muskellunges
Centrarchidae, family Centrarchidae
sunfish family
Serranidae, family Serranidae
marine fishes: sea basses; sea perches; groupers; jewfish
Embiotocidae, family Embiotocidae
viviparous percoid fishes comprising the surf fishes
Priacanthidae, family Priacanthidae
small carnivorous percoid fishes found worldwide in tropical seas
Apogonidae, family Apogonidae
bright-colored marine fishes that incubate eggs in the mouth
Malacanthidae, family Malacanthidae
short-headed marine fishes; often brightly colored
Pomatomidae, family Pomatomidae
food and game fishes related to pompanos
Rachycentridae, family Rachycentridae
family of pelagic fishes containing solely the cobia
Echeneididae, family Echeneidae, family Echeneididae
fishes having a sucking disk on the head for clinging to other fishes and to ships
Carangidae, family Carangidae
large family of narrow-bodied marine food fishes with widely forked tails; chiefly of warm seas
Coryphaenidae, family Coryphaenidae
large active pelagic percoid fish
Bramidae, family Bramidae
deep-bodied percoid fishes of the open seas
Branchiostegidae, family Branchiostegidae
small family of marine fishes having covered gills
Characidae, family Characidae
tropical freshwater fishes of Africa and South America and Central America
Characinidae, family Characinidae
former name of the Characidae
Cichlidae, family Cichlidae
Lutjanidae, family Lutjanidae
Haemulidae, family Haemulidae
Sparidae, family Sparidae
porgies; scups
Sciaenidae, family Sciaenidae
warm-water marine fishes including the drums and grunts and croakers and sea trout
Mullidae, family Mullidae
goatfishes or red mullets
Mugilidae, family Mugilidae
grey mullets
Atherinidae, family Atherinidae
small spiny-finned fishes of both salt and fresh water
Sphyraenidae, family Sphyraenidae
monotypic family of large active fishes of tropical and subtropical waters: barracuda
Pempheridae, family Pempheridae
Kyphosidae, family Kyphosidae
sea chubs
Ephippidae, family Ephippidae
small family comprising the spadefishes
Chaetodontidae, family Chaetodontidae
butterfly fishes
Pomacentridae, family Pomacentridae
Labridae, family Labridae
Scaridae, family Scaridae
Polynemidae, family Polynemidae
Opisthognathidae, family Opisthognathidae
Uranoscopidae, family Uranoscopidae
Dactyloscopidae, family Dactyloscopidae
sand stargazers
Blenniidae, family Blenniidae
a family of fish including: combtooth blennies
Clinidae, family Clinidae
viviparous blennies of temperate and tropical seas
Pholidae, family Pholidae, family Pholididae
a family of fish of suborder Blennioidea
Stichaeidae, family Stichaeidae
Anarhichadidae, family Anarhichadidae
Zoarcidae, family Zoarcidae
Ammodytidae, family Ammodytidae
sand lances
Callionymidae, family Callionymidae
Gobiidae, family Gobiidae
Eleotridae, family Eleotridae
Percophidae, family Percophidae
percoid flatheads
Toxotidae, family Toxotidae
Microdesmidae, family Microdesmidae
worm fish
Acanthuridae, family Acanthuridae
Gempylidae, family Gempylidae
snake mackerels
Trichiuridae, family Trichiuridae
Scombridae, family Scombridae
marine food fishes: mackerels; chub mackerels; tuna
Katsuwonidae, family Kasuwonidae
in some classifications considered a separate family comprising the oceanic bonitos
Xiphiidae, family Xiphiidae
comprising the common swordfishes
Istiophoridae, family Istiophoridae
sailfishes; spearfishes; marlins
Luvaridae, family Luvaridae
Stromateidae, family Stromateidae
butterfishes: harvest fishes; dollar fishes
Gobiesocidae, family Gobiesocidae
Lobotidae, family Lobotidae
Gerreidae, Gerridae, family Gerreidae, family Gerridae
Sillaginidae, family Sillaginidae
small family of small food fishes in shallow waters of the Pacific around Indonesia
Amiidae, family Amiidae
only the bowfins
Polyodontidae, family Polyodontidae
Acipenseridae, family Acipenseridae
Lepisosteidae, family Lepisosteidae
comprises the genus Lepisosteus
Scorpaenidae, family Scorpaenidae
scorpionfishes; rockfishes; lionfishes
