types:
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arity
the number of arguments that a function can take

coordinate, coordinate
a number that identifies a position relative to an axis

folio, page number, pagination, paging
the system of numbering pages

decimal
a number in the decimal system

constant
a number representing a quantity assumed to have a fixed value in a specified mathematical context

oxidation number, oxidation state
the degree of oxidation of an atom or ion or molecule; for simple atoms or ions the oxidation number is equal to the ionic charge

cardinality
(mathematics) the number of elements in a set or group (considered as a property of that grouping)

count
the total number counted

factor
any of the numbers (or symbols) that form a product when multiplied together

Fibonacci number
a number in the Fibonacci sequence

prime, prime quantity
a number that has no factor but itself and 1

composite number
an integer that is divisible without remainder by at least one positive integer other than itself and one

score
a number that expresses the accomplishment of a team or an individual in a game or contest

record
the number of wins versus losses and ties a team has had

compound number
a quantity expressed in two different units

no., ordinal, ordinal number
the number designating place in an ordered sequence

cardinal, cardinal number
the number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order

base, radix
(numeration system) the positive integer that is equivalent to one in the next higher counting place

floatingpoint number
a number represented in floatingpoint notation

fixedpoint number
a number represented in fixedpoint notation

atomic number
the order of an element in Mendeleyev's table of the elements; equal to the number of protons in the nucleus or electrons in the neutral state of an atom of an element

baryon number
a number equal to the difference between the number of baryons and the number of antibaryons in any subatomic structure; it is conserved in all types of particle interactions

quota
a prescribed number

linage, lineage
the number of lines in a piece of printed material

natural number
the number 1 and any other number obtained by adding 1 to it repeatedly

integer, whole number
any of the natural numbers (positive or negative) or zero

addend
a number that is added to another number (the augend)

augend
a number to which another number (the addend) is added

minuend
the number from which the subtrahend is subtracted

subtrahend
the number to be subtracted from the minuend

difference, remainder
the number that remains after subtraction; the number that when added to the subtrahend gives the minuend

complex number, complex quantity, imaginary, imaginary number
(mathematics) a number of the form a+bi where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of 1

second power, square
the product of two equal terms

cube, third power
the product of three equal terms

biquadrate, biquadratic, fourth power, quartic
an algebraic equation of the fourth degree

root
a number that, when multiplied by itself some number of times, equals a given number

dividend
a number to be divided by another number

divisor
the number by which a dividend is divided

quotient
the number obtained by division

remainder
the part of the dividend that is left over when the dividend is not evenly divisible by the divisor

multiplier, multiplier factor
the number by which a multiplicand is multiplied

multiplicand
the number that is multiplied by the multiplier

bowling score
the score in a bowling match

football score
the score in a football game

baseball score
the score of a baseball game

basketball score
the score in a basketball game

Cartesian coordinate
one of the coordinates in a system of coordinates that locates a point on a plane or in space by its distance from two lines or three planes respectively; the two lines or the intersections of the three planes are the coordinate axes

polar coordinate
either of two values that locate a point on a plane by its distance from a fixed pole and its angle from a fixed line passing through the pole

characteristic
the integer part (positive or negative) of the representation of a logarithm; in the expression log 643 = 2.808 the characteristic is 2

deflator
a statistical factor designed to remove the effect of inflation; inflation adjusted variables are in constant dollars

balance
the difference between the totals of the credit and debit sides of an account

Avogadro number, Avogadro's number
the number of molecules in a mole of a substance (approximately 602,250,000,000,000,000,000,000)

Boltzmann's constant
constant used in the calculation of the ideal gas constant

coefficient
a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic

cosmological constant
an arbitrary constant in the equations of general relativity theory

equilibrium constant
(chemistry) the ratio of concentrations when equilibrium is reached in a reversible reaction (when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction)

R, gas constant, universal gas constant
(physics) the universal constant in the gas equation: pressure times volume = R times temperature; equal to 8.3143 joules per kelvin per mole

G, constant of gravitation, gravitational constant, universal gravitational constant
(physics) the universal constant relating force to mass and distance in Newton's law of gravitation

Hubble constant, Hubble parameter, Hubble's constant, Hubble's parameter
(cosmology) the ratio of the speed of recession of a galaxy (due to the expansion of the universe) to its distance from the observer; the Hubble constant is not actually a constant, but is regarded as measuring the expansion rate today

ionic charge
the charge on an ion is equal to a constant charge e multiplied by an integer from 1 to 15

complement
a complete number or quantity

blood count
the number of red and white corpuscles in a blood sample

body count
a count of troops killed in an operation or time period

circulation
number of copies of a newspaper or magazine that are sold

circulation
(library science) the count of books that are loaned by a library over a specified period

head count, headcount
number of people in a particular group

pollen count
the number of pollen grains (usually ragweed) in a standard volume of air over a twentyfour hour period and a specified time and place

sperm count
the number of sperm in an ejaculate

conversion factor
factor by which a quantity that is expressed in one set of units must be multiplied in order to convert it into another set of units

constant of proportionality, factor of proportionality
the constant value of the ratio of two proportional quantities x and y; usually written y = kx, where k is the factor of proportionality

prime number
an integer that has no integral factors but itself and 1

stroke
(golf) the unit of scoring in golf is the act of hitting the ball with a club

birdie
(golf) a score of one stroke under par on a hole

bogey
(golf) a score of one stroke over par on a hole

deficit
(sports) the score by which a team or individual is losing

doublebogey
(golf) a score of two strokes over par for a hole

duck, duck's egg
(cricket) a score of nothing by a batsman

eagle
(golf) a score of two strokes under par on a hole

double eagle
(golf) a score of three strokes under par on a hole

game
(games) the score at a particular point or the score needed to win

lead
(sports) the score by which a team or individual is winning

love
a score of zero in tennis or squash

match
the score needed to win a match

par
(golf) the standard number of strokes set for each hole on a golf course, or for the entire course

first, number 1, number one
the first element in a countable series

absolute frequency, frequency
the number of observations in a given statistical category

googol
a cardinal number represented as 1 followed by 100 zeros (ten raised to the power of a hundred)

googolplex
a cardinal number represented as 1 followed by a googol of zeros (ten raised to the power of a googol)

magic number
the atomic number of an extra stable strongly bound atomic nucleus: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 or 126

complex conjugate
either of two complex numbers whose real parts are identical and whose imaginary parts differ only in sign

real, real number
any rational or irrational number

pure imaginary number
an imaginary number of the form a+bi where a is 0

square root
a number that when multiplied by itself equals a given number

cube root
a number that when multiplied three times equals a given number

numerator
the dividend of a fraction

denominator
the divisor of a fraction

divisor, factor
one of two or more integers that can be exactly divided into another integer

scale factor
a number used as a multiplier in scaling

aliquot, aliquot part
an integer that is an exact divisor of some quantity

aliquant, aliquant part
an integer that is not an exact divisor of some quantity

common multiple
an integer that is a multiple of two or more other integers

modulus
an integer that can be divided without remainder into the difference between two other integers

digit, figure
one of the elements that collectively form a system of numeration

large integer
an integer equal to or greater than ten

double digit
a twodigit integer; from 10 to 99

population
the number of inhabitants (either the total number or the number of a particular race or class) in a given place (country or city etc.)

c, light speed, speed of light
the speed at which light travels in a vacuum; the constancy and universality of the speed of light is recognized by defining it to be exactly 299,792,458 meters per second