evidence

Evidence is anything that can be used to prove something — like the evidence presented in a trial, or the trail of bread crumbs that is evidence of the path Hansel took through the woods.

The word evidence is derived from the Latin ēvidēnt-, meaning "obvious." The word evidence shows up frequently in legal documents and dramas, because evidence is necessary proof in linking someone to a crime or crime scene. Evidence is used in many ways to show that something is true, as in "the chocolate stains around your mouth and the crumbs on the table are evidence that you ate the last of the brownies."

Definitions of evidence
  1. noun
    your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief
    “the evidence that smoking causes lung cancer is very compelling”
    synonyms: grounds
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    probable cause
    (law) evidence sufficient to warrant an arrest or search and seizure
    cogent evidence, proof
    any factual evidence that helps to establish the truth of something
    disproof, falsification, refutation
    any evidence that helps to establish the falsity of something
    lead, track, trail
    evidence pointing to a possible solution
    symptom
    (medicine) any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease
    sign
    (medicine) any objective evidence of the presence of a disorder or disease
    reductio, reductio ad absurdum
    (reduction to the absurd) a disproof by showing that the consequences of the proposition are absurd; or a proof of a proposition by showing that its negation leads to a contradiction
    check, confirmation, substantiation, verification
    additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct
    establishment, validation
    the cognitive process of establishing a valid proof
    confutation
    evidence that refutes conclusively
    counterexample
    refutation by example
    crepitation rale
    the crackling sound heard on auscultation when patients with respiratory diseases inhale; associated with tuberculosis and pneumonia and congestive heart failure
    hypermenorrhea, menorrhagia
    abnormally heavy or prolonged menstruation; can be a symptom of uterine tumors and can lead to anemia if prolonged
    alkalinuria, alkaluria
    a condition in which the urine (which is normally slightly acidic) is alkaline
    eosinopenia
    a decrease in the number of eosinophils in the blood
    haemoglobinemia, hemoglobinemia
    presence of excessive hemoglobin in the blood plasma
    haemoptysis, hemoptysis
    coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
    hyperlipaemia, hyperlipemia, hyperlipidaemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoidaemia, hyperlipoidemia, lipaemia, lipemia, lipidaemia, lipidemia, lipoidaemia, lipoidemia
    presence of excess lipids in the blood
    albuminuria, proteinuria
    the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
    aminoaciduria
    abnormal presence of amino acids in the urine; usually a symptom of metabolic defects
    ammoniuria
    excessive ammonia in the urine
    Jacquemier's sign
    a purplish discoloration of the mucous membrane of the vagina that occurs early in pregnancy
    Kayser-Fleischer ring
    a pigmented ring at the outer edge of the cornea of the eye; a symptom of Wilson's disease
    keratomalacia
    softening and drying and ulceration of the cornea resulting from vitamin A deficiency; symptom of cystic fibrosis or sprue
    Kernig's sign
    symptom of meningitis; patient cannot extend the leg at the knee when the thigh is flexed because of stiffness in the hamstrings
    acetonemia, ketonemia, ketosis
    an abnormal increase of ketone bodies in the blood as in diabetes mellitus
    Koplik's spots
    small red spots with white centers found on the mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue; symptom of measles that appears one or two days before the measles rash appears
    glycosuria
    the presence of abnormally high levels of sugar in the urine
    lymphuria
    the presence of lymph in the urine
    monocytosis
    increase in the number of monocytes in the blood; symptom of monocytic leukemia
    thrombocytosis
    increase in the number of platelets in the blood which tends to cause clots to form; associated with many neoplasms and chronic infections and other diseases
    ochronosis
    an accumulation of dark pigment in cartilage and other connective tissue; usually a symptom of alkaptonuria or phenol poisoning
    hypercalcaemia, hypercalcemia
    the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or Paget's disease
    hypocalcaemia, hypocalcemia
    abnormally low level of calcium in the blood; associated with hypoparathyroidism or kidney malfunction or vitamin D deficiency
    hypercalcinuria, hypercalciuria
    the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the urine; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or osteoporosis
    hypercholesteremia, hypercholesterolemia
    the presence of an abnormal amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood; associated with the risk of atherosclerosis
    hyperkalemia
    higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood; associated with kidney failure or sometimes with the use of diuretic drugs
    hypokalemia
    abnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities; associated with adrenal tumors or starvation or taking diuretics
    kaliuresis, kaluresis
    the presence of excess potassium in the urine
    natriuresis
    the presence of abnormally large amounts of sodium in the urine
    hypoproteinemia
    abnormally low level of protein in the blood; can indicate inadequate diet or intestinal or renal disorders
    hypernatremia
    excessive amounts of sodium in the blood; possibly indicating diabetes insipidus
    hyponatremia
    abnormally low level of sodium in the blood; associated with dehydration
    hypersplenism
    enlarged spleen and a decrease in one or more types of blood cells; associated with many disorders
    acetonuria, ketoaciduria, ketonuria
    excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine as in diabetes mellitus or starvation
    vital sign
    sign of life; usually an indicator of a person's general physical condition
    amenia, amenorrhea, amenorrhoea
    absence or suppression of normal menstrual flow
    aura
    a sensation (as of a cold breeze or bright light) that precedes the onset of certain disorders such as a migraine attack or epileptic seizure
    chloasma, mask of pregnancy, melasma
    a tan discoloration of a woman's face that is associated with pregnancy or with the use of oral contraceptives
    clubbing
    a condition in which the ends of toes and fingers become wide and thick; a symptom of heart or lung disease
    cyanosis
    a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign that oxygen in the blood is dangerously diminished (as in carbon monoxide poisoning)
    diuresis
    increased secretion of urine; if not due to increased liquid intake or to the action of a diuretic drug it can be a symptom of diabetes mellitus
    prodroma, prodrome
    an early symptom that a disease is developing or that an attack is about to occur
    syndrome
    a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
    effect
    a symptom caused by an illness or a drug
    abscess
    symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
    purulence, purulency
    symptom of being purulent (containing or forming pus)
    exophthalmos
    protrusion of the eyeball from the socket
    festination
    involuntary shortening of stride and quickening of gait that occurs in some diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease)
    furring
    a furlike coating of matter as on the tongue
    haematuria, hematuria
    the presence of blood in the urine; often a symptom of urinary tract disease
    haemoglobinuria, hemoglobinuria
    presence of hemoglobin in the urine
    haemosiderosis, hemosiderosis
    abnormal deposit of hemosiderin; often a symptom of thalassemia or hemochromatosis
    nebula
    cloudiness of the urine
    sneeze, sneezing, sternutation
    a symptom consisting of the involuntary expulsion of air from the nose
    lump, puffiness, swelling
    an abnormal protuberance or localized enlargement
    bubo
    a lymph node that is inflamed and swollen because of plague or gonorrhea or tuberculosis
    palsy
    a condition marked by uncontrollable tremor
    pyuria
    presence of white blood cells in the urine; symptom of urinary tract infection
    hyperglycaemia, hyperglycemia
    abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
    hypoglycaemia, hypoglycemia
    abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
    icterus, jaundice
    yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia
    congestion
    excessive accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part
    eruption
    symptom consisting of a breaking out and becoming visible
    numbness
    partial or total lack of sensation in a part of the body; a symptom of nerve damage or dysfunction
    hurting, pain
    a symptom of some physical hurt or disorder
    paraesthesia, paresthesia
    abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
    postnasal drip
    chronic secretion of mucus from the rear of the nasal cavity into the nasopharynx
    cardiomegaly, enlarged heart, megacardia, megalocardia
    an abnormal enlargement of the heart
    cardiac murmur, heart murmur, murmur
    an abnormal sound of the heart; sometimes a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves
    palpitation
    a rapid and irregular heart beat
    heartburn, pyrosis
    a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus); symptomatic of an ulcer or a diaphragmatic hernia or other disorder
    flush, hot flash
    sudden brief sensation of heat (associated with menopause and some mental disorders)
    dyspepsia, indigestion, stomach upset, upset stomach
    a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
    inflammation, redness, rubor
    a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat
    chill, shivering
    a sensation of cold that often marks the start of an infection and the development of a fever
    ague, chills and fever
    successive stages of chills and fever that is a symptom of malaria