Cottidae, family Cottidae
Cyclopteridae, family Cyclopteridae
Liparidae, Liparididae, family Liparidae, family Liparididae
Agonidae, family Agonidae
Hexagrammidae, family Hexagrammidae
Platycephalidae, family Platycephalidae
scorpaenoid flatheads
Triglidae, family Triglidae
in some classifications restricted to the gurnards and subdivided into the subfamilies Triglinae (true sea robins) and Peristediinae (armored sea robins)
Triglinae, subfamily Triglinae
in some classifications considered a subfamily of Triglidae comprising searobins having ordinary scales and no barbels (true searobins)
Peristediinae, subfamily Peristediinae
in some classifications considered a subfamily of Triglidae comprising the armored searobins
Dactylopteridae, family Dactylopteridae
flying gurnards
Balistidae, family Balistidae
Monocanthidae, family Monocanthidae
Ostraciidae, family Ostraciidae, family Ostraciontidae
Tetraodontidae, family Tetraodontidae
Diodontidae, family Diodontidae
spiny puffers
Molidae, family Molidae
ocean sunfishes
Pleuronectidae, family Pleuronectidae
righteye flounders
Bothidae, family Bothidae
a family of fish of the order Heterosomata
Cynoglossidae, family Cynoglossidae
Soleidae, family Soleidae
Anthocerotaceae, family Anthocerotaceae
Dicranaceae, family Dicranaceae
mosses having costate leaves and long-stalked capsules with cleft peristome
Bryaceae, family Bryaceae
a family of acrocarpous mosses
Mniaceae, family Mniaceae
family of erect mosses with club-shaped paraphyses and the hexagonal cells of the upper leaf surface; sometimes treated as a subfamily of Bryaceae
Jungermanniaceae, family Jungermanniaceae
comprising the leafy members of the order Jungermanniales
Marchantiaceae, family Marchantiaceae
liverworts with prostrate and usually dichotomously branched thalli
Sphaerocarpaceae, family Sphaerocarpaceae
liverworts with bilaterally symmetrical gametophytes; sometimes placed in the order Jungermanniales
gymnosperm family
a family of gymnosperms
liliid monocot family
family of monocotyledonous plants of the subclass Liliidae; mostly herbs usually with petaloid sepals and petals and compound pistils
magnoliid dicot family
family of dicotyledonous flowering plants regarded as among the most primitive of extant angiosperms
hamamelid dicot family
family of mostly woody dicotyledonous flowering plants with flowers often unisexual and often borne in catkins
caryophylloid dicot family
family of relatively early dicotyledonous plants including mostly flowers
dilleniid dicot family
family of more or less advanced dicotyledonous trees and shrubs and herbs
asterid dicot family
family of more or less advanced dicotyledonous herbs and some trees and shrubs
rosid dicot family
a family of dicotyledonous plants
Myricaceae, family Myricaceae, wax-myrtle family
constituting the order Myricales
Leitneriaceae, corkwood family, family Leitneriaceae
coextensive with the genus Leitneria; commonly isolated in a distinct order
Juncaceae, family Juncaceae, rush family
tufted herbs resembling grasses: rushes
Apocynaceae, dogbane family, family Apocynaceae
chiefly tropical trees or shrubs or herbs having milky juice and often showy flowers; many are sources of drugs
Araceae, arum family, family Araceae
anthurium; calla lily; jack-in-the-pulpit; philodendron
Acoraceae, subfamily Acoraceae
used in some classifications for the genus Acorus which is usually assigned to Araceae
Lemnaceae, duckweed family, family Lemnaceae
family of small free-floating thalloid plants
Aristolochiaceae, birthwort family, family Aristolochiaceae
family of birthworts (including wild ginger)
Rafflesiaceae, family Rafflesiaceae
a family of parasitic plants of the order Aristolochiales
Hydnoraceae, family Hydnoraceae
a family of flowering plants in Africa and Argentina that are parasitic on the roots of other plants
Campanulaceae, bellflower family, family Campanulaceae
family of plants of the order Campanulales; in some classifications includes Lobeliaceae
