Other forms: families

If you refer to your family, you're probably talking about a group of people who are related to you by blood or marriage.

Family is used many different ways. It can mean "household," or the people you live with, or it can refer to a partner and the children you are raising together. Your family can include people you've never met, like distant cousins, if you're using it to talk about the wider group of all of your relatives. There's also the scientific term family, which is a term that ranks the way different organisms are related to each other.

Definitions of family
  1. noun
    primary social group; parents and children
    “he wanted to have a good job before starting a family
    synonyms: family unit
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    Bronte sisters
    a 19th century family of three sisters who all wrote novels
    Marx Brothers
    a family of United States comedians consisting of four brothers with an anarchic sense of humor
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    couple, match, mates
    a pair of people who live together
    man and wife, marriage, married couple
    two people who are married to each other
    power couple
    a couple both of whom have high-powered careers or are politically influential
    a couple who both have careers and no children (an acronym for dual income no kids)
    mixed marriage
    marriage of two people from different races or different religions or different cultures
    type of:
    clan, kin, kin group, kindred, kinship group, tribe
    group of people related by blood or marriage
  2. noun
    a social unit living together
    “he moved his family to Virginia”
    synonyms: home, house, household, menage
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    broken home
    a family in which the parents have separated or divorced
    conjugal family, nuclear family
    a family consisting of parents and their children and grandparents of a marital partner
    extended family
    a family consisting of the nuclear family and their blood relatives
    foster family
    the family of a fosterling
    foster home
    a household in which an orphaned or delinquent child is placed (usually by a social-service agency)
    menage a trois
    household for three; an arrangement where a married couple and a lover of one of them live together while sharing sexual relations
    type of:
    social unit, unit
    an organization regarded as part of a larger social group
  3. noun
    people descended from a common ancestor
    “his family has lived in Massachusetts since the Mayflower”
    synonyms: family line, folk, kinfolk, kinsfolk, phratry, sept
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    members of a family line
    the people of your home locality (especially your own family)
    aristocratic family line
    a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
    gens, name
    family based on male descent
    royal family, royal house, royal line, royalty
    royal persons collectively
    Bourbon, Bourbon dynasty
    a European royal line that ruled in France (from 1589-1793) and Spain and Naples and Sicily
    Capetian dynasty
    a Frankish dynasty founded by Hugh Capet that ruled from 987 to 1328
    Carlovingian dynasty, Carolingian dynasty
    a Frankish dynasty founded by Charlemagne's father that ruled from 751 to 987
    Flavian dynasty
    a dynasty of Roman Emperors from 69 to 96 including Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian
    Han, Han dynasty
    imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization
    Hanover, Hanoverian line, House of Hanover
    the English royal house that reigned from 1714 to 1901 (from George I to Victoria)
    Habsburg, Hapsburg
    a royal German family that provided rulers for several European states and wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 to 1806
    a German noble family that ruled Brandenburg and Prussia
    House of Lancaster, Lancaster, Lancastrian line
    the English royal house that reigned from 1399 to 1461; its emblem was a red rose
    Liao, Liao dynasty
    the dynasty that ruled much of Manchuria and northeastern China from 947 to 1125
    Merovingian, Merovingian dynasty
    a Frankish dynasty founded by Clovis I that reigned in Gaul and Germany from about 500 to 750
    Ming, Ming dynasty
    the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644
    Ottoman, Ottoman dynasty
    the Turkish dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century to its dissolution after World War I
    Plantagenet, Plantagenet line
    the family name of a line of English kings that reigned from 1154 to 1485
    Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy
    an ancient dynasty of Macedonian kings who ruled Egypt from 323 BC to 30 BC; founded by Ptolemy I and ended with Cleopatra
    Ch'in, Ch'in dynasty, Qin, Qin dynasty
    the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
    Ch'ing, Ch'ing dynasty, Manchu, Manchu dynasty, Qing, Qing dynasty
    the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during the Qing dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu
    Romanoff, Romanov
    the Russian imperial line that ruled from 1613 to 1917
    the name of the royal family that ruled Great Britain from 1901-1917; the name was changed to Windsor in 1917 in response to anti-German feelings in World War I
    any one of the Turkish dynasties that ruled Asia Minor from the 11th to the 13th centuries; they successfully invaded Byzantium and defended the Holy Land against Crusaders
    Shang, Shang dynasty
    the imperial dynasty ruling China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries BC
    the royal family that ruled Scotland from 1371-1714 and ruled England from 1603 to 1649 and again from 1660 to 1714
    Song, Song dynasty, Sung, Sung dynasty
    the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279; noted for art and literature and philosophy
    Tang, Tang dynasty
    the imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907
    House of Tudor, Tudor
    an English dynasty descended from Henry Tudor; Tudor monarchs ruled from Henry VII to Elizabeth I (from 1485 to 1603)
    Omayyad, Ommiad, Umayyad
    the first dynasty of Arab caliphs whose capital was Damascus
    French royal house from 1328 to 1589
    Wei, Wei dynasty
    any of several imperial dynasties of China ruling from 220 to 265 and from 386 to 556
    House of Windsor, Windsor
    the British royal family since 1917
    House of York, York
    the English royal house (a branch of the Plantagenet line) that reigned from 1461 to 1485; its emblem was a white rose
    Mongol dynasty, Yuan, Yuan dynasty
    the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368
    Chou, Chou dynasty, Chow, Chow dynasty, Zhou, Zhou dynasty
    the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
    aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century
    type of:
    ancestry, blood, blood line, bloodline, descent, line, line of descent, lineage, origin, parentage, pedigree, stemma, stock
    the lineage of an individual
  4. noun
    a person having kinship with another or others
    “he's family
    synonyms: kin, kinsperson
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    (anthropology) kin by marriage
    type of:
    relation, relative
    a person related by blood or marriage
  5. noun
    a collection of things sharing a common attribute
    synonyms: category, class
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    grammatical category, syntactic category
    (grammar) a category of words having the same grammatical properties
    paradigm, substitution class
    the class of all items that can be substituted into the same position (or slot) in a grammatical sentence (are in paradigmatic relation with one another)
    brass family
    (music) the family of brass instruments
    violin family
    (music) the family of bowed stringed instruments
    woodwind family
    (music) the family of woodwind instruments
    a type or class
    either of the two categories (male or female) into which most organisms are divided
    a class of nouns or pronouns or adjectives in Indo-European languages having the same (or very similar) inflectional forms
    a class of verbs having the same inflectional forms
    a class of one kind of unit in a system of numbers or measures or weights or money
    histocompatibility complex
    a family of fifty or more genes on the sixth human chromosome that code for proteins on the surfaces of cells and that play a role in the immune response
    case, grammatical case
    nouns or pronouns or adjectives (often marked by inflection) related in some way to other words in a sentence
    form class, part of speech, word class
    one of the traditional categories of words intended to reflect their functions in a grammatical context
    the grammatical category for the forms of nouns and pronouns and verbs that are used depending on the number of entities involved (singular or dual or plural)
    a grammatical category used in the classification of pronouns, possessive determiners, and verb forms according to whether they indicate the speaker, the addressee, or a third party
    gender, grammatical gender
    a grammatical category in inflected languages governing the agreement between nouns and pronouns and adjectives; in some languages it is quite arbitrary but in Indo-European languages it is usually based on sex or animateness
    a grammatical category of verbs used to express distinctions of time
    participant role, semantic role
    (linguistics) the underlying relation that a constituent has with the main verb in a clause
    type of:
    accumulation, aggregation, assemblage, collection
    several things grouped together or considered as a whole
  6. noun
    (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more genera
    “sharks belong to the fish family
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    a family of threadlike RNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees)
    bacteria family
    a family of bacteria
    protoctist family
    any of the families of Protoctista
    Endamoebidae, family Endamoebidae
    a large family of endoparasitic amebas that invade the digestive tract
    fish family
    any of various families of fish
    chordate family
    any family in the phylum Chordata
    bird family
    a family of warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrates characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings
    amphibian family
    any family of amphibians
    reptile family
    a family of reptiles
    arthropod family
    any of the arthropods
    mammal family
    a family of mammals
    coelenterate family
    a family of coelenterates
    ctenophore family
    a family of ctenophores
    worm family
    a family of worms
    mollusk family
    a family of mollusks
    Panorpidae, family Panorpidae
    a family of insects of the order Mecoptera
    Bittacidae, family Bittacidae
    a family of predacious tropical insects of the order Mecoptera
    echinoderm family
    a family of echinoderms
    form family
    (biology) an artificial taxonomic category for organisms of which the true relationships are obscure
    moss family
    a family of mosses
    liliopsid family, monocot family
    family of flowering plants having a single cotyledon (embryonic leaf) in the seed
    dicot family, magnoliopsid family
    family of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination
    fungus family
    includes lichen families
    plant family
    a family of plants
    fern family
    families of ferns and fern allies
    Rhizobiaceae, family Rhizobiaceae
    a small family of rod-shaped bacteria
    Bacillaceae, family Bacillaceae
    typically rod-shaped usually Gram-positive bacteria that produce endospores
    Myxophyceae, Schizophyceae, family Myxophyceae, family Schizophyceae
    former terms for Cyanophyceae
    Nostocaceae, family Nostocaceae
    blue-green algae
    Oscillatoriaceae, family Oscillatoriaceae
    blue green algae
    Pseudomonodaceae, family Pseudomonodaceae
    rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria; include important plant and animal pathogens
    Athiorhodaceae, family Athiorhodaceae
    small motile sulphur bacteria
    Thiobacteriaceae, family Thiobacteriaceae
    free-living coccoid to rod-shaped bacteria that derive energy from oxidizing sulfur or sulfur compounds
    Spirillaceae, family Spirillaceae
    rigid spirally curved elongate bacteria
    Bacteroidaceae, family Bacteroidaceae
    family of bacteria living usually in the alimentary canal or on mucous surfaces of warm-blooded animals; sometimes associated with acute infective processes
    Corynebacteriaceae, family Corynebacteriaceae
    a large family of mostly Gram-positive and aerobic and nonmotile rod-shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales
    Enterobacteriaceae, family Enterobacteriaceae
    a large family of Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales
    Rickettsiaceae, family Rickettsiaceae
    microorganism resembling bacteria inhabiting arthropod tissues but capable of causing disease in vertebrates
    Chlamydiaceae, family Chlamydiaceae
    Gram-negative parasites in warm-blooded vertebrates
    Mycoplasmataceae, family Mycoplasmataceae
