Definitions of taxon
  1. noun
    animal or plant group having natural relations
    synonyms: taxonomic category, taxonomic group
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    Adapid, Adapid group
    extinct small mostly diurnal lower primates that fed on leaves and fruit; abundant in North America and Europe 30 to 50 million years ago; their descendents probably include the lemurs; some authorities consider them ancestral to anthropoids but others consider them only cousins
    Omomyid, Omomyid group
    extinct tiny nocturnal lower primates that fed on fruit and insects; abundant in North America and Europe 30 to 50 million years ago; probably gave rise to the tarsiers; some authorities consider them ancestral to anthropoids but others consider them only cousins
    the highest taxonomic group into which organisms are grouped; one of five biological categories: Monera or Protoctista or Plantae or Fungi or Animalia
    (biology) a taxonomic group comprising a major division of a kingdom
    (biology) a taxonomic category consisting of members of a species that differ from others of the same species in minor but heritable characteristics
    (biology) the major taxonomic group of animals and plants; contains classes
    (biology) a taxonomic group ranking between a phylum and a class
    (biology) a taxonomic group ranking between a phylum and below a class or subclass
    (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders
    (biology) a taxonomic category below a class and above an order
    (biology) a taxonomic class below a phylum and above a class
    (biology) taxonomic group containing one or more families
    (biology) taxonomic group that is a subdivision of an order
    (biology) a taxonomic group ranking above an order and below a class or subclass
    (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more genera
    (biology) a taxonomic group ranking below an order but above a family
    (biology) a taxonomic category below a family
    (biology) a taxonomic category between a genus and a subfamily
    (biology) taxonomic group containing one or more species
    (biology) taxonomic group between a genus and a species
    (biology) a taxonomic group with a single member (a single species or genus)
    (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
    race, subspecies
    (biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species
    form, strain, var., variant
    (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups
    (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon
    Pteridospermae, Pteridospermaphyta, group Pteridospermae, group Pteridospermaphyta
    used in some classification systems: a group of extinct fossil gymnosperms coextensive with the order Cycadofilicales
    Centrospermae, group Centrospermae
    used in former classification systems; approximately synonymous with order Caryophyllales
    Amentiferae, group Amentiferae
    used in some classification systems for plants that bear catkins
    Phycomycetes, Phycomycetes group
    a large and probably unnatural group of fungi and funguslike organisms comprising the Mastigomycota (including the Oomycetes) and Zygomycota subdivisions of the division Eumycota; a category not used in all systems
    (biology) the taxonomic category above the kingdom; the three domains are Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria
    Animalia, animal kingdom, kingdom Animalia
    taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals
    form genus
    an artificial taxonomic category established on the basis of morphological resemblance for organisms of obscure true relationships especially fossil forms
    a family of threadlike RNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees)
    Monera, Prokayotae, kingdom Monera, kingdom Prokaryotae
    prokaryotic bacteria and blue-green algae and various primitive pathogens; because of lack of consensus on how to divide the organisms into phyla informal names are used for the major divisions
    animal order
    the order of animals
    protoctist order
    the order of protoctists
    bacteria family
    a family of bacteria
    bacteria genus
    a genus of bacteria
    bacteria species
    a species of bacteria
    Schizomycetes, class Schizomycetes
    a former classification
    Cyanophyceae, class Cyanobacteria, class Cyanophyceae
    photosynthetic bacteria found in fresh and salt water, having chlorophyll a and phycobilins; once thought to be algae: blue-green algae
    Protoctista, kingdom Protoctista
    in most modern classifications, replacement for the Protista; includes: Protozoa; Euglenophyta; Chlorophyta; Cryptophyta; Heterokontophyta; Rhodophyta; unicellular protists and their descendant multicellular organisms: regarded as distinct from plants and animals
    protoctist family
    any of the families of Protoctista
    protoctist genus
    any genus of Protoctista
    Pyrrophyta, phylum Pyrrophyta
    a division of lower plants comprising unicellular and biflagellate algae that form starchy compounds
    Protozoa, phylum Protozoa
    in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers
    Sarcodina, class Sarcodina
    characterized by the formation of pseudopods for locomotion and taking food: Actinopoda; Rhizopoda
    Actinopoda, subclass Actinopoda
    heliozoans; radiolarians
    Rhizopoda, subclass Rhizopoda
    creeping protozoans: amoebas and foraminifers
    Endamoebidae, family Endamoebidae
    a large family of endoparasitic amebas that invade the digestive tract
    Ciliata, Ciliophora, class Ciliata, class Ciliophora
    class of protozoa having cilia or hairlike appendages on part or all of the surface during some part of the life cycle
    Infusoria, subclass Infusoria
    in some recent classifications, coextensive with the Ciliata: minute organisms found in decomposing infusions of organic matter
    Chrysophyceae, Heterokontae, class Chrysophyceae, class Heterokontae
    all the yellow-green algae having flagella of unequal length
    Xanthophyceae, class Xanthophyceae