Orchidaceae, family Orchidaceae, orchid family
enormous cosmopolitan family of perennial terrestrial or epiphytic plants with fleshy tubers or rootstocks and unusual flowers
Burmanniaceae, family Burmanniaceae
family of chiefly tropical herbs with basal leaves like bracts and small flowers
Dioscoreaceae, family Dioscoreaceae, yam family
Primulaceae, family Primulaceae, primrose family
a dicotyledonous family of the order Primulales with a regular flower; widely distributed in the northern hemisphere
Myrsinaceae, family Myrsinaceae, myrsine family
family of Old World tropical trees and shrubs; some in Florida
Plumbaginaceae, family Plumbaginaceae, leadwort family, sea-lavender family
perennial herbs and shrubs and lianas; cosmopolitan especially in saltwater areas
Theophrastaceae, family Theophrastaceae
family of mainly tropical American trees and shrubs similar to those of the Myrsinaceae; often included in the Myrsinaceae
Graminaceae, Gramineae, Poaceae, family Graminaceae, family Gramineae, family Poaceae, grass family
the grasses: chiefly herbaceous but some woody plants including cereals; bamboo; reeds; sugar cane
Cyperaceae, family Cyperaceae, sedge family
bulrush; chufa; cotton grass; papyrus; umbrella plant
Pandanaceae, family Pandanaceae, screw-pine family
family of woody plants of the order Pandanales including pandanus
Typhaceae, cattail family, family Typhaceae
perennial marsh plants with creeping rootstocks and long linear leaves
Sparganiaceae, bur-reed family, family Sparganiaceae
coextensive with the genus Sparganium
Cucurbitaceae, family Cucurbitaceae, gourd family
a family of herbaceous vines (such as cucumber or melon or squash or pumpkin)
Goodenia family, Goodeniaceae, family Goodeniaceae
a family of sappy plants that grow in Australasia and southeast China
Lobeliaceae, family Lobeliaceae, lobelia family
not recognized in all classification systems; in some classifications lobeliaceous plants are included in family Campanulaceae
Proteaceae, family Proteaceae, protea family
large family of Australian and South African shrubs and trees with leathery leaves and clustered mostly tetramerous flowers; constitutes the order Proteales
Casuarinaceae, family Casuarinaceae
one genus: genus Casuarina
Gentianaceae, family Gentianaceae, gentian family
chiefly herbaceous plants with showy flowers; some are cultivated as ornamentals
Salvadora family, Salvadoraceae, family Salvadoraceae
a family of Old World shrubs and trees of order Gentianales; related to Oleaceae but having four stamens and four petals
Oleaceae, family Oleaceae, olive family
trees and shrubs having berries or drupes or capsules as fruits; sometimes placed in the order Oleales: olive; ash; jasmine; privet; lilac
Haemodoraceae, bloodwort family, family Haemodoraceae
some genera placed in family Liliaceae
Juglandaceae, family Juglandaceae, walnut family
trees having usually edible nuts: butternuts; walnuts; hickories; pecans
Combretaceae, combretum family, family Combretaceae
a family of tropical trees and shrubs of the order Myrtales
Elaeagnaceae, family Elaeagnaceae, oleaster family
shrubs or small trees often armed
Haloragaceae, Haloragidaceae, family Haloragaceae, family Haloragidaceae, water-milfoil family
a family of dicotyledonous plants of the order Myrtales
Lecythidaceae, family Lecythidaceae
large tropical trees bearing large fruits with woody skins
Lythraceae, family Lythraceae, loosestrife family
herbs and shrubs and small trees with pink or purple flowers
Myrtaceae, family Myrtaceae, myrtle family
trees and shrubs yielding a fragrant oil
Nyssaceae, family Nyssaceae, sour-gum family, tupelo family
a family of dicotyledonous trees of order Myrtales that includes the sour gum trees
Punicaceae, family Punicaceae
one species: pomegranates
Rhizophoraceae, family Rhizophoraceae, mangrove family
trees and shrubs that usually form dense jungles along tropical seacoasts
Thymelaeaceae, daphne family, family Thymelaeaceae