    pleomorphic Gram-negative nonmotile microorganism similar to both viruses and bacteria; parasitic in mammals
    Actinomycetaceae, family Actinomycetaceae
    filamentous anaerobic bacteria
    Streptomycetaceae, family Streptomycetaceae
    higher bacteria typically aerobic soil saprophytes
    Mycobacteriaceae, family Mycobacteriaceae
    a family of bacteria
    Myxobacteriaceae, Polyangiaceae, family Myxobacteriaceae, family Polyangiaceae
    bacteria living mostly in soils and on dung
    Micrococcaceae, family Micrococcaceae
    spherical or elliptical usually aerobic eubacteria that produce yellow or orange or red pigment; includes toxin-producing forms as well as harmless commensals and saprophytes
    Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacteriaceae, family Lactobacillaceae, family Lactobacteriaceae
    lactic acid bacteria and important pathogens; bacteria that ferment carbohydrates chiefly into lactic acid
    Spirochaetaceae, family Spirochaetaceae
    large coarsely spiral bacteria; free-living in fresh or salt water or commensal in bodies of oysters
    Treponemataceae, family Treponemataceae
    small spirochetes some parasitic or pathogenic
    Globigerinidae, family Globigerinidae
    a family of protoctists
    Nummulitidae, family Nummulitidae
    a family of fossil protoctists
    Arcellidae, family Arcellidae
    soil and freshwater protozoa; cosmopolitan in distribution
    Tribonemaceae, family Tribonemaceae
    simple filamentous freshwater yellow-green algae
    Laminariaceae, family Laminariaceae
    large family of marine brown algae including many economically important large kelps chiefly of northern waters
    Fucaceae, family Fucaceae
    small family of brown algae: gulfweeds; rockweeds
    Euglenaceae, family Euglenaceae
    considered green algae
    Ulvaceae, family Ulvaceae, sea-lettuce family
    thin flat or tubular green algae
    Volvocaceae, family Volvocaceae
    unicellular or colonial biflagellate free-swimming flagellates
    Chlamydomonadaceae, family Chlamydomonadaceae
    green algae some of which are colored red by hematochrome
    Zygnemataceae, family Zygnemataceae
    pond scums: common freshwater algae forming green slimy masses
    Oedogoniaceae, family Oedogoniaceae
    filamentous green algae
    Characeae, family Characeae
    green algae superficially resembling horsetail ferns: stoneworts
    Desmidiaceae, family Desmidiaceae
    unicellular algae
    Gigartinaceae, family Gigartinaceae
    a family of protoctist
    Rhodymeniaceae, family Rhodymeniaceae
    a family of protoctist
    Bangiaceae, family Bangiaceae
    a family of protoctist
    Peridiniidae, family Peridiniidae
    marine and freshwater dinoflagellates
    Eimeriidae, family Eimeriidae
    a family of protoctist in the order Coccidia
    Plasmodiidae, family Plasmodiidae
    malaria parasites
    Haemoproteidae, family Haemoproteidae
    bird parasites
    Babesiidae, family Babesiidae
    piroplasms and cattle pathogens
    Cobitidae, family Cobitidae
    Cyprinidae, family Cyprinidae
    a family of fish including: carp; tench; roach; rudd; dace
    Electrophoridae, family Electrophoridae
    small family comprising the electric eels
    Catostomidae, family Catostomidae
    suckers; closely related to the family Cyprinidae
    Cyprinodontidae, family Cyprinodontidae
    large family of small soft-finned fishes; killifishes; flagfishes; swordtails; guppies
    Poeciliidae, family Poeciliidae
    Holocentridae, family Holocentridae
    squirrelfishes and soldierfishes
    Anomalopidae, family Anomalopidae
    a family of fish including: flashlight fishes
    Zeidae, family Zeidae
    a family of fish in the order Zeomorphi
    Caproidae, family Caproidae
    Fistulariidae, family Fistulariidae
    Gasterosteidae, family Gasterosteidae
    Syngnathidae, family Syngnathidae
    Macrorhamphosidae, family Macrorhamphosidae
    bellows fishes
    Centriscidae, family Centriscidae
    Aulostomidae, family Aulostomidae
    Amphioxidae, Branchiostomidae, family Amphioxidae, family Branchiostomidae
    Salpidae, family Salpidae
    a small family of tunicates in the class Thaliacea
    Doliolidae, family Doliolidae
    oceanic tunicates
    Petromyzontidae, family Petromyzontidae
    Myxinidae, family Myxinidae
    slime-producing marine animals: hagfishes
    Chimaeridae, family Chimaeridae
    a family of Holocephali
    Hexanchidae, family Hexanchidae
    primitive sharks
    Lamnidae, family Lamnidae
    oceanic sharks
    Isuridae, family Isuridae
    in some classifications another name for the family Lamnidae
    Cetorhinidae, family Cetorhinidae
    in some older classifications considered the family of the basking sharks
    Alopiidae, family Alopiidae
    thresher sharks
    Orectolobidae, family Orectolobidae
    nurse sharks and carpet sharks
    Carchariidae, Odontaspididae, family Carchariidae, family Odontaspididae
    sand sharks; in some classifications coextensive with family Carcharhinidae
    Rhincodontidae, family Rhincodontidae
    small-toothed sharks comprising only one species
    Scyliorhinidae, family Scyliorhinidae
    small bottom-dwelling sharks
    Carcharhinidae, family Carcharhinidae
    largest family of living sharks; found worldwide especially in tropical waters; dorsal fin lacks spines: requiem sharks including tiger sharks and soupfin sharks
    Triakidae, family Triakidae
    small sharks with smooth skins and lacking spines on their dorsal fins
    Squalidae, family Squalidae
    dogfishes having a spine in each dorsal fin
    Sphyrnidae, family Sphyrnidae
    hammerhead sharks; bonnethead sharks
    Squatinidae, family Squatinidae
    bottom-dwelling ray-like sharks
    Torpedinidae, family Torpedinidae
    electric rays
    Pristidae, family Pristidae
    large primitive rays with elongated snouts
    Rhinobatidae, family Rhinobatidae
    primitive rays with guitar-shaped bodies
    Dasyatidae, family Dasyatidae
    sting rays
    Myliobatidae, family Myliobatidae
    eagle rays
    Mobulidae, family Mobulidae
    large rays lacking venomous spines: mantas
    Rajidae, family Rajidae
    bottom-dwelling tropical rays: skates
    Struthionidae, family Struthionidae
    tall terrestrial birds: ostriches
    Casuaridae, family Casuaridae
    a family of large ostrich-like birds including cassowaries
    Apterygidae, family Apterygidae
    coextensive with the order Apterygiformes
    Rheidae, family Rheidae
    a family of birds coextensive with the order Rheiformes
    Aepyornidae, family Aepyornidae
    coextensive with the order Aepyorniformes
    Dinornithidae, family Dinornithidae
    Meliphagidae, family Meliphagidae
    honey eaters
    Prunellidae, family Prunellidae
    hedge sparrow
    Alaudidae, family Alaudidae
    Motacillidae, family Motacillidae
    pipits and wagtails
    Fringillidae, family Fringillidae
    finches: goldfinches; bullfinches; chaffinches; siskins; canaries; cardinals; grosbeaks; crossbills; linnets; buntings
    Carduelinae, subfamily Carduelinae
    used in some classifications for a subgroup of finches
    Emberizidae, subfamily Emberizidae, subfamily Emberizinae
    buntings and some New World sparrows
    Coerebidae, Dacninae, family Coerebidae, family Dacninae
    the honeycreepers
    Passeridae, family Passeridae
    true sparrows: Old world birds formerly considered weaverbirds
    Ploceidae, family Ploceidae
    Drepanididae, family Drepanididae
    Hawaiian honeycreepers
    Menuridae, family Menuridae
    Atrichornithidae, family Atrichornithidae
    Eurylaimidae, family Eurylaimidae
    coextensive with the suborder Eurylaimi
    Tyrannidae, superfamily Tyrannidae
    New World tyrant flycatchers most numerous in Central America and South America but also in the United States and Canada
    Cotingidae, family Cotingidae
    cotingas; umbrella birds
    Pipridae, family Pipridae
    Furnariidae, family Furnariidae
    e.g. ovenbirds
    Formicariidae, family Formicariidae
    Dendrocolaptidae, family Dendrocolaptidae
    woodhewers or woodcreepers
    Pittidae, family Pittidae
    Muscicapidae, family Muscicapidae
    Old World (true) flycatchers
    Turdidae, family Turdidae
    thrushes; in some classifications considered a subfamily (Turdinae) of the family Muscicapidae
    Turdinae, subfamily Turdinae
    alternative classification for the thrushes
    Sylviidae, family Sylviidae
    in some classifications considered a subfamily (Sylviinae) of the family Muscicapidae: Old World (true) warblers; American kinglets and gnatcatchers
    Sylviinae, subfamily Sylviinae
    alternative classification for the Old World warblers
    Timaliidae, family Timaliidae
    Parulidae, family Parulidae
    New World warblers
    Paradisaeidae, family Paradisaeidae
    birds of paradise
    Icteridae, family Icteridae
    American orioles; American blackbirds; bobolinks; meadowlarks
    Oriolidae, family Oriolidae
    Old World orioles
    Sturnidae, family Sturnidae
    Old World starlings
    Corvidae, family Corvidae
    crow; raven; rook; jackdaw; chough; magpie; jay
    Garrulinae, subfamily Garrulinae
    subfamily of the crow family: jays
    Cracticidae, family Cracticidae
    Australian birds formerly included in the family Laniidae
    Troglodytidae, family Troglodytidae
    Mimidae, family Mimidae
    sometimes considered a subfamily of Troglodytidae: mockingbirds; catbirds; thrashers
    Acanthisittidae, Xenicidae, family Acanthisittidae, family Xenicidae
    alternative names for the family comprising the New Zealand wrens
    Certhiidae, family Certhiidae
    Sittidae, family Sittidae
    Paridae, family Paridae
    titmice and chickadees
    Irenidae, family Irenidae
    a family of birds of the suborder Oscines
    Hirundinidae, family Hirundinidae
    swallows and martins
    Artamidae, family Artamidae
    wood swallows
    Thraupidae, family Thraupidae
    Laniidae, family Laniidae
    Malaconotinae, subfamily Malaconotinae
    an African bush shrikes
    Ptilonorhynchidae, family Ptilonorhynchidae
    Cinclidae, family Cinclidae
    water ouzels
    Vireonidae, family Vireonidae
    small insectivorous American songbirds
    Bombycillidae, family Bombycillidae
    a family of birds of the suborder Oscines
    Accipitridae, family Accipitridae
    hawks; Old World vultures; kites; harriers; eagles
    Falconidae, family Falconidae
    a family of birds of the order Falconiformes
    Pandionidae, family Pandionidae
    Sagittariidae, family Sagittariidae
    secretary birds
    Cathartidae, family Cathartidae
    condors; turkey buzzards; king vultures
    Strigidae, family Strigidae
    a family of nocturnal birds of the order Strigiformes
    Tytonidae, family Tytonidae
    comprising only the barn owls
    Salamandridae, family Salamandridae
    Ambystomatidae, family Ambystomatidae
    New World salamanders
    Cryptobranchidae, family Cryptobranchidae
    large aquatic salamanders: hellbenders; giant salamanders
    Dicamptodontidae, family Dicamptodontidae
    large and small highly aquatic salamanders
    Plethodontidae, family Plethodontidae
    small mostly terrestrial New World salamanders having neither lungs nor gills as adults
    Amphiumidae, family Amphiumidae
    congo snakes
    Sirenidae, family Sirenidae
    Ranidae, family Ranidae
    a family nearly cosmopolitan in distribution: true frogs
    Leptodactylidae, family Leptodactylidae
    New World frogs; in some classifications essentially coextensive with the family Bufonidae
    Polypedatidae, family Polypedatidae
    Old World tree frogs
    Ascaphidae, family Ascaphidae
    family of one species of frog: tailed frog
    Leiopelmatidae, Liopelmidae, family Leiopelmatidae, family Liopelmidae
    primitive New Zealand frogs
    Bufonidae, family Bufonidae
    true toads
    Discoglossidae, family Discoglossidae
    family of Old World toads having a fixed disklike tongue
    Pelobatidae, family Pelobatidae
    the amphibian family of spadefoot toads
    Hylidae, family Hylidae
    the amphibian family of tree frogs
    Brevicipitidae, Microhylidae, family Brevicipitidae, family Microhylidae
    narrow-mouthed toads and sheep frogs; some burrow and some are arboreal; found worldwide
    Pipidae, family Pipidae
    tongueless frogs
    Xenopodidae, family Xenopodidae
    in some classifications the family of the genus Xenopus which is otherwise included in the family Pipidae
    Caeciliadae, Caeciliidae, family Caeciliadae, family Caeciliidae
    coextensive with the order Gymnophiona: legless amphibians
    Chelonidae, Cheloniidae, family Chelonidae, family Cheloniidae
    green turtles; hawksbills
    Dermochelyidae, family Dermochelyidae
    sea turtles
    Chelydridae, family Chelydridae
    snapping turtles
    Kinosternidae, family Kinosternidae
    mud turtles; musk turtles
    Emydidae, family Emydidae
    box and water turtles
    Testudinidae, family Testudinidae
    land tortoises
    Trionychidae, family Trionychidae
    soft-shelled turtles
    Gekkonidae, family Gekkonidae
    Pygopodidae, family Pygopodidae
    Australian and Tasmanian lizards
    Iguania, Iguanidae, family Iguania, family Iguanidae
    New World lizards
    Amphisbaenidae, family Amphisbaenidae
    worm lizards
    Xantusiidae, family Xantusiidae
    night lizards
    Scincidae, family Scincidae
    Teiidae, family Teiidae
    whiptails; etc.
