Record started off meaning "to register," with a record being something written down. With the invention of the phonograph, record came to mean to capture sound––and a record was something that stored that sound.
Bands record songs. If you record (re-CORD) your thoughts in a diary, you are making a record (REC-urd) of your life. If you get caught stealing, you'll find yourself with a criminal record, but if you're under eighteen, the theft will not appear on your permanent record. We look to the historical record to learn what happened in the past.