family of trees and shrubs and herbs having tough bark that are found especially in Australia and tropical Africa
Trapaceae, family Trapaceae
family comprising solely the genus Trapa; in some classifications treated as a subfamily or tribe of the family Onagraceae
Cannaceae, family Cannaceae
coextensive with the genus Canna
Marantaceae, arrowroot family, family Marantaceae
tropical perennial herbs with usually starchy rhizomes
Musaceae, banana family, family Musaceae
treelike tropical Asian herbs
Strelitziaceae, family Strelitziaceae, strelitzia family
woody plants with erect stems of tropical South America and South Africa and Madagascar; in some classifications included in the family Musaceae
Zingiberaceae, family Zingiberaceae, ginger family
a family of tropical monocotyledonous plants of order Musales
Urticaceae, family Urticaceae, nettle family
a family of plants of order Urticales including many nettles with stinging hairs
Cannabidaceae, family Cannabidaceae, hemp family
two genera of erect or twining herbs that are pollinated by the wind, including the genera Cannabis and Humulus; term not used in all classifications; in some the genus Cannabis is placed in the family Moraceae and the genus Humulus in the family Urticaceae
Moraceae, family Moraceae, mulberry family
trees or shrubs having a milky juice; in some classifications includes genus Cannabis
Cecropiaceae, family Cecropiaceae
in some classifications included in family Moraceae
Ulmaceae, elm family, family Ulmaceae
a dicot family of the order Urticales including: genera Ulmus, Celtis, Planera, Trema
Menyanthaceae, buckbean family, family Menyanthaceae
a dicotyledonous family of marsh plants of order Gentianales
Loganiaceae, family Loganiaceae
a dicotyledonous family of plants of order Gentianales
Linaceae, family Linaceae, flax family
a widely distributed family of plants
Arecaceae, Palmaceae, Palmae, family Arecaceae, family Palmaceae, family Palmae, palm family
chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines usually having a tall columnar trunk bearing a crown of very large leaves; coextensive with the order Palmales
Plantaginaceae, family Plantaginaceae, plantain family
cosmopolitan family of small herbs and a few shrubs; most are troublesome weeds
Polygonaceae, buckwheat family, family Polygonaceae
a family of plants of order Polygonales chiefly of the north temperate zone; includes the buckwheats
Xyridaceae, family Xyridaceae, yellow-eyed grass family
plants of tropical to temperate regions; usually in wet places
Commelinaceae, family Commelinaceae, spiderwort family
large widely distributed family of chiefly perennial herbs or climbers: spiderworts
Bromeliaceae, family Bromeliaceae, pineapple family
a family of tropical American plants of order Xyridales including several (as the pineapple) of economic importance
Mayacaceae, family Mayacaceae
a monocotyledonous family of bog plants of order Xyridales
Rapateaceae, family Rapateaceae
South American herbs somewhat resembling members of the Juncaceae
Eriocaulaceae, family Eriocaulaceae, pipewort family
chiefly tropical aquatic or bog herbs: pipeworts
Pontederiaceae, family Pontederiaceae, pickerelweed family
aquatic or bog plants
Naiadaceae, Najadaceae, family Naiadaceae, family Najadaceae, naiad family
monotypic family of aquatic plants having narrow leaves and small flowers
Alismataceae, family Alismataceae, water-plantain family
perennial or annual aquatic or marsh plants
Hydrocharidaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, family Hydrocharidaceae, family Hydrocharitaceae, frog's-bit family, frogbit family
simple nearly stemless freshwater aquatic plants; widely distributed
Potamogetonaceae, family Potamogetonaceae, pondweed family
plants that grow in ponds and slow streams; sometimes includes family Zosteraceae
Juncaginaceae, Scheuchzeriaceae, arrow-grass family, family Juncaginaceae, family Scheuchzeriaceae
a family of monocotyledonous bog herbs of order Naiadales
Zannichelliaceae, family Zannichelliaceae