    Agamidae, family Agamidae
    an Old World reptile family of Sauria
    Anguidae, family Anguidae
    alligator lizards
    Xenosauridae, family Xenosauridae
    monotypic family of Mexican lizards
    Anniellidae, family Anniellidae
    legless lizards
    Lanthanotidae, family Lanthanotidae
    stout-bodied lizards
    Helodermatidae, family Helodermatidae
    only known venomous lizards
    Lacertidae, family Lacertidae
    Old World lizards
    Chamaeleonidae, Chamaeleontidae, Rhiptoglossa, family Chamaeleonidae, family Chamaeleontidae, family Rhiptoglossa
    Old World chameleons; in some classifications they are considered a superfamily of Sauria
    Varanidae, family Varanidae
    monitor lizards
    Crocodylidae, family Crocodylidae
    true crocodiles
    Alligatoridae, family Alligatoridae
    alligators; caimans
    Gavialidae, family Gavialidae
    Ceratopsidae, family Ceratopsidae
    American ceratopsian dinosaurs
    Hadrosauridae, family Hadrosauridae
    duck-billed dinosaurs; upper Cretaceous
    Iguanodontidae, family Iguanodontidae
    Titanosauridae, family Titanosauridae
    herbivorous dinosaurs of the Cretaceous
    Megalosauridae, family Megalosauridae
    Dromaeosauridae, family Dromaeosauridae
    swift-running bipedal dinosaurs
    Edaphosauridae, family Edaphosauridae
    a family of reptiles of the order Pelycosauria
    Pterodactylidae, family Pterodactylidae
    a reptile family in the order Pterosauria
    Ichthyosauridae, family Ichthyosauridae
    later ichthyosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous; widely distributed in both hemispheres
    Colubridae, family Colubridae
    nonvenomous snakes; about two-thirds of all living species
    Typhlopidae, family Typhlopidae
    blind snakes
    Leptotyphlopidae, family Leptotyphlopidae
    blind snakes
    Boidae, family Boidae
    boas and pythons
    Pythoninae, subfamily Pythoninae
    Old World boas: pythons; in some classifications considered a separate family from Boidae
    Pythonidae, family Pythonidae
    in some classifications a family separate from Boidae comprising Old World boas
    Elapidae, family Elapidae
    cobras; kraits; mambas; coral snakes; Australian taipan and tiger snakes
    Hydrophidae, family Hydrophidae
    sea snakes
    Viperidae, family Viperidae
    Old World vipers
    Crotalidae, family Crotalidae
    New World vipers: pit vipers
    Phalangiidae, family Phalangiidae
    a family of Phalangida
    Argiopidae, family Argiopidae, orb-weaver
    spiders that spin orb webs; cosmopolitan in distribution
    Theridiidae, family Theridiidae
    a family of comb-footed spiders
    Theraphosidae, family Theraphosidae
    large tropical spiders; tarantulas
    Lycosidae, family Lycosidae
    wolf spiders
    Ctenizidae, family Ctenizidae
    large burrowing spiders
    Ixodidae, family Ixodidae
    hard ticks
    Argasidae, family Argasidae
    soft ticks
    Acaridae, family Acaridae
    Trombidiidae, family Trombidiidae
    Trombiculidae, family Trombiculidae
    Sarcoptidae, family Sarcoptidae
    small whitish mites
    Tetranychidae, family Tetranychidae
    plant-feeding mites
    Scutigeridae, family Scutigeridae
    a family of Chilopoda
    Geophilidae, family Geophilidae
    small extremely elongate centipedes that live in earth
    Limulidae, family Limulidae
    horseshoe crabs
    Meleagrididae, family Meleagrididae
    turkeys and some extinct forms
    Tetraonidae, family Tetraonidae
    Cracidae, family Cracidae
    curassows; guans; chachalacas
    Megapodiidae, family Megapodiidae
    Phasianidae, family Phasianidae
    pheasants; quails; partridges
    Perdicidae, Perdicinae, subfamily Perdicidae, subfamily Perdicinae
    Old World partridges
    Numididae, Numidinae, subfamily Numididae, subfamily Numidinae
    guinea fowl and related birds of Africa and Madagascar
    Opisthocomidae, family Opisthocomidae
    comprising the hoatzins
    Tinamidae, family Tinamidae
    comprising the tinamous
    Raphidae, family Raphidae
    extinct dodos and solitaires
    Columbidae, family Columbidae
    doves and pigeons
    Pteroclididae, family Pteroclididae
    Psittacidae, family Psittacidae
    coextensive with the order Psittaciformes
    Loriinae, subfamily Loriinae
    Cuculidae, family Cuculidae
    includes cuckoo; ani; roadrunner
    Musophagidae, family Musophagidae
    Coraciidae, family Coraciidae
    Alcedinidae, family Alcedinidae
    Meropidae, family Meropidae
    Bucerotidae, family Bucerotidae
    Upupidae, family Upupidae
    Phoeniculidae, family Phoeniculidae
    wood hoopoes
    Momotidae, family Momotidae
    a family of birds of the order Coraciiformes
    Todidae, family Todidae
    a family of birds of the order Coraciiformes
    Apodidae, family Apodidae
    swifts; in former classifications included in the order Coraciiformes
    Hemiprocnidae, family Hemiprocnidae
    tree swifts
    Trochilidae, family Trochilidae
    Caprimulgidae, family Caprimulgidae
    Podargidae, family Podargidae
    Steatornithidae, family Steatornithidae
    Picidae, family Picidae
    Capitonidae, family Capitonidae
    Bucconidae, family Bucconidae
    Indicatoridae, family Indicatoridae
    honey guides
    Galbulidae, family Galbulidae
    Ramphastidae, family Ramphastidae
    Trogonidae, family Trogonidae
    coextensive with the order Trogoniformes
    Anatidae, family Anatidae
    swimming birds having heavy short-legged bodies and bills with a horny tip: swans; geese; ducks
    Merginae, subfamily Merginae
    mergansers and closely related diving birds
    Anserinae, subfamily Anserinae
    used in some classifications for the swans
    Anhimidae, family Anhimidae
    Tachyglossidae, family Tachyglossidae
    Ornithorhynchidae, family Ornithorhynchidae
    Didelphidae, family Didelphidae
    Caenolestidae, family Caenolestidae
    small marsupials of southern South America
    Peramelidae, family Peramelidae
    Macropodidae, family Macropodidae
    kangaroos; wallabies
    Potoroinae, subfamily Potoroinae
    rat kangaroos
    Phalangeridae, family Phalangeridae
    phalangers; koalas
    Vombatidae, family Vombatidae
    Dasyuridae, family Dasyuridae, family Dasyurinae
    dasyures; native cats; pouched mice; banded anteaters; Tasmanian devils
    Notoryctidae, family Notoryctidae
    pouched moles
    Talpidae, family Talpidae
    Chrysochloridae, family Chrysochloridae
    golden moles
    Soricidae, family Soricidae
    Erinaceidae, family Erinaceidae
    true hedgehogs
    Tenrecidae, family Tenrecidae
    tenrecs and extinct related forms
    Potamogalidae, family Potamogalidae
    otter shrews
    Pennatulidae, family Pennatulidae
    sea pens
    Pleurobrachiidae, family Pleurobrachiidae
    sea gooseberries
    Cestidae, family Cestidae
    coextensive with the order Cestida; ctenophores having a greatly flattened and elongated body
    Fasciolidae, family Fasciolidae
    a family of Trematoda
    Schistosomatidae, family Schistosomatidae
    a family of Trematoda
    Taeniidae, family Taeniidae
    a family of Cestoda
    Ascaridae, family Ascaridae
    large roundworms parasitic in intestines of vertebrates
    Oxyuridae, family Oxyuridae
    Cephalobidae, family Cephalobidae
    a family of Nematoda
    Tylenchidae, family Tylenchidae
    a family of Nematoda
    Ancylostomatidae, family Ancylostomatidae
    Filariidae, family Filariidae
    threadlike roundworms
    Dracunculidae, family Dracunculidae
    greatly elongated roundworm
    Branchiobdellidae, family Branchiobdellidae
    small annelid worms with the posterior end modified into an adhesive sucker; especially formerly regarded as modified leeches
    Terebellidae, family Terebellidae
    marine burrowing or tube-forming polychete worms usually having long thick bodies
    Hirudinidae, family Hirudinidae
    a family of Hirudinea
    Haliotidae, family Haliotidae
    Strombidae, family Strombidae
    the family of conchs
    Helicidae, family Helicidae
    land snails including the common edible snail and some pests
    Limacidae, family Limacidae
    Neritidae, family Neritidae
    Buccinidae, family Buccinidae
    Cymatiidae, family Cymatiidae
    Naticidae, family Naticidae
    Littorinidae, family Littorinidae
    Patellidae, family Patellidae
    marine limpets
    Fissurellidae, family Fissurellidae
    marine limpets
    Ancylidae, family Ancylidae
    freshwater gastropod
    Aplysiidae, Tethyidae, family Aplysiidae, family Tethyidae
    sea hares
    Akeridae, family Akeridae
    bubble shells
    Physidae, family Physidae
    freshwater snails
    Cypraeidae, family Cypraeidae
    family of marine gastropods comprising the cowries
    Myacidae, family Myacidae
    soft-shell clams
    Veneridae, family Veneridae
    hard-shell clams
    Solenidae, family Solenidae
    razor clams
    Tridacnidae, family Tridacnidae
    large marine hard-shell clams
    Cardiidae, family Cardiidae
    somewhat heart-shaped sand-burrowing bivalve mollusks
    Ostreidae, family Ostreidae
    Pteriidae, family Pteriidae
    pearl oysters
    Anomiidae, family Anomiidae
    saddle oysters
    Arcidae, family Arcidae
    ark shells
    Mytilidae, family Mytilidae
    marine mussels
    Unionidae, family Unionidae
    freshwater mussels found worldwide
    Pectinidae, family Pectinidae
    Teredinidae, family Teredinidae
    Pholadidae, family Pholadidae
    a family of Bivalvia
    Nautilidae, family Nautilidae
    spiral-shelled cephalopods
    Octopodidae, family Octopodidae
    a family of Octopoda
    Argonautidae, family Argonautidae
    represented solely by the genus Argonauta
    Sepiidae, family Sepiidae
    true cuttlefishes
    Spirulidae, family Spirulidae
    coextensive with the genus Spirula; included in the order Belemnoidea in some older classifications
    Belemnitidae, family Belemnitidae
    family of extinct Mesozoic cephalopods
    Cancridae, family Cancridae
    many of the best known edible crabs
    Portunidae, family Portunidae
    swimming crabs
    Pinnotheridae, family Pinnotheridae
    tiny soft-bodied crabs
    Lithodidae, family Lithodidae
    deep-sea crabs of cold waters
    Majidae, family Majidae
    spider crabs
    Homaridae, family Homaridae
    large-clawed lobsters
    Nephropsidae, family Nephropsidae
    in some classifications coextensive with the Homaridae
    Palinuridae, family Palinuridae
    spiny lobsters
    Astacidae, Astacura, family Astacidae
    Paguridae, family Paguridae
    hermit crabs
    Crangonidae, family Crangonidae
    Palaemonidae, family Palaemonidae
    Peneidae, family Peneidae
    tropical prawns
    Mysidae, family Mysidae
    small shrimp-like crustaceans
    Squillidae, family Squillidae
    crustaceans that burrow in mud or under stones in shallow water along the seashore
    Armadillidiidae, family Armadillidiidae
    pill bugs
    Oniscidae, family Oniscidae
    a family of Isopoda
    Porcellionidae, family Porcellionidae
    sow bugs
    Orchestiidae, family Orchestiidae
    beach fleas
    Triopidae, family Triopidae
    a family of Notostraca
    Balanidae, family Balanidae
    stalkless barnacles
    Lepadidae, family Lepadidae
    goose barnacles
    Peripatidae, family Peripatidae
    a family of Onychophora
    Peripatopsidae, family Peripatopsidae
    a family of Onychophora
    Ciconiidae, family Ciconiidae
    Balaenicipitidae, family Balaenicipitidae
    Threskiornithidae, family Ibidiidae, family Threskiornithidae
    Plataleidae, family Plataleidae
    Phoenicopteridae, family Phoenicopteridae
    Ardeidae, family Ardeidae
    herons; egrets; night herons; bitterns
    Gruidae, family Gruidae
    Cariamidae, family Cariamidae
    crane-like South American wading birds
    Rallidae, family Rallidae
    rails; crakes; gallinules; coots
    Otididae, family Otididae
    Turnicidae, family Turnicidae
    small Old World birds resembling but not related to true quail
    Psophiidae, family Psophiidae
    Charadriidae, family Charadriidae
    plover family
    Scolopacidae, family Scolopacidae
    sandpiper family: sandpipers; woodcocks; snipes; tattlers; curlews; godwits; dowitchers
    Recurvirostridae, family Recurvirostridae
    long-legged shorebirds
    Haematopodidae, family Haematopodidae
    Phalaropidae, family Phalaropidae
    Glareolidae, family Glareolidae
    Old World shorebirds: pratincoles and coursers
    Burhinidae, family Burhinidae
    large wading birds resembling the plovers: stone curlews
    Laridae, family Laridae
    gull family: gulls and terns
    Sterninae, subfamily Sterninae
    Rynchopidae, family Rynchopidae
    coextensive with the genus Rynchops: skimmers
    Stercorariidae, family Stercorariidae
    jaegers and skuas:
    Alcidae, family Alcidae
    web-footed diving seabirds of northern seas: auks; puffins; guillemots; murres; etc.