    cough, coughing
    a sudden noisy expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis
    hiccough, hiccup, singultus
    (usually plural) the state of having reflex spasms of the diaphragm accompanied by a rapid closure of the glottis producing an audible sound; sometimes a symptom of indigestion
    meningism
    symptoms that mimic those of meningitis but without inflammation of the meninges
    nausea, sickness
    the state that precedes vomiting
    cramp, muscle spasm, spasm
    a painful and involuntary muscular contraction
    cicatrice, cicatrix, scar
    a mark left (usually on the skin) by the healing of injured tissue
    hardening
    abnormal hardening or thickening of tissue
    floater, musca volitans, muscae volitantes, spots
    spots before the eyes caused by opaque cell fragments in the vitreous humor and lens
    febricity, febrility, fever, feverishness, pyrexia
    a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
    atrophy, wasting, wasting away
    a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse
    apnea
    transient cessation of respiration
    dyspnea, dyspnoea
    difficult or labored respiration
    constipation, irregularity
    irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels; can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis
    diarrhea, diarrhoea, looseness, looseness of the bowels
    frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor
    dizziness, giddiness, lightheadedness, vertigo
    a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
    anaemia, anemia
    a lack of vitality
    wheeziness
    presence of abnormal high-pitched sound heard with a stethoscope when an airway is blocked (as in asthma or chronic bronchitis)
    withdrawal symptom
    any physical or psychological disturbance (as sweating or depression) experienced by a drug addict when deprived of the drug
    hydrophobia
    a symptom of rabies in humans consisting of an aversion to swallowing liquids
    areflexia
    absence of a reflex; a sign of possible nerve damage
    myoglobinuria
    the presence of myoglobin in the urine
    oliguria
    abnormally small production of urine; can be a symptom of kidney disease or obstruction of the urinary tract or edema or an imbalance of fluids and electrolytes in the body
    eosinophilia
    a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood
    rhinorrhea
    persistent watery mucus discharge from the nose (as in the common cold)
    steatorrhea
    the presence of greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces which are frothy and foul smelling and floating; a symptom of disorders of fat metabolism and malabsorption syndrome
    stridor
    a whistling sound when breathing (usually heard on inspiration); indicates obstruction of the trachea or larynx
    tinnitus
    a ringing or booming sensation in one or both ears; a symptom of an ear infection or Meniere's disease
    uratemia
    presence of abnormal amounts of uric acid salts in the blood; symptom of gout
    uraturia
    presence of abnormally large amounts of uric acid in the urine; symptom of gout
    uricaciduria
    presence of abnormal amounts of uric acid in the urine; symptom of gout
    type of:
    information
    knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction
  2. noun
    an indication that makes something evident
    “his trembling was evidence of his fear”
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    smoking gun
    indisputable evidence (especially of a crime)
    clew, clue, cue
    evidence that helps to solve a problem
    footprint evidence
    evidence in the form of footprints
    record
    anything (such as a document or a phonograph record or a photograph) providing permanent evidence of or information about past events
    testimonial, testimony
    something that serves as evidence
    argument, statement
    a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true
    attestation
    the evidence by which something is attested
    identification
    evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing
    ballistic fingerprinting, ballistic identification, bullet fingerprinting
    identification of the gun that fired a bullet from an analysis of the unique marks that every gun makes on the bullet it fires and on the shell ejected from it
    biometric authentication, biometric identification, identity verification
    the automatic identification of living individuals by using their physiological and behavioral characteristics
    written account, written record
    a written document preserving knowledge of facts or events
    memorabilia
    a record of things worth remembering
    check stub, counterfoil, stub
    the part of a check that is retained as a record
    data file, file
    a set of related records (either written or electronic) kept together
    account, chronicle, history, story
    a record or narrative description of past events
    mark, sign
    a perceptible indication of something not immediately apparent (as a visible clue that something has happened)
    proof
    a formal series of statements showing that if one thing is true something else necessarily follows from it