alternative classification for some genera included in Potamogetonaceae; one species
Zosteraceae, eelgrass family, family Zosteraceae
used in some classifications: essentially equivalent to Potamogetonaceae
Amygdalaceae, family Amygdalaceae
used in former classifications for plum and peach and almond trees which are now usually classified as members of the genus Prunus
Erythroxylaceae, family Erythroxylaceae
a family of plants of order Geraniales; have drupaceous fruit
Sapindaceae, family Sapindaceae, soapberry family
chiefly tropical New and Old World deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs bearing leathery drupes with yellow translucent flesh; most plants produce toxic saponins
Buxaceae, box family, family Buxaceae
widely distributed evergreen shrubs and trees
Celastraceae, family Celastraceae, spindle-tree family, staff-tree family
trees and shrubs and woody vines usually having bright-colored fruits
Empetraceae, crowberry family, family Empetraceae
heathlike shrubs
Aceraceae, family Aceraceae, maple family
a family of trees and shrubs of order Sapindales including the maples
Aquifoliaceae, family Aquifoliaceae, holly family
widely distributed shrubs and trees
Anacardiaceae, family Anacardiaceae, sumac family
the cashew family; trees and shrubs and vines having resinous (sometimes poisonous) juice; includes cashew and mango and pistachio and poison ivy and sumac
Hippocastanaceae, family Hippocastanaceae, horse-chestnut family
trees having showy flowers and inedible nutlike seeds in a leathery capsule
Staphylaceae, bladdernut family, family Staphylaceae
a family of dicotyledonous plants of order Sapindales found mostly in the north temperate zone
Ebenaceae, ebony family, family Ebenaceae
fruit and timber trees of tropical and warm regions including ebony and persimmon
Sapotaceae, family Sapotaceae, sapodilla family
tropical trees or shrubs with milky juice and often edible fleshy fruit
Symplocaceae, family Symplocaceae, sweetleaf family
a dicotyledonous family of order Ebenales
Styracaceae, family Styracaceae, storax family, styrax family
a widely distributed family of shrubs and trees of order Ebenales
Sarraceniaceae, family Sarraceniaceae, pitcher-plant family
insectivorous plants
Nepenthaceae, family Nepenthaceae
coextensive with the genus Nepenthes
Droseraceae, family Droseraceae, sundew family
a family of carnivorous herbs and shrubs
Roridulaceae, family Roridulaceae
in some classifications included in the family Droseraceae
Crassulaceae, family Crassulaceae, stonecrop family
succulent shrubs and herbs
Grossulariaceae, family Grossulariaceae, gooseberry family
in some classifications considered a part of the family Saxifragaceae: plants whose fruit is a berry
Boraginaceae, borage family, family Boraginaceae
a widely distributed family of plants distinguished by circinate flowers and nutlike fruit
Convolvulaceae, family Convolvulaceae, morning-glory family
morning glory; bindweed; sweet potato; plants having trumpet-shaped flowers and a climbing or twining habit
Lentibulariaceae, bladderwort family, family Lentibulariaceae
carnivorous aquatic or bog plants: genera Utricularia, Pinguicula, and Genlisea
Martyniaceae, family Martyniaceae
in most classifications not considered a separate family but included in the Pedaliaceae
Orobanchaceae, broomrape family, family Orobanchaceae
brown or yellow leafless herbs; sometimes placed in the order Scrophulariales
Pedaliaceae, family Pedaliaceae, sesame family
the family of plants of order Polemoniales
Hymenophyllaceae, family Hymenophyllaceae
terrestrial (hygrophytic) or epiphytic ferns: filmy ferns
Osmundaceae, family Osmundaceae
large family of ferns widely distributed in temperate and tropical areas
Schizaeaceae, family Schizaeaceae
small family of mainly tropical ferns
Marsileaceae, family Marsileaceae
clover ferns
Salviniaceae, family Salviniaceae
water ferns
Azollaceae, family Azollaceae
used in some classifications for the genus Azolla