    Gavidae, family Gavidae
    loon family
    Podicipedidae, family Podicipedidae
    coextensive with the order Podicipitiformes
    Pelecanidae, family Pelecanidae
    Fregatidae, family Fregatidae
    frigate birds
    Sulidae, family Sulidae
    gannets and boobies
    Phalacrocoracidae, family Phalacrocoracidae
    Anhingidae, family Anhingidae
    Phaethontidae, family Phaethontidae
    Spheniscidae, family Spheniscidae
    comprising all existing penguins
    Diomedeidae, family Diomedeidae
    Procellariidae, family Procellariidae
    petrels; fulmars; shearwaters;
    Hydrobatidae, family Hydrobatidae
    storm petrels
    Pelecanoididae, family Pelecanoididae
    diving petrels
    Balaenidae, family Balaenidae
    right whales
    Balaenopteridae, family Balaenopteridae
    rorquals; blue whales
    Eschrichtiidae, family Eschrichtiidae
    comprising only the grey whales
    Physeteridae, family Physeteridae
    sperm whales
    Hyperodontidae, Ziphiidae, family Hyperodontidae, family Ziphiidae
    beaked whales; in some especially former classifications included in the family Physeteridae
    Delphinidae, family Delphinidae
    Platanistidae, family Platanistidae
    river dolphins
    Monodontidae, family Monodontidae
    Trichechidae, family Trichechidae
    comprising only the manatees
    Dugongidae, family Dugongidae
    a family of mammals of order Sirenia including dugongs and Steller's sea cow
    Otariidae, family Otariidae
    eared seals: sea lions and fur seals
    Phocidae, family Phocidae
    earless seals
    Odobenidae, family Odobenidae
    walruses and extinct forms
    Orycteropodidae, family Orycteropodidae
    Canidae, family Canidae
    dogs; wolves; jackals; foxes
    Hyaenidae, family Hyaenidae
    Felidae, family Felidae
    cats; wildcats; lions; leopards; cheetahs; saber-toothed tigers
    Ursidae, family Ursidae
    bears and extinct related forms
    Viverridae, Viverrinae, family Viverridae, family Viverrinae
    genets; civets; mongooses
    Phyllostomatidae, Phyllostomidae, family Phyllostomatidae, family Phyllostomidae
    New World leaf-nosed bats
    Rhinolophidae, family Rhinolophidae
    Old World leaf-nosed bats
    Hipposideridae, family Hipposideridae
    Old World leafnose bats
    Megadermatidae, family Megadermatidae
    Old World false vampire bats
    Vespertilionidae, family Vespertilionidae
    the majority of common bats of temperate regions of the world
    Molossidae, family Molossidae
    mastiff bats; freetail bats
    Desmodontidae, family Desmodontidae
    true vampire bats
    Cicindelidae, family Cicindelidae
    tiger beetles
    Coccinellidae, family Coccinellidae
    the ladybugs
    Carabidae, family Carabidae
    ground beetles
    Lampyridae, family Lampyridae
    Cerambycidae, family Cerambycidae
    long-horned beetles
    Chrysomelidae, family Chrysomelidae
    leaf beetles
    Dermestidae, family Dermestidae
    carpet beetles
    Cleridae, family Cleridae
    beetles that prey on other insects
    Lamellicornia, superfamily Lamellicornia
    scarabaeid beetles and stag beetles
    Scarabaeidae, family Scarabaeidae
    scarab or dung beetles
    Melolonthidae, subfamily Melolonthidae
    considered a separate family in some classification systems
    Cetoniidae, subfamily Cetoniidae
    considered a separate family in some classification systems
    Lucanidae, family Lucanidae
    stag beetles
    Elateridae, family Elateridae
    click beetles and certain fireflies
    Dytiscidae, family Dytiscidae
    water beetles
    Gyrinidae, family Gyrinidae
    whirligig beetles
    Anobiidae, family Anobiidae
    deathwatch beetles
    Curculionidae, family Curculionidae
    true weevils: snout beetles
    Meloidae, family Meloidae
    blister beetles
    Ipidae, Scolytidae, family Ipidae, family Scolytidae
    large family of bark-boring or wood-boring short-beaked beetles; very destructive to forest and fruit trees
    Staphylinidae, family Staphylinidae
    rove beetles
    Tenebrionidae, family Tenebrionidae
    a family of arthropods including darkling beetles and mealworms
    Bruchidae, family Bruchidae
    seed beetles
    Pediculidae, family Pediculidae
    true lice: human lice and related forms
    Phthiriidae, family Phthiriidae
    crab lice
    Pulicidae, family Pulicidae
    many common fleas attacking humans and domestic animals
    Cecidomyidae, family Cecidomyidae
    gall midges
    Muscoidea, superfamily Muscoidea
    two-winged flies especially the families: Muscidae; Gasterophilidae; Calliphoridae; Tachinidae
    Muscidae, family Muscidae
    two-winged flies especially the housefly
    Glossinidae, family Glossinidae
    flies closely related to the Muscidae: tsetse flies
    Calliphoridae, family Calliphoridae
    Tachinidae, family Tachinidae
    parasites on other insects
    Gasterophilidae, family Gasterophilidae
    horse botflies
    Cuterebridae, family Cuterebridae
    New World botflies
    Hypodermatidae, Oestridae, family Hypodermatidae, family Oestridae
    warble flies
    Tabanidae, family Tabanidae
    Bombyliidae, family Bombyliidae
    bee flies
    Asilidae, family Asilidae
    robber flies
    Trephritidae, Trypetidae, family Trephritidae, family Trypetidae
    fruit flies; some leaf miners
    Drosophilidae, family Drosophilidae
    fruit flies
    Hippoboscidae, family Hippoboscidae
    winged or wingless dipterans: louse flies
    Culicidae, family Culicidae
    Ceratopogonidae, family Ceratopogonidae
    biting midges; sand flies
    Chironomidae, family Chironomidae
    Mycetophilidae, family Mycetophylidae
    fungus gnats
    Psychodidae, family Psychodidae
    very small two-winged flies with hairy wings that develop in moss and damp vegetable matter: sand flies
    Sciaridae, family Sciaridae
    fungus gnats
    Tipulidae, family Tipulidae
    crane flies
    Simuliidae, family Simuliidae
    blackflies and sand flies
    Apoidea, superfamily Apoidea
    Apidae, family Apidae
    honeybees; carpenter bees; bumblebees
    Andrenidae, family Andrenidae
    a large family of solitary short-tongued bees most of which burrow in the ground
    Halictidae, family Halictidae
    a family of small solitary bees; many are valuable pollinators for agriculture
    Megachilidae, family Megachilidae
    leaf-cutting and mason bees
    Vespidae, family Vespidae
    an arthropod family of the order Hymenoptera including: yellow jackets; hornets; mason wasps
    Sphecoidea, superfamily Sphecoidea
    families Sphecidae and Stizidae
    Sphecidae, family Sphecidae
    mud daubers; some digger wasps
    Stizidae, family Stizidae
    cicada killers
    Cynipidae, family Cynipidae
    a family of Hymenoptera
    Chalcidae, Chalcididae, family Chalcidae, family Chalcididae
    an arthropod family including: chalcidflies
    Ichneumonidae, family Ichneumonidae
    ichneumon flies
    Tenthredinidae, family Tenthredinidae
    Formicidae, family Formicidae
    Dorylinae, subfamily Dorylinae
    army ants
    Termitidae, family Termitidae
    Rhinotermitidae, family Rhinotermitidae
    large widely distributed family of termites of temperate to tropical regions
    Mastotermitidae, family Mastotermitidae
    primitive termites
    Kalotermitidae, family Kalotermitidae
    primitive termites of warm regions
    Acrididae, Locustidae, family Acrididae, family Locustidae
    short-horned grasshoppers; true locusts
    Tettigoniidae, family Tettigoniidae
    long-horned grasshoppers; katydids
    Stenopelmatidae, family Stenopelmatidae
    long-horned grasshoppers
    Gryllidae, family Gryllidae
    Phasmatidae, Phasmidae, family Phasmatidae, family Phasmidae
    stick insects
    Phillidae, Phyllidae, family Phillidae, family Phyllidae
    leaf insects
    Blattidae, family Blattidae
    domestic cockroaches
    Cryptocercidae, family Cryptocercidae
    a family of Blattodea
    Manteidae, Mantidae, family Manteidae, family Mantidae
    Capsidae, Miridae, family Capsidae, family Miridae
    leaf bugs
    Tingidae, family Tingidae
    lace bugs
    Lygaeidae, family Lygaeidae
    lygaeid bugs
    Coreidae, family Coreidae
    squash bugs and leaf-footed bugs
    Cimicidae, family Cimicidae
    wingless flat-bodied bloodsucking insects
    Notonectidae, family Notonectidae
    aquatic carnivorous insects
    Belostomatidae, family Belostomatidae
    water bugs
    Nepidae, family Nepidae
    water scorpions
    Corixidae, family Corixidae
    water bugs
    Gerridae, Gerrididae, family Gerridae, family Gerrididae
    an arthropod family that includes water striders
    Reduviidae, family Reduviidae
    assassin bugs
    Pyrrhocoridae, family Pyrrhocoridae
    Aleyrodidae, family Aleyrodidae
    Coccoidea, superfamily Coccoidea
    scale insects and mealybugs
    Coccidae, family Coccidae
    scale insects
    Diaspididae, family Diaspididae
    armored scales
    Dactylopiidae, family Dactylopiidae
    cochineal insects
    Pseudococcidae, family Pseudococcidae
    scalelike insects: mealybugs
    Aphidoidea, superfamily Aphidoidea
    plant lice
    Aphididae, family Aphididae
    small soft-bodied plant lice
    Adelgidae, family Adelgidae
    plant lice
    Phylloxeridae, family Phylloxeridae
    plant lice
    Chermidae, Psyllidae, family Chermidae, family Psyllidae
    jumping plant lice
    Cicadidae, family Cicadidae
    Cercopidae, family Cercopidae
    froghoppers or spittlebugs
    Cicadellidae, family Cicadellidae
    Jassidae, family Jassidae
