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Avogadro number, Avogadro's number
the number of molecules in a mole of a substance (approximately 602,250,000,000,000,000,000,000)

Boltzmann's constant
constant used in the calculation of the ideal gas constant

coefficient
a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic

cosmological constant
an arbitrary constant in the equations of general relativity theory

equilibrium constant
(chemistry) the ratio of concentrations when equilibrium is reached in a reversible reaction (when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction)

R, gas constant, universal gas constant
(physics) the universal constant in the gas equation: pressure times volume = R times temperature; equal to 8.3143 joules per kelvin per mole

G, constant of gravitation, gravitational constant, universal gravitational constant
(physics) the universal constant relating force to mass and distance in Newton's law of gravitation

Hubble constant, Hubble parameter, Hubble's constant, Hubble's parameter
(cosmology) the ratio of the speed of recession of a galaxy (due to the expansion of the universe) to its distance from the observer; the Hubble constant is not actually a constant, but is regarded as measuring the expansion rate today

ionic charge
the charge on an ion is equal to a constant charge e multiplied by an integer from 1 to 15

constant of proportionality, factor of proportionality
the constant value of the ratio of two proportional quantities x and y; usually written y = kx, where k is the factor of proportionality

c, light speed, speed of light
the speed at which light travels in a vacuum; the constancy and universality of the speed of light is recognized by defining it to be exactly 299,792,458 meters per second

absorptance, absorption coefficient, coefficient of absorption
a measure of the rate of decrease in the intensity of electromagnetic radiation (as light) as it passes through a given substance; the fraction of incident radiant energy absorbed per unit mass or thickness of an absorber

coefficient of drag, drag coefficient
the ratio of the drag on a body moving through air to the product of the velocity and the surface area of the body

coefficient of friction
the ratio of the weight of an object being moved along a surface and the force that maintains contact between the object and the surface

coefficient of mutual induction, mutual inductance
a measure of the induction between two circuits; the ratio of the electromotive force in a circuit to the corresponding change of current in a neighboring circuit; usually measured in henries

coefficient of self induction, selfinductance
the ratio of the electromotive force produced in a circuit by selfinduction to the rate of change of current producing it, expressed in henries

modulus
(physics) a coefficient that expresses how much of a specified property is possessed by a specified substance

coefficient of expansion, expansivity
the fractional change in length or area or volume per unit change in temperature at a given constant pressure

coefficient of reflection, reflectance, reflection factor, reflectivity
the fraction of radiant energy that is reflected from a surface

transmission, transmittance
the fraction of radiant energy that passes through a substance

absolute viscosity, coefficient of viscosity, dynamic viscosity
a measure of the resistance to flow of a fluid under an applied force

weight, weighting
(statistics) a coefficient assigned to elements of a frequency distribution in order to represent their relative importance

dissociation constant
the equilibrium constant for a reversible dissociation

Planck's constant, h
the constant of proportionality relating the energy of a photon to its frequency; approximately 6.626 x 10^34 joulesecond