Ophioglossaceae, family Ophioglossaceae
a family of succulent ferns of order Ophioglossales; cosmopolitan in distribution
Erysiphaceae, family Erysiphaceae
family of fungi parasitic mostly on leaves; includes powdery mildews
Sphaeriaceae, family Sphaeriaceae
parasitic fungi having globose and sometimes necked or beaked perithecia
Ceratostomataceae, family Ceratostomataceae
fungi having carbonous perithecia with long necks
Hypocreaceae, family Hypocreaceae
family of fungi having brightly colored fleshy or membranous ascocarps; sometimes placed in its own order Hypocreales
Xylariaceae, family Xylariaceae
family of fungi characterized by dark brown to black spores
Helotiaceae, family Helotiaceae
a fungus family of order Helotiales
Sclerotiniaceae, family Sclerotiniaceae
a fungus family of order Helotiales
Sclerodermataceae, family Sclerodermataceae
a family of fungi or order Sclerodermatales with a single-layered peridium; includes earthballs
Tulostomaceae, Tulostomataceae, family Tulostomaceae, family Tulostomataceae
stalked puffballs
Rhizopogonaceae, family Rhizopogonaceae
a family of fungi of order Hymenogastrales having round subterranean sporophores
Mucoraceae, family Mucoraceae
large family of chiefly saprophytic fungi that includes many common molds destructive to food products
Entomophthoraceae, family Entomophthoraceae
mostly parasitic lower fungi that typically develop in the bodies of insects
Chytridiaceae, family Chytridiaceae
a family of aquatic fungi of order Chytridiales
Blastodiaceae, family Blastodiaceae
a family of saprobic fungi of order Blastocladiales
Synchytriaceae, family Synchytriaceae
a fungus family of order Chytridiales
Peronosporaceae, family Peronosporaceae
parasitic fungi: downy mildews
Albuginaceae, family Albuginaceae
fungi that produce white sori resembling blisters on certain flowering plants
Pythiaceae, family Pythiaceae
fungi having sporangia usually borne successively and singly at the tips of branching sporangiophores
Plasmodiophoraceae, family Plasmodiophoraceae
family of fungi often causing hypertrophy in seed plants
Tuberaceae, family Tuberaceae
family of fungi whose ascocarps resemble tubers and vary in size from that of an acorn to that of a large apple
Clavariaceae, family Clavariaceae
fleshy fungi: coral fungi
Hydnaceae, family Hydnaceae
tooth fungi
Lecanoraceae, family Lecanoraceae
a fungus family of the division Lichenes
Roccellaceae, family Roccellaceae
a fungus family of division Lichenes
Pertusariaceae, family Pertusariaceae
a fungus family of division Lichenes
Usneaceae, family Usneaceae
fruticose lichens having prostrate or erect or pendulous thalli: genera Usnea, Evernia, Ramalina, Alectoria
Cladoniaceae, family Cladoniaceae
a family of lichens
Parmeliaceae, family Parmeliaceae
a family of lichens
Agaricaceae, family Agaricaceae
large family including many familiar mushrooms
Coprinaceae, family Coprinaceae
used in some classifications for the genus Coprinus
Russulaceae, family Russulaceae
used in some classification systems for the genus Russula
Strophariaceae, family Strophariaceae
sometimes included in family Agaricaceae
Entolomataceae, family Entolomataceae
a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
Lepiotaceae, family Lepiotaceae
a family of fungi having free gills and a cap that is cleanly separable from the stalk
Thelephoraceae, family Thelephoraceae
fungi having leathery or membranous sporophores
Tricholomataceae, family Tricholomataceae
a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
Volvariaceae, family Volvariaceae
a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
Pluteaceae, family Pluteaceae
a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
Saccharomycetaceae, family Saccharomycetaceae
family of fungi comprising the typical yeasts: reproduce by budding and ferment carbohydrates
Schizosaccharomycetaceae, family Schizosaccharomycetaceae
a family of fungi belonging to order Endomycetales
Aspergillaceae, family Aspergillaceae