    family of small leafhoppers coextensive with the Cicadellidae and not distinguished from it in some classifications
    Membracidae, family Membracidae
    plant hoppers: treehoppers
    Fulgoridae, family Fulgoridae
    plant hoppers: lantern flies
    Psocidae, family Psocidae
    a family of small soft-bodied insects that feed on decaying vegetation; related to booklice
    Atropidae, family Atropidae
    Ephemeridae, family Ephemeridae
    Myrmeleontidae, family Myrmeleontidae
    Chrysopidae, family Chrysopidae
    green lacewings
    Hemerobiidae, family Hemerobiidae
    brown lacewings
    Corydalidae, family Corydalidae
    Sialidae, family Sialidae
    an arthropod family including: alderflies
    Raphidiidae, family Raphidiidae
    a family of arthropods of the suborder Megaloptera, including snakeflies
    Mantispidae, family Mantispidae
    Sisyridae, family Sisyridae
    an arthropod family of the order Neuroptera that includes spongeflies
    Lepismatidae, family Lepismatidae
    Machilidae, family Machilidae
    jumping bristletails
    Thripidae, family Thripidae
    Forficulidae, family Forficulidae
    typical earwigs
    Nymphalidae, family Nymphalidae
    large beautifully colored butterflies
    Satyridae, family Satyridae
    a widely distributed family of butterflies common near the edges of woods
    Danaidae, family Danaidae
    small family of usually tropical butterflies: monarch butterflies
    Pieridae, family Pieridae
    arthropod family including cabbage butterflies; sulphur butterflies
    Lycaenidae, family Lycaenidae
    family of small usually brilliantly colored butterflies; males have short forelegs
    Tortricidae, family Tortricidae
    leaf rollers and codling moths
    Lymantriidae, family Lymantriidae
    tussock moths
    Geometridae, family Geometridae
    measuring worms
    Pyralidae, Pyralididae, family Pyralidae, family Pyralididae
    bee moths; corn borers; flour moths
    Tineoidea, superfamily Tineoidea
    clothes moths; carpet moths; leaf miners
    Tineidae, family Tineidae
    clothes moths
    Gracilariidae, Gracillariidae, family Gracilariidae
    leaf miners
    Gelechiidae, family Gelechiidae
    important economic pests
    Noctuidae, family Noctuidae
    cutworms; armyworms
    Sphingidae, family Sphingidae
    Bombycidae, family Bombycidae
    Chinese silkworm moth
    Saturniidae, family Saturniidae
    important and widely distributed family of moths including some of the largest insects known
    Arctiidae, family Arctiidae
    tiger moths
    Lasiocampidae, family Lasiocampidae
    tent caterpillars; eggars; lappet moths
    Antedonidae, family Antedonidae
    feather stars
    Holothuridae, family Holothuridae
    a family of Holothuroidea
    Leporidae, family Leporidae
    hares and rabbits
    Ochotonidae, family Ochotonidae
    pikas and extinct forms
    Muroidea, superfamily Muroidea
    a superfamily of rodents essentially equal to the suborder Myomorpha but with the Dipodidae excluded
    Muridae, family Muridae
    originally Old World rats now distributed worldwide; distinguished from the Cricetidae by typically lacking cheek pouches
    Hydromyinae, subfamily Hydromyinae
    water rats of Australia and New Guinea
    Cricetidae, family Cricetidae
    mostly small New World rodents including New World mice and lemmings and voles and hamsters
    Gerbillinae, subfamily Gerbillinae
    Hystricidae, family Hystricidae
    Old World porcupines
    Erethizontidae, family Erethizontidae
    New World arboreal porcupines
    Heteromyidae, family Heteromyidae
    small New World burrowing mouselike rodents with fur-lined cheek pouches and hind limbs and tail adapted to leaping; adapted to desert conditions: pocket mice; kangaroo mice; kangaroo rats
    Zapodidae, family Zapodidae
    jumping mice
    Dipodidae, family Dipodidae
    Old World jerboas
    Gliridae, family Gliridae
    dormice and other Old World forms
    Geomyidae, family Geomyidae
    North American pocket gophers
    Sciuridae, family Sciuridae
    a mammal family of true squirrels including: ground squirrels; marmots; chipmunks; flying squirrels; spermophiles
    Petauristidae, subfamily Petauristidae
    Old World flying squirrels
    Castoridae, family Castoridae
    Aplodontiidae, family Aplodontiidae
    mountain beavers
    Caviidae, family Caviidae
    a family of Hystricomorpha
    Hydrochoeridae, family Hydrochoeridae
    Dasyproctidae, family Dasyproctidae
    agoutis and pacas
    Capromyidae, family Capromyidae
    Chinchillidae, family Chinchillidae
    small bushy-tailed South American burrowing rodents
    Spalacidae, family Spalacidae
    mole rats
    Bathyergidae, family Bathyergidae
    mole rats; sand rats
    Uintatheriidae, family Uintatheriidae
    an extinct family of Dinocerata
    Procaviidae, family Procaviidae
    includes all recent members of the order Hyracoidea
    Equidae, family Equidae
    horses; asses; zebras; extinct animals
    Rhinocerotidae, family Rhinocerotidae, rhinoceros family
    Tapiridae, family Tapiridae
    tapirs and extinct related forms
    Suidae, family Suidae
    pigs; hogs; boars
    Tayassuidae, family Tayassuidae
    Hippopotamidae, family Hippopotamidae
    Bovidae, family Bovidae
    true antelopes; cattle; oxen; sheep; goats
    Bovinae, subfamily Bovinae
    term not used technically; essentially coextensive with genus Bos: cattle; buffalo; and sometimes includes kudu
    Antilocapridae, family Antilocapridae
    comprising only the pronghorns
    Cervidae, family Cervidae
    deer: reindeer; moose or elks; muntjacs; roe deer
    Tragulidae, family Tragulidae
    Camelidae, family Camelidae
    camels and llamas and vicunas
    Giraffidae, family Giraffidae
    Mustelidae, family Mustelidae
    weasels; polecats; ferrets; minks; fishers; otters; badgers; skunks; wolverines; martens
    Lutrinae, subfamily Lutrinae
    subdivision not used in some classifications: otters
    Mephitinae, subfamily Mephitinae
    subdivision not used in some classifications: skunks
    Melinae, subfamily Melinae
    subdivision not used in some classifications: badgers
    Dasypodidae, family Dasypodidae
    Bradypodidae, family Bradypodidae
    a family of edentates comprising the true sloths
    Megalonychidae, family Megalonychidae
    mammal family consisting of the two-toed sloths
    Megatheriidae, family Megatheriidae
    extinct ground sloths
    Mylodontidae, family Mylodontidae
    extinct South American edentates
    Myrmecophagidae, family Myrmecophagidae
    New World anteaters
    Manidae, family Manidae
    coextensive with the order Pholidota
    Hominidae, family Hominidae
    modern man and extinct immediate ancestors of man
    Pongidae, family Pongidae
    usually considered as comprising orangutans; gorillas; chimpanzees; and sometimes gibbons
    Hylobatidae, family Hylobatidae
    used in some classifications for the lesser apes (gibbons and siamangs); sometimes considered a subfamily of Pongidae
    Cercopithecidae, family Cercopithecidae
    Old World monkeys: guenon; baboon; colobus monkey; langur; macaque; mandrill; mangabey; patas; proboscis monkey
    Platyrrhini, superfamily Platyrrhini
    New World monkeys: capuchin; douroucouli; howler monkey; saki; spider monkey; squirrel monkey; titi; uakari; woolly monkey; marmoset; tamarin
    Callithricidae, family Callithricidae
    Cebidae, family Cebidae
    all the New World monkeys except marmosets and tamarins
    Tupaiidae, family Tupaiidae
    tree shrews; in some classifications tree shrews are considered prosimian primates
    Lemuridae, family Lemuridae
    typical lemurs; of Madagascar
    Daubentoniidae, family Daubentoniidae
    comprising solely the aye-aye
    Lorisidae, family Lorisidae
    slow-moving omnivorous nocturnal primates of tropical Asia; usually tailless
    Indriidae, family Indriidae
    a family of Lemuroidea
    Tarsiidae, family Tarsiidae
    coextensive with the genus Tarsius: tarsiers
    Cynocephalidae, family Cynocephalidae
    a family of Dermoptera
    Elephantidae, family Elephantidae
    Mammutidae, family Mammutidae, family Mastodontidae
    extinct family: mastodons
    Gomphotheriidae, family Gomphotheriidae
    elephants extinct since the Pleistocene
    Procyonidae, family Procyonidae
    raccoons; coatis; cacomistles; kinkajous; and sometimes pandas
    Bassariscidae, subfamily Bassariscidae
    in some classifications considered a separate family
    Ailuropodidae, family Ailuropodidae
    in some classifications considered the family comprising the giant pandas
    Latimeridae, family Latimeridae
    extinct except for the coelacanth
    Ceratodontidae, family Ceratodontidae
    lungfishes having hornlike ridges on the teeth
    Siluridae, family Siluridae
    Old World catfishes
    Ameiuridae, family Ameiuridae
    North American catfishes
    Laricariidae, family Laricariidae
    armored catfish
    Ariidae, family Ariidae
    sea catfishes
    Gadidae, family Gadidae
    large family of important mostly marine food fishes
    Macrouridae, Macruridae, family Macrouridae, family Macruridae
    Anguillidae, family Anguillidae
    eels that live in fresh water as adults but return to the sea to spawn
    Muraenidae, family Muraenidae
    marine eels
    Congridae, family Congridae
    marine eels
    Gonorhynchidae, family Gonorhynchidae
    coextensive with the genus Gonorhynchus
    Clupeidae, family Clupeidae
    herrings; shad; sardines; etc.