    good authority
    testimony by someone who should know
    testament
    strong evidence for something
    counterargument, counterclaim
    an argument offered in opposition to another argument
    pro
    an argument in favor of a proposal
    con
    an argument opposed to a proposal
    case
    a statement of facts and reasons used to support an argument
    clincher, determiner, determining factor
    an argument that is conclusive
    adducing
    citing as evidence or proof
    last word
    the final statement in a verbal argument
    working papers
    records kept of activities involved in carrying out a project
    specious argument
    an argument that appears good at first view but is really fallacious
    imprint
    an identification of a publisher; a publisher's name along with the date and address and edition that is printed at the bottom of the title page
    positive identification
    evidence proving that you are who you say you are; evidence establishing that you are among the group of people already known to the system; recognition by the system leads to acceptance
    negative identification
    evidence proving that you are not who you say you are not; evidence establishing that you are not among a group of people already known to the system; recognition by the system leads to rejection
    facial profiling
    identification of criminals and terrorist by means of videotapes of their faces
    fingerprint
    a generic term for any identifying characteristic
    linguistic profiling
    using speech characteristics or dialect to identify a speaker's race or religion or social class
    profiling
    recording a person's behavior and analyzing psychological characteristics in order to predict or assess their ability in a certain sphere or to identify a particular group of people
    transcript
    an official record of a student’s coursework and academic performance
    type of:
    indicant, indication
    something that serves to indicate or suggest
  3. noun
    (law) all the means by which any alleged matter of fact whose truth is investigated at judicial trial is established or disproved
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    exhibit
    an object or statement produced before a court of law and referred to while giving evidence
    testimony
    a solemn statement made under oath
    corpus delicti
    the body of evidence that constitute the offence; the objective proof that a crime has been committed (sometimes mistakenly thought to refer to the body of a homicide victim)
    direct evidence
    evidence (usually the testimony of a witness) directly related to the fact in dispute
    circumstantial evidence, indirect evidence
    evidence providing only a basis for inference about the fact in dispute
    corroborating evidence
    additional evidence or evidence of different kind that supports a proof already offered in a proceeding
    hearsay evidence
    evidence based on what someone has told the witness and not of direct knowledge
    state's evidence
    evidence for the prosecution in criminal proceedings
    witness
    testimony by word or deed to your religious faith
    declaration
    (law) unsworn statement that can be admitted in evidence in a legal transaction
    attestation
    the action of bearing witness
    affidavit
    written declaration made under oath; a written statement sworn to be true before someone legally authorized to administer an oath
    subornation
    perjured testimony that someone was persuaded to give
    type of:
    info, information
    a message received and understood
  4. verb
    provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes
    synonyms: attest, certify, demonstrate, manifest
    attest
    establish or verify the usage of
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    authenticate
    establish the authenticity of something
    reflect
    give evidence of
    reflect
    give evidence of a certain behavior
    notarise, notarize
    authenticate as a notary
    condemn
    demonstrate the guilt of (someone)
    prove
    obtain probate of
    mirror
    reflect or resemble
    attaint
    condemn by attainder
    type of:
    bear witness, prove, show, testify
    provide evidence for
  5. verb
    provide evidence for
    synonyms: bear witness, prove, show, testify
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    attest, certify, demonstrate, manifest
    provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes
    presume
    constitute reasonable evidence for
    abduce, adduce, cite
    advance evidence for
    authenticate
    establish the authenticity of something
    reflect
    give evidence of
    reflect
    give evidence of a certain behavior
    notarise, notarize
    authenticate as a notary
    condemn
    demonstrate the guilt of (someone)
    type of:
    inform
    impart knowledge of some fact, state or affairs, or event to
  6. verb
    give evidence
    synonyms: tell
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    type of:
    inform
    act as an informer
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