family of fungi including some common molds
Pezizaceae, family Pezizaceae
large family comprising many typical cup fungi
Morchellaceae, family Morchellaceae
a family of edible fungi including the true morels
Sarcoscyphaceae, family Sarcoscyphaceae
family of fungi belonging to the order Pezizales
Helvellaceae, family Helvellaceae
family of false morels or lorchels; some are edible and some are poisonous
Phallaceae, family Phallaceae
a family of fungi belonging to the order Phallales and comprising the true stinkhorns
Calostomataceae, family Calostomataceae
a family of fungi belonging to the order Tulostomatales
Clathraceae, family Clathraceae
family of fleshy fungi resembling stinkhorns
Lycoperdaceae, family Lycoperdaceae
a fungus family belonging to the order Lycoperdales; includes puffballs
Geastraceae, family Geastraceae
a family of earthstar fungi belonging to the order Lycoperdales
Nidulariaceae, family Nidulariaceae
bird's-nest fungi
Sphaerobolaceae, family Sphaerobolaceae
monotypic family of fungi in which the more or less spherical gleba is forcibly ejected at maturity
Secotiaceae, family Secotiaceae
a family of fungi that have a stalk and cap and a wrinkled mass of tissue (the gleba) where spores are produced; are often dismissed as misshapen forms of other fungi
Polyporaceae, family Polyporaceae
fungi that become corky or woody with age, often forming shelflike growths on trees
Fistulinaceae, family Fistulinaceae
a family of fungi closely related to the family Polyporaceae except that the tubes on the undersurface of the cap are separate from each other
Boletaceae, family Boletaceae
family of fleshy fungi having the germ pores easily separating from the cup and often from each other
Tremellaceae, family Tremellaceae
a family of basidiomycetous fungi of the order Tremellales that have the basidium divided longitudinally
Auriculariaceae, family Auriculariaceae
fungi having gelatinous sporophores
Dacrymycetaceae, family Dacrymycetaceae
a family of basidiomycetous fungi belonging to the order Tremellales having a bifurcate basidium that lacks septa
Melampsoraceae, family Melampsoraceae
rust fungi
Pucciniaceae, family Pucciniaceae
large important family of rust fungi
Ustilaginaceae, family Ustilaginaceae
a fungus family of loose smuts
Tilletiaceae, family Tilletiaceae
a family of smut fungi having a simple promycelium bearing the spores in an apical cluster
Septobasidiaceae, family Septobasidiaceae
a family of fungi belonging to the subdivision Basidiomycota
Hygrophoraceae, family Hygrophoraceae
a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales; the gills of these fungi have a clean waxy appearance
Cortinariaceae, family Cortinariaceae
a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
Moniliaceae, family Moniliaceae
family of imperfect fungi having white or brightly colored hyphae and spores that are produced directly on the mycelium and not aggregated in fruiting bodies
Dematiaceae, family Dematiaceae
family of imperfect mushrooms having dark-colored hyphae or conidia
Tuberculariaceae, family Tuberculariaceae
large family of mainly saprophytic imperfect fungi
Rhamnaceae, buckthorn family, family Rhamnaceae
trees and shrubs usually thorny bearing drupaceous fruit many having medicinal value
Vitaceae, Vitidaceae, family Vitaceae, grapevine family
a family of vines belonging to order Rhamnales
Piperaceae, family Piperaceae, pepper family
tropical woody vines and herbaceous plants having aromatic herbage and minute flowers in spikelets
Chloranthaceae, family Chloranthaceae
small family of tropical herbs and shrubs and trees
Saururaceae, family Saururaceae, lizard's-tail family
family of perennial aromatic herbs: genera Saururus, Anemopsis, Houttuynia
Gleicheniaceae, family Gleicheniaceae
a family of ferns belonging to order Filicales
Parkeriaceae, family Parkeriaceae
coextensive with the genus Ceratopteris; sometimes included in family Polypodiaceae
Polypodiaceae, family Polypodiaceae