    Engraulidae, family Engraulidae
    Salmonidae, family Salmonidae
    salmon and trout
    Coregonidae, family Coregonidae
    soft-finned fishes comprising the freshwater whitefishes; formerly included in the family Salmonidae
    Osmeridae, family Osmeridae
    Elopidae, family Elopidae
    tarpons and ladyfishes
    Albulidae, family Albulidae
    Argentinidae, family Argentinidae
    small marine soft-finned fishes with long silvery bodies; related to salmons and trouts
    Myctophidae, family Myctophidae
    deep-sea fishes comprising the lantern fishes
    Synodontidae, family Synodontidae
    soft-finned bottom-dwelling fishes
    Chlorophthalmidae, family Chlorophthalmidae
    small family of soft-finned bottom-dwellers with large eyes; relatives of lizardfishes
    Osteoglossidae, family Osteoglossidae
    a family of large fishes that live in freshwater; includes bandfish and bonytongues
    Lampridae, family Lampridae
    Trachipteridae, family Trachipteridae
    Regalecidae, family Regalecidae
    Ogcocephalidae, family Ogcocephalidae
    batfishes: sluggish bottom-dwelling spiny fishes
    Lophiidae, family Lophiidae
    large-headed marine fishes comprising the anglers
    Batrachoididae, family Batrachoididae
    toadfishes; related to anglers and batfishes
    Antennariidae, family Antennariidae
    frogfishes; tropical spiny-finned marine fishes having large nearly vertical mouths; related to toadfishes and anglers
    Belonidae, family Belonidae
    ferocious fishes of warm regions resembling but unrelated to the freshwater gars
    Exocoetidae, family Exocoetidae
    flying fishes; closely related to the halfbeaks
    Hemiramphidae, family Hemiramphidae
    halfbeaks; marine and freshwater fishes closely related to the flying fishes but not able to glide
    Scomberesocidae, Scombresocidae, family Scomberesocidae, family Scombresocidae
    only sauries
    Ophiodontidae, family Ophiodontidae
    fishes closely related to greenlings
    Anabantidae, family Anabantidae
    small freshwater spiny-finned fishes of Africa and southern Asia
    Percidae, family Percidae
    active freshwater fishes; true perches and pike perches
    Trichodontidae, family Trichodontidae
    two species of elongate compressed scaleless large-eyed fishes that live in sand or mud
    Ophidiidae, family Ophidiidae
    eellike marine fishes
    Brotulidae, family Brotulidae
    chiefly deep-sea fishes related to the Ophidiidae
    Carapidae, family Carapidae
    pearlfishes: related to the Brotulidae
    Centropomidae, family Centropomidae
    a family of fish or the order Perciformes including robalos
    Esocidae, family Esocidae
    pikes; pickerels; muskellunges
    Centrarchidae, family Centrarchidae
    sunfish family
    Serranidae, family Serranidae
    marine fishes: sea basses; sea perches; groupers; jewfish
    Embiotocidae, family Embiotocidae
    viviparous percoid fishes comprising the surf fishes
    Priacanthidae, family Priacanthidae
    small carnivorous percoid fishes found worldwide in tropical seas
    Apogonidae, family Apogonidae
    bright-colored marine fishes that incubate eggs in the mouth
    Malacanthidae, family Malacanthidae
    short-headed marine fishes; often brightly colored
    Pomatomidae, family Pomatomidae
    food and game fishes related to pompanos
    Rachycentridae, family Rachycentridae
    family of pelagic fishes containing solely the cobia
    Echeneididae, family Echeneidae, family Echeneididae
    fishes having a sucking disk on the head for clinging to other fishes and to ships
    Carangidae, family Carangidae
    large family of narrow-bodied marine food fishes with widely forked tails; chiefly of warm seas
    Coryphaenidae, family Coryphaenidae
    large active pelagic percoid fish
    Bramidae, family Bramidae
    deep-bodied percoid fishes of the open seas
    Branchiostegidae, family Branchiostegidae
    small family of marine fishes having covered gills
    Characidae, family Characidae
    tropical freshwater fishes of Africa and South America and Central America
    Characinidae, family Characinidae
    former name of the Characidae
    Cichlidae, family Cichlidae
    Lutjanidae, family Lutjanidae
    Haemulidae, family Haemulidae
    Sparidae, family Sparidae
    porgies; scups
    Sciaenidae, family Sciaenidae
    warm-water marine fishes including the drums and grunts and croakers and sea trout
    Mullidae, family Mullidae
    goatfishes or red mullets
    Mugilidae, family Mugilidae
    grey mullets
    Atherinidae, family Atherinidae
    small spiny-finned fishes of both salt and fresh water
    Sphyraenidae, family Sphyraenidae
    monotypic family of large active fishes of tropical and subtropical waters: barracuda
    Pempheridae, family Pempheridae
    Kyphosidae, family Kyphosidae
    sea chubs
    Ephippidae, family Ephippidae
    small family comprising the spadefishes
    Chaetodontidae, family Chaetodontidae
    butterfly fishes
    Pomacentridae, family Pomacentridae
    Labridae, family Labridae
    Scaridae, family Scaridae
    Polynemidae, family Polynemidae
    Opisthognathidae, family Opisthognathidae
    Uranoscopidae, family Uranoscopidae
    Dactyloscopidae, family Dactyloscopidae
    sand stargazers
    Blenniidae, family Blenniidae
    a family of fish including: combtooth blennies
    Clinidae, family Clinidae
    viviparous blennies of temperate and tropical seas
    Pholidae, family Pholidae, family Pholididae
    a family of fish of suborder Blennioidea
    Stichaeidae, family Stichaeidae
    Anarhichadidae, family Anarhichadidae
    Zoarcidae, family Zoarcidae
    Ammodytidae, family Ammodytidae
    sand lances
    Callionymidae, family Callionymidae
    Gobiidae, family Gobiidae
    Eleotridae, family Eleotridae
    Percophidae, family Percophidae
    percoid flatheads
    Toxotidae, family Toxotidae
    Microdesmidae, family Microdesmidae
    worm fish
    Acanthuridae, family Acanthuridae
    Gempylidae, family Gempylidae
    snake mackerels
    Trichiuridae, family Trichiuridae
    Scombridae, family Scombridae
    marine food fishes: mackerels; chub mackerels; tuna
    Katsuwonidae, family Kasuwonidae
    in some classifications considered a separate family comprising the oceanic bonitos
    Xiphiidae, family Xiphiidae
    comprising the common swordfishes
    Istiophoridae, family Istiophoridae
    sailfishes; spearfishes; marlins
    Luvaridae, family Luvaridae
    Stromateidae, family Stromateidae
    butterfishes: harvest fishes; dollar fishes
    Gobiesocidae, family Gobiesocidae
    Lobotidae, family Lobotidae
    Gerreidae, Gerridae, family Gerreidae, family Gerridae
    Sillaginidae, family Sillaginidae
    small family of small food fishes in shallow waters of the Pacific around Indonesia
    Amiidae, family Amiidae
    only the bowfins
    Polyodontidae, family Polyodontidae
    Acipenseridae, family Acipenseridae
    Lepisosteidae, family Lepisosteidae
    comprises the genus Lepisosteus
    Scorpaenidae, family Scorpaenidae
    scorpionfishes; rockfishes; lionfishes
    Cottidae, family Cottidae
    Cyclopteridae, family Cyclopteridae
    Liparidae, Liparididae, family Liparidae, family Liparididae
    Agonidae, family Agonidae
    Hexagrammidae, family Hexagrammidae
    Platycephalidae, family Platycephalidae
    scorpaenoid flatheads
    Triglidae, family Triglidae
    in some classifications restricted to the gurnards and subdivided into the subfamilies Triglinae (true sea robins) and Peristediinae (armored sea robins)
    Triglinae, subfamily Triglinae
    in some classifications considered a subfamily of Triglidae comprising searobins having ordinary scales and no barbels (true searobins)
    Peristediinae, subfamily Peristediinae
    in some classifications considered a subfamily of Triglidae comprising the armored searobins
    Dactylopteridae, family Dactylopteridae
    flying gurnards
    Balistidae, family Balistidae
    Monocanthidae, family Monocanthidae
    Ostraciidae, family Ostraciidae, family Ostraciontidae
    Tetraodontidae, family Tetraodontidae
    Diodontidae, family Diodontidae
    spiny puffers
    Molidae, family Molidae
    ocean sunfishes
    Pleuronectidae, family Pleuronectidae
    righteye flounders
    Bothidae, family Bothidae
    a family of fish of the order Heterosomata
    Cynoglossidae, family Cynoglossidae
    Soleidae, family Soleidae
    Anthocerotaceae, family Anthocerotaceae
    Dicranaceae, family Dicranaceae
    mosses having costate leaves and long-stalked capsules with cleft peristome
    Bryaceae, family Bryaceae
    a family of acrocarpous mosses
    Mniaceae, family Mniaceae
    family of erect mosses with club-shaped paraphyses and the hexagonal cells of the upper leaf surface; sometimes treated as a subfamily of Bryaceae
    Jungermanniaceae, family Jungermanniaceae
    comprising the leafy members of the order Jungermanniales
    Marchantiaceae, family Marchantiaceae
    liverworts with prostrate and usually dichotomously branched thalli
    Sphaerocarpaceae, family Sphaerocarpaceae
    liverworts with bilaterally symmetrical gametophytes; sometimes placed in the order Jungermanniales
    gymnosperm family
    a family of gymnosperms
    liliid monocot family
    family of monocotyledonous plants of the subclass Liliidae; mostly herbs usually with petaloid sepals and petals and compound pistils
    magnoliid dicot family
    family of dicotyledonous flowering plants regarded as among the most primitive of extant angiosperms
    hamamelid dicot family
    family of mostly woody dicotyledonous flowering plants with flowers often unisexual and often borne in catkins
    caryophylloid dicot family
    family of relatively early dicotyledonous plants including mostly flowers
    dilleniid dicot family
    family of more or less advanced dicotyledonous trees and shrubs and herbs
    asterid dicot family
    family of more or less advanced dicotyledonous herbs and some trees and shrubs
    rosid dicot family
    a family of dicotyledonous plants
    Myricaceae, family Myricaceae, wax-myrtle family
    constituting the order Myricales
    Leitneriaceae, corkwood family, family Leitneriaceae
    coextensive with the genus Leitneria; commonly isolated in a distinct order
    Juncaceae, family Juncaceae, rush family
    tufted herbs resembling grasses: rushes
    Apocynaceae, dogbane family, family Apocynaceae
    chiefly tropical trees or shrubs or herbs having milky juice and often showy flowers; many are sources of drugs
    Araceae, arum family, family Araceae
    anthurium; calla lily; jack-in-the-pulpit; philodendron
    Acoraceae, subfamily Acoraceae
    used in some classifications for the genus Acorus which is usually assigned to Araceae
    Lemnaceae, duckweed family, family Lemnaceae
    family of small free-floating thalloid plants
    Aristolochiaceae, birthwort family, family Aristolochiaceae
    family of birthworts (including wild ginger)
    Rafflesiaceae, family Rafflesiaceae
    a family of parasitic plants of the order Aristolochiales
    Hydnoraceae, family Hydnoraceae
    a family of flowering plants in Africa and Argentina that are parasitic on the roots of other plants
    Campanulaceae, bellflower family, family Campanulaceae
    family of plants of the order Campanulales; in some classifications includes Lobeliaceae
    Orchidaceae, family Orchidaceae, orchid family
    enormous cosmopolitan family of perennial terrestrial or epiphytic plants with fleshy tubers or rootstocks and unusual flowers
    Burmanniaceae, family Burmanniaceae
    family of chiefly tropical herbs with basal leaves like bracts and small flowers
    Dioscoreaceae, family Dioscoreaceae, yam family
    Primulaceae, family Primulaceae, primrose family
    a dicotyledonous family of the order Primulales with a regular flower; widely distributed in the northern hemisphere
    Myrsinaceae, family Myrsinaceae, myrsine family
    family of Old World tropical trees and shrubs; some in Florida
    Plumbaginaceae, family Plumbaginaceae, leadwort family, sea-lavender family
    perennial herbs and shrubs and lianas; cosmopolitan especially in saltwater areas
    Theophrastaceae, family Theophrastaceae
    family of mainly tropical American trees and shrubs similar to those of the Myrsinaceae; often included in the Myrsinaceae
    Graminaceae, Gramineae, Poaceae, family Graminaceae, family Gramineae, family Poaceae, grass family
    the grasses: chiefly herbaceous but some woody plants including cereals; bamboo; reeds; sugar cane
    Cyperaceae, family Cyperaceae, sedge family
    bulrush; chufa; cotton grass; papyrus; umbrella plant
    Pandanaceae, family Pandanaceae, screw-pine family
    family of woody plants of the order Pandanales including pandanus
    Typhaceae, cattail family, family Typhaceae
    perennial marsh plants with creeping rootstocks and long linear leaves
    Sparganiaceae, bur-reed family, family Sparganiaceae
    coextensive with the genus Sparganium
    Cucurbitaceae, family Cucurbitaceae, gourd family
    a family of herbaceous vines (such as cucumber or melon or squash or pumpkin)
    Goodenia family, Goodeniaceae, family Goodeniaceae
    a family of sappy plants that grow in Australasia and southeast China
    Lobeliaceae, family Lobeliaceae, lobelia family
    not recognized in all classification systems; in some classifications lobeliaceous plants are included in family Campanulaceae
    Proteaceae, family Proteaceae, protea family
    large family of Australian and South African shrubs and trees with leathery leaves and clustered mostly tetramerous flowers; constitutes the order Proteales
    Casuarinaceae, family Casuarinaceae
    one genus: genus Casuarina
    Gentianaceae, family Gentianaceae, gentian family
    chiefly herbaceous plants with showy flowers; some are cultivated as ornamentals
    Salvadora family, Salvadoraceae, family Salvadoraceae
    a family of Old World shrubs and trees of order Gentianales; related to Oleaceae but having four stamens and four petals
    Oleaceae, family Oleaceae, olive family
    trees and shrubs having berries or drupes or capsules as fruits; sometimes placed in the order Oleales: olive; ash; jasmine; privet; lilac
    Haemodoraceae, bloodwort family, family Haemodoraceae
    some genera placed in family Liliaceae
    Juglandaceae, family Juglandaceae, walnut family
    trees having usually edible nuts: butternuts; walnuts; hickories; pecans
    Combretaceae, combretum family, family Combretaceae
    a family of tropical trees and shrubs of the order Myrtales
    Elaeagnaceae, family Elaeagnaceae, oleaster family
    shrubs or small trees often armed
    Haloragaceae, Haloragidaceae, family Haloragaceae, family Haloragidaceae, water-milfoil family
    a family of dicotyledonous plants of the order Myrtales
    Lecythidaceae, family Lecythidaceae
    large tropical trees bearing large fruits with woody skins
    Lythraceae, family Lythraceae, loosestrife family
    herbs and shrubs and small trees with pink or purple flowers
    Myrtaceae, family Myrtaceae, myrtle family
    trees and shrubs yielding a fragrant oil
    Nyssaceae, family Nyssaceae, sour-gum family, tupelo family
    a family of dicotyledonous trees of order Myrtales that includes the sour gum trees
    Punicaceae, family Punicaceae
    one species: pomegranates
    Rhizophoraceae, family Rhizophoraceae, mangrove family
    trees and shrubs that usually form dense jungles along tropical seacoasts
    Thymelaeaceae, daphne family, family Thymelaeaceae
    family of trees and shrubs and herbs having tough bark that are found especially in Australia and tropical Africa
    Trapaceae, family Trapaceae
    family comprising solely the genus Trapa; in some classifications treated as a subfamily or tribe of the family Onagraceae
    Cannaceae, family Cannaceae
    coextensive with the genus Canna
    Marantaceae, arrowroot family, family Marantaceae
    tropical perennial herbs with usually starchy rhizomes
    Musaceae, banana family, family Musaceae
    treelike tropical Asian herbs
    Strelitziaceae, family Strelitziaceae, strelitzia family
    woody plants with erect stems of tropical South America and South Africa and Madagascar; in some classifications included in the family Musaceae
    Zingiberaceae, family Zingiberaceae, ginger family
    a family of tropical monocotyledonous plants of order Musales
    Urticaceae, family Urticaceae, nettle family
    a family of plants of order Urticales including many nettles with stinging hairs
    Cannabidaceae, family Cannabidaceae, hemp family
    two genera of erect or twining herbs that are pollinated by the wind, including the genera Cannabis and Humulus; term not used in all classifications; in some the genus Cannabis is placed in the family Moraceae and the genus Humulus in the family Urticaceae
    Moraceae, family Moraceae, mulberry family
    trees or shrubs having a milky juice; in some classifications includes genus Cannabis
    Cecropiaceae, family Cecropiaceae
    in some classifications included in family Moraceae
    Ulmaceae, elm family, family Ulmaceae
    a dicot family of the order Urticales including: genera Ulmus, Celtis, Planera, Trema
    Menyanthaceae, buckbean family, family Menyanthaceae
    a dicotyledonous family of marsh plants of order Gentianales
    Loganiaceae, family Loganiaceae
    a dicotyledonous family of plants of order Gentianales
    Linaceae, family Linaceae, flax family
    a widely distributed family of plants
    Arecaceae, Palmaceae, Palmae, family Arecaceae, family Palmaceae, family Palmae, palm family
    chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines usually having a tall columnar trunk bearing a crown of very large leaves; coextensive with the order Palmales
    Plantaginaceae, family Plantaginaceae, plantain family
    cosmopolitan family of small herbs and a few shrubs; most are troublesome weeds
    Polygonaceae, buckwheat family, family Polygonaceae
    a family of plants of order Polygonales chiefly of the north temperate zone; includes the buckwheats
    Xyridaceae, family Xyridaceae, yellow-eyed grass family
    plants of tropical to temperate regions; usually in wet places
    Commelinaceae, family Commelinaceae, spiderwort family
    large widely distributed family of chiefly perennial herbs or climbers: spiderworts
    Bromeliaceae, family Bromeliaceae, pineapple family
    a family of tropical American plants of order Xyridales including several (as the pineapple) of economic importance
    Mayacaceae, family Mayacaceae
    a monocotyledonous family of bog plants of order Xyridales
    Rapateaceae, family Rapateaceae
    South American herbs somewhat resembling members of the Juncaceae
    Eriocaulaceae, family Eriocaulaceae, pipewort family
    chiefly tropical aquatic or bog herbs: pipeworts
    Pontederiaceae, family Pontederiaceae, pickerelweed family
    aquatic or bog plants
    Naiadaceae, Najadaceae, family Naiadaceae, family Najadaceae, naiad family
    monotypic family of aquatic plants having narrow leaves and small flowers
    Alismataceae, family Alismataceae, water-plantain family
    perennial or annual aquatic or marsh plants
    Hydrocharidaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, family Hydrocharidaceae, family Hydrocharitaceae, frog's-bit family, frogbit family
    simple nearly stemless freshwater aquatic plants; widely distributed
    Potamogetonaceae, family Potamogetonaceae, pondweed family
    plants that grow in ponds and slow streams; sometimes includes family Zosteraceae
    Juncaginaceae, Scheuchzeriaceae, arrow-grass family, family Juncaginaceae, family Scheuchzeriaceae
    a family of monocotyledonous bog herbs of order Naiadales
    Zannichelliaceae, family Zannichelliaceae
    alternative classification for some genera included in Potamogetonaceae; one species
    Zosteraceae, eelgrass family, family Zosteraceae
    used in some classifications: essentially equivalent to Potamogetonaceae
    Amygdalaceae, family Amygdalaceae
    used in former classifications for plum and peach and almond trees which are now usually classified as members of the genus Prunus
    Erythroxylaceae, family Erythroxylaceae
    a family of plants of order Geraniales; have drupaceous fruit
    Sapindaceae, family Sapindaceae, soapberry family
    chiefly tropical New and Old World deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs bearing leathery drupes with yellow translucent flesh; most plants produce toxic saponins
    Buxaceae, box family, family Buxaceae
    widely distributed evergreen shrubs and trees
    Celastraceae, family Celastraceae, spindle-tree family, staff-tree family
    trees and shrubs and woody vines usually having bright-colored fruits
    Empetraceae, crowberry family, family Empetraceae
    heathlike shrubs
    Aceraceae, family Aceraceae, maple family
    a family of trees and shrubs of order Sapindales including the maples
    Aquifoliaceae, family Aquifoliaceae, holly family
    widely distributed shrubs and trees
    Anacardiaceae, family Anacardiaceae, sumac family
    the cashew family; trees and shrubs and vines having resinous (sometimes poisonous) juice; includes cashew and mango and pistachio and poison ivy and sumac
    Hippocastanaceae, family Hippocastanaceae, horse-chestnut family
    trees having showy flowers and inedible nutlike seeds in a leathery capsule
    Staphylaceae, bladdernut family, family Staphylaceae
    a family of dicotyledonous plants of order Sapindales found mostly in the north temperate zone
    Ebenaceae, ebony family, family Ebenaceae
    fruit and timber trees of tropical and warm regions including ebony and persimmon
    Sapotaceae, family Sapotaceae, sapodilla family
    tropical trees or shrubs with milky juice and often edible fleshy fruit
    Symplocaceae, family Symplocaceae, sweetleaf family
    a dicotyledonous family of order Ebenales
    Styracaceae, family Styracaceae, storax family, styrax family
    a widely distributed family of shrubs and trees of order Ebenales
    Sarraceniaceae, family Sarraceniaceae, pitcher-plant family
    insectivorous plants
    Nepenthaceae, family Nepenthaceae
    coextensive with the genus Nepenthes
    Droseraceae, family Droseraceae, sundew family
    a family of carnivorous herbs and shrubs
    Roridulaceae, family Roridulaceae
    in some classifications included in the family Droseraceae
    Crassulaceae, family Crassulaceae, stonecrop family
    succulent shrubs and herbs
    Grossulariaceae, family Grossulariaceae, gooseberry family
    in some classifications considered a part of the family Saxifragaceae: plants whose fruit is a berry
    Boraginaceae, borage family, family Boraginaceae
    a widely distributed family of plants distinguished by circinate flowers and nutlike fruit
    Convolvulaceae, family Convolvulaceae, morning-glory family
    morning glory; bindweed; sweet potato; plants having trumpet-shaped flowers and a climbing or twining habit
    Lentibulariaceae, bladderwort family, family Lentibulariaceae
    carnivorous aquatic or bog plants: genera Utricularia, Pinguicula, and Genlisea
    Martyniaceae, family Martyniaceae
    in most classifications not considered a separate family but included in the Pedaliaceae
    Orobanchaceae, broomrape family, family Orobanchaceae
    brown or yellow leafless herbs; sometimes placed in the order Scrophulariales
    Pedaliaceae, family Pedaliaceae, sesame family
    the family of plants of order Polemoniales
    Hymenophyllaceae, family Hymenophyllaceae
    terrestrial (hygrophytic) or epiphytic ferns: filmy ferns
    Osmundaceae, family Osmundaceae
    large family of ferns widely distributed in temperate and tropical areas
    Schizaeaceae, family Schizaeaceae
    small family of mainly tropical ferns
    Marsileaceae, family Marsileaceae
    clover ferns
    Salviniaceae, family Salviniaceae
    water ferns
    Azollaceae, family Azollaceae
    used in some classifications for the genus Azolla
    Ophioglossaceae, family Ophioglossaceae
    a family of succulent ferns of order Ophioglossales; cosmopolitan in distribution
    Erysiphaceae, family Erysiphaceae
    family of fungi parasitic mostly on leaves; includes powdery mildews
    Sphaeriaceae, family Sphaeriaceae
    parasitic fungi having globose and sometimes necked or beaked perithecia
    Ceratostomataceae, family Ceratostomataceae
    fungi having carbonous perithecia with long necks
    Hypocreaceae, family Hypocreaceae