ferns: a large family that in some classification systems has been subdivided into several families (including Aspleniaceae and Blechnaceae and Davalliaceae and Dennstaedtiaceae and Dryopteridaceae and Oleandraceae and Pteridaceae)
Adiantaceae, family Adiantaceae
used in some classification systems for some genera of the family Polypodiaceae (or Pteridaceae)
Vittariaceae, family Vittariaceae
one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems: genus Vittaria
Aspleniaceae, family Aspleniaceae
one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems; includes genera Asplenium, Pleurosorus, Schaffneria
Blechnaceae, family Blechnaceae
one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems; includes genera Blechnum, Doodia, Sadleria, Stenochlaena, and Woodwardia
Cyatheaceae, family Cyatheaceae
tropical tree ferns
Davalliaceae, family Davalliaceae
one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
Dennstaedtiaceae, family Dennstaedtiaceae
one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
Dicksoniaceae, family Dicksoniaceae
tree ferns: genera Dicksonia, Cibotium, Culcita, and Thyrsopteris elegans
Athyriaceae, Dryopteridaceae, family Athyriaceae, family Dryopteridaceae
alternative names for one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
Lomariopsidaceae, family Lomariopsidaceae
small family of usually scandent ferns
Lophosoriaceae, family Lophosoriaceae
very small family of tree ferns
Loxomataceae, family Loxomataceae
very small family of New Zealand ferns
Oleandraceae, family Oleandraceae
one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
Pteridaceae, family Pteridaceae
one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems; Pteridaceae is itself in turn sometimes further subdivided
Marattiaceae, family Marattiaceae
constituting the order Marattiales: chiefly tropical eusporangiate ferns with gigantic fronds
Psilotaceae, family Psilotaceae
small family of lower ferns having nearly naked stems and minute scalelike leaves
Psilophytaceae, family Psilophytaceae
Paleozoic plants
Rhyniaceae, family Rhyniaceae
primitive plants of the Paleozoic
Equisetaceae, family Equisetaceae, horsetail family
sole surviving family of the Equisetales: fern allies
Lepidodendraceae, family Lepidodendraceae
fossil plants characterized by conspicuous spirally arranged leaf scars on the trunk
Lycopodiaceae, clubmoss family, family Lycopodiaceae
a family of ferns belonging to the order Lycopodiales
Selaginellaceae, family Selaginellaceae
lesser club mosses: terrestrial chiefly tropical plants resembling mosses
Isoetaceae, family Isoetaceae, quillwort family
quillworts; coextensive with the genus Isoetes
Geoglossaceae, family Geoglossaceae
a family of fungi belonging to the order Helotiales
Cryptogrammataceae, family Cryptogrammataceae
one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
Thelypteridaceae, family Thelypteridaceae
genera Thelypteris, Phegopteris, and others
Asclepiadaceae, family Asclepiadaceae, milkweed family
widely distributed family of herbs and shrubs of the order Gentianales; most with milky juice
Type of:
taxon, taxonomic category, taxonomic group
animal or plant group having natural relations

n a loose affiliation of gangsters in charge of organized criminal activities

crime syndicate, mob, syndicate
Cosa Nostra, Maffia, Mafia
a crime syndicate in the United States; organized in families; believed to have important relations to the Sicilian Mafia
Type of:
gangdom, gangland, organized crime
underworld organizations

n an association of people who share common beliefs or activities

“the message was addressed not just to employees but to every member of the company family
Christian fellowship or communion with God or with fellow Christians; said in particular of the early Christian community
Type of:
a formal organization of people or groups of people

Sign up, it's free!

Whether you're a student, an educator, or a lifelong learner, can put you on the path to systematic vocabulary improvement.