    family of fungi having brightly colored fleshy or membranous ascocarps; sometimes placed in its own order Hypocreales
    Xylariaceae, family Xylariaceae
    family of fungi characterized by dark brown to black spores
    Helotiaceae, family Helotiaceae
    a fungus family of order Helotiales
    Sclerotiniaceae, family Sclerotiniaceae
    a fungus family of order Helotiales
    Sclerodermataceae, family Sclerodermataceae
    a family of fungi or order Sclerodermatales with a single-layered peridium; includes earthballs
    Tulostomaceae, Tulostomataceae, family Tulostomaceae, family Tulostomataceae
    stalked puffballs
    Rhizopogonaceae, family Rhizopogonaceae
    a family of fungi of order Hymenogastrales having round subterranean sporophores
    Mucoraceae, family Mucoraceae
    large family of chiefly saprophytic fungi that includes many common molds destructive to food products
    Entomophthoraceae, family Entomophthoraceae
    mostly parasitic lower fungi that typically develop in the bodies of insects
    Chytridiaceae, family Chytridiaceae
    a family of aquatic fungi of order Chytridiales
    Blastodiaceae, family Blastodiaceae
    a family of saprobic fungi of order Blastocladiales
    Synchytriaceae, family Synchytriaceae
    a fungus family of order Chytridiales
    Peronosporaceae, family Peronosporaceae
    parasitic fungi: downy mildews
    Albuginaceae, family Albuginaceae
    fungi that produce white sori resembling blisters on certain flowering plants
    Pythiaceae, family Pythiaceae
    fungi having sporangia usually borne successively and singly at the tips of branching sporangiophores
    Plasmodiophoraceae, family Plasmodiophoraceae
    family of fungi often causing hypertrophy in seed plants
    Tuberaceae, family Tuberaceae
    family of fungi whose ascocarps resemble tubers and vary in size from that of an acorn to that of a large apple
    Clavariaceae, family Clavariaceae
    fleshy fungi: coral fungi
    Hydnaceae, family Hydnaceae
    tooth fungi
    Lecanoraceae, family Lecanoraceae
    a fungus family of the division Lichenes
    Roccellaceae, family Roccellaceae
    a fungus family of division Lichenes
    Pertusariaceae, family Pertusariaceae
    a fungus family of division Lichenes
    Usneaceae, family Usneaceae
    fruticose lichens having prostrate or erect or pendulous thalli: genera Usnea, Evernia, Ramalina, Alectoria
    Cladoniaceae, family Cladoniaceae
    a family of lichens
    Parmeliaceae, family Parmeliaceae
    a family of lichens
    Agaricaceae, family Agaricaceae
    large family including many familiar mushrooms
    Coprinaceae, family Coprinaceae
    used in some classifications for the genus Coprinus
    Russulaceae, family Russulaceae
    used in some classification systems for the genus Russula
    Strophariaceae, family Strophariaceae
    sometimes included in family Agaricaceae
    Entolomataceae, family Entolomataceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
    Lepiotaceae, family Lepiotaceae
    a family of fungi having free gills and a cap that is cleanly separable from the stalk
    Thelephoraceae, family Thelephoraceae
    fungi having leathery or membranous sporophores
    Tricholomataceae, family Tricholomataceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
    Volvariaceae, family Volvariaceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
    Pluteaceae, family Pluteaceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
    Saccharomycetaceae, family Saccharomycetaceae
    family of fungi comprising the typical yeasts: reproduce by budding and ferment carbohydrates
    Schizosaccharomycetaceae, family Schizosaccharomycetaceae
    a family of fungi belonging to order Endomycetales
    Aspergillaceae, family Aspergillaceae
    family of fungi including some common molds
    Pezizaceae, family Pezizaceae
    large family comprising many typical cup fungi
    Morchellaceae, family Morchellaceae
    a family of edible fungi including the true morels
    Sarcoscyphaceae, family Sarcoscyphaceae
    family of fungi belonging to the order Pezizales
    Helvellaceae, family Helvellaceae
    family of false morels or lorchels; some are edible and some are poisonous
    Phallaceae, family Phallaceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the order Phallales and comprising the true stinkhorns
    Calostomataceae, family Calostomataceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the order Tulostomatales
    Clathraceae, family Clathraceae
    family of fleshy fungi resembling stinkhorns
    Lycoperdaceae, family Lycoperdaceae
    a fungus family belonging to the order Lycoperdales; includes puffballs
    Geastraceae, family Geastraceae
    a family of earthstar fungi belonging to the order Lycoperdales
    Nidulariaceae, family Nidulariaceae
    bird's-nest fungi
    Sphaerobolaceae, family Sphaerobolaceae
    monotypic family of fungi in which the more or less spherical gleba is forcibly ejected at maturity
    Secotiaceae, family Secotiaceae
    a family of fungi that have a stalk and cap and a wrinkled mass of tissue (the gleba) where spores are produced; are often dismissed as misshapen forms of other fungi
    Polyporaceae, family Polyporaceae
    fungi that become corky or woody with age, often forming shelflike growths on trees
    Fistulinaceae, family Fistulinaceae
    a family of fungi closely related to the family Polyporaceae except that the tubes on the undersurface of the cap are separate from each other
    Boletaceae, family Boletaceae
    family of fleshy fungi having the germ pores easily separating from the cup and often from each other
    Tremellaceae, family Tremellaceae
    a family of basidiomycetous fungi of the order Tremellales that have the basidium divided longitudinally
    Auriculariaceae, family Auriculariaceae
    fungi having gelatinous sporophores
    Dacrymycetaceae, family Dacrymycetaceae
    a family of basidiomycetous fungi belonging to the order Tremellales having a bifurcate basidium that lacks septa
    Melampsoraceae, family Melampsoraceae
    rust fungi
    Pucciniaceae, family Pucciniaceae
    large important family of rust fungi
    Ustilaginaceae, family Ustilaginaceae
    a fungus family of loose smuts
    Tilletiaceae, family Tilletiaceae
    a family of smut fungi having a simple promycelium bearing the spores in an apical cluster
    Septobasidiaceae, family Septobasidiaceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the subdivision Basidiomycota
    Hygrophoraceae, family Hygrophoraceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales; the gills of these fungi have a clean waxy appearance
    Cortinariaceae, family Cortinariaceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
    Moniliaceae, family Moniliaceae
    family of imperfect fungi having white or brightly colored hyphae and spores that are produced directly on the mycelium and not aggregated in fruiting bodies
    Dematiaceae, family Dematiaceae
    family of imperfect mushrooms having dark-colored hyphae or conidia
    Tuberculariaceae, family Tuberculariaceae
    large family of mainly saprophytic imperfect fungi
    Rhamnaceae, buckthorn family, family Rhamnaceae
    trees and shrubs usually thorny bearing drupaceous fruit many having medicinal value
    Vitaceae, Vitidaceae, family Vitaceae, grapevine family
    a family of vines belonging to order Rhamnales
    Piperaceae, family Piperaceae, pepper family
    tropical woody vines and herbaceous plants having aromatic herbage and minute flowers in spikelets
    Chloranthaceae, family Chloranthaceae
    small family of tropical herbs and shrubs and trees
    Saururaceae, family Saururaceae, lizard's-tail family
    family of perennial aromatic herbs: genera Saururus, Anemopsis, Houttuynia
    Gleicheniaceae, family Gleicheniaceae
    a family of ferns belonging to order Filicales
    Parkeriaceae, family Parkeriaceae
    coextensive with the genus Ceratopteris; sometimes included in family Polypodiaceae
    Polypodiaceae, family Polypodiaceae
    ferns: a large family that in some classification systems has been subdivided into several families (including Aspleniaceae and Blechnaceae and Davalliaceae and Dennstaedtiaceae and Dryopteridaceae and Oleandraceae and Pteridaceae)
    Adiantaceae, family Adiantaceae
    used in some classification systems for some genera of the family Polypodiaceae (or Pteridaceae)
    Vittariaceae, family Vittariaceae
    one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems: genus Vittaria
    Aspleniaceae, family Aspleniaceae
    one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems; includes genera Asplenium, Pleurosorus, Schaffneria
    Blechnaceae, family Blechnaceae
    one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems; includes genera Blechnum, Doodia, Sadleria, Stenochlaena, and Woodwardia
    Cyatheaceae, family Cyatheaceae
    tropical tree ferns
    Davalliaceae, family Davalliaceae
    one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
    Dennstaedtiaceae, family Dennstaedtiaceae
    one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
    Dicksoniaceae, family Dicksoniaceae
    tree ferns: genera Dicksonia, Cibotium, Culcita, and Thyrsopteris elegans
    Athyriaceae, Dryopteridaceae, family Athyriaceae, family Dryopteridaceae
    alternative names for one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
    Lomariopsidaceae, family Lomariopsidaceae
    small family of usually scandent ferns
    Lophosoriaceae, family Lophosoriaceae
    very small family of tree ferns
    Loxomataceae, family Loxomataceae
    very small family of New Zealand ferns
    Oleandraceae, family Oleandraceae
    one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
    Pteridaceae, family Pteridaceae
    one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems; Pteridaceae is itself in turn sometimes further subdivided
    Marattiaceae, family Marattiaceae
    constituting the order Marattiales: chiefly tropical eusporangiate ferns with gigantic fronds
    Psilotaceae, family Psilotaceae
    small family of lower ferns having nearly naked stems and minute scalelike leaves
    Psilophytaceae, family Psilophytaceae
    Paleozoic plants
    Rhyniaceae, family Rhyniaceae
    primitive plants of the Paleozoic
    Equisetaceae, family Equisetaceae, horsetail family
    sole surviving family of the Equisetales: fern allies
    Lepidodendraceae, family Lepidodendraceae
    fossil plants characterized by conspicuous spirally arranged leaf scars on the trunk
    Lycopodiaceae, clubmoss family, family Lycopodiaceae
    a family of ferns belonging to the order Lycopodiales
    Selaginellaceae, family Selaginellaceae
    lesser club mosses: terrestrial chiefly tropical plants resembling mosses
    Isoetaceae, family Isoetaceae, quillwort family
    quillworts; coextensive with the genus Isoetes
    Geoglossaceae, family Geoglossaceae
    a family of fungi belonging to the order Helotiales
    Cryptogrammataceae, family Cryptogrammataceae
    one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
    Thelypteridaceae, family Thelypteridaceae
    genera Thelypteris, Phegopteris, and others
    Asclepiadaceae, family Asclepiadaceae, milkweed family
    widely distributed family of herbs and shrubs of the order Gentianales; most with milky juice
    type of:
    taxon, taxonomic category, taxonomic group
    animal or plant group having natural relations
  7. noun
    a loose affiliation of gangsters in charge of organized criminal activities
    synonyms: crime syndicate, mob, syndicate
    see moresee less
    Cosa Nostra, Maffia, Mafia
    a crime syndicate in the United States; organized in families; believed to have important relations to the Sicilian Mafia
    type of:
    gangdom, gangland, organized crime
    underworld organizations
  8. noun
    an association of people who share common beliefs or activities
    “the message was addressed not just to employees but to every member of the company family
    synonyms: fellowship
    see moresee less
    Christian fellowship or communion with God or with fellow Christians; said in particular of the early Christian community
    type of:
    a formal organization of people or groups of people




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