    yellow-green algae
    Bacillariophyceae, Diatomophyceae, class Bacillariophyceae, class Diatomophyceae
    marine and freshwater eukaryotic algae: diatoms
    Phaeophyceae, class Phaeophyceae
    brown algae; mostly marine and littoral eukaryotic algae
    Cyclosporeae, class Cyclosporeae
    in more recent classifications superseded by the order Fucales
    Euglenophyceae, class Euglenophyceae
    coextensive with the division Euglenophyta
    Chlorophyceae, class Chlorophyceae
    algae distinguished chiefly by having flagella and a clear green color, their chlorophyll being masked little if at all by other pigments
    Ulvophyceae, class Ulvophyceae
    alternative name for the class Chlorophyceae in some classifications
    Charophyceae, class Charophyceae
    in some classifications: contains only the order Charales
    Rhodophyceae, class Rhodophyceae
    coextensive with the Rhodophyta: red algae
    Flagellata, Mastigophora, class Flagellata, class Mastigophora
    protozoa having flagella
    Zoomastigina, subclass Zoomastigina
    in some classifications considered a phylum of the kingdom Protista; holozoic or saprozoic flagellates
    Phytomastigina, subclass Phytomastigina
    plantlike flagellates containing chlorophyll; often considered unicellular algae
    Cryptophyta, phylum Cryptophyta
    a phylum in the kingdom Protoctista
    Cryptophyceae, class Cryptophyceae
    motile usually brownish-green protozoa-like algae
    Sporozoa, class Sporozoa
    strictly parasitic protozoans that are usually immobile; includes plasmodia and coccidia and piroplasms and malaria parasites
    Telosporidia, subclass Telosporidia
    parasitic sporozoans that form spores containing one or more infective sporozoites
    Acnidosporidia, subclass Acnidosporidia
    a subclass of Sporozoa
    Cnidosporidia, subclass Cnidosporidia
    single-host parasites of lower vertebrates and invertebrates
    fish family
    any of various families of fish
    fish genus
    any of various genus of fish
    Chordata, phylum Chordata
    comprises true vertebrates and animals having a notochord
    chordate family
    any family in the phylum Chordata
    chordate genus
    any genus in the phylum Chordata
    Cephalochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata
    Tunicata, Urochorda, Urochordata, subphylum Tunicata, subphylum Urochorda, subphylum Urochordata
    Ascidiaceae, class Ascidiaceae
    sometimes classified as an order: sea squirts
    Thaliacea, class Thaliacea
    small class of free-swimming tunicates; sometimes classified as an order
    Larvacea, class Larvacea
    small free-swimming tunicates; sometimes classified as an order
    Craniata, Vertebrata, subphylum Craniata, subphylum Vertebrata
    fishes; amphibians; reptiles; birds; mammals
    Agnatha, superclass Agnatha
    superclass of eel-shaped chordates lacking jaws and pelvic fins: lampreys; hagfishes; some extinct forms
    Gnathostomata, superclass Gnathostomata
    comprising all vertebrates with upper and lower jaws
    Placodermi, class Placodermi
    extinct group of bony-plated fishes with primitive jaws
    Chondrichthyes, class Chondrichthyes
    cartilaginous fishes
    Holocephali, subclass Holocephali
    chimaeras and extinct forms
    Elasmobranchii, Selachii, subclass Elasmobranchii, subclass Selachii
    sharks; rays; dogfishes; skates
    Aves, class Aves
    (ornithology) the class of birds
    bird family
    a family of warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrates characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings
    bird genus
    a genus of birds
    Archaeornithes, subclass Archaeornithes
    primitive reptile-like fossil birds of the Jurassic or early Cretaceous
    amphibia, class Amphibia
    the class of vertebrates that live on land but breed in water; frogs; toads; newts; salamanders; caecilians
    amphibian family
    any family of amphibians
    amphibian genus
    any genus of amphibians
    reptile family
    a family of reptiles
    reptile genus
    a genus of reptiles
    Reptilia, class Reptilia
    class of cold-blooded air-breathing vertebrates with completely ossified skeleton and a body usually covered with scales or horny plates; once the dominant land animals
    Anapsida, subclass Anapsida
    oldest known reptiles; turtles and extinct Permian forms
    Lepidosauria, subclass Lepidosauria
    diapsid reptiles: lizards; snakes; tuataras
    Archosauria, subclass Archosauria
    a large subclass of diapsid reptiles including: crocodiles; alligators; dinosaurs; pterosaurs; plesiosaurs; ichthyosaurs; thecodonts
    Synapsida, subclass Synapsida
    extinct reptiles of the Permian to Jurassic considered ancestral to mammals
    arthropod family
    any of the arthropods
    arthropod genus
    a genus of arthropods
    Arthropoda, phylum Arthropoda
    jointed-foot invertebrates: arachnids; crustaceans; insects; millipedes; centipedes
    Chelicerata, superclass Chelicerata
    spiders; scorpions; horseshoe crabs
    Arachnida, class Arachnida
    a large class of arthropods including spiders and ticks and scorpions and daddy longlegs; have four pairs of walking legs and no wings
    superclass Myriapoda
    used in some classifications to encompass the millipedes (Diplopoda) and centipedes (Chilopoda); formerly a large taxon including also the Pauropoda and Symphyla; the term Myriapoda now usually used synonymously with Diplopoda and limited to the millipedes
    Pauropoda, class Pauropoda
    an obscure class of minute arthropods with branched antennae and 8 to 10 pairs of legs
    Symphyla, class Symphyla
    small class of minute arthropods; unimportant except for the garden centipede
    Tardigrada, class Tardigrada
    in some classifications considered a separate phylum: microscopic arachnid-like invertebrates living in water or damp moss having 4 pairs of legs and instead of a mouth a pair of stylets or needlelike piercing organs connected with the pharynx
    Chilopoda, class Chilopoda
    arthropods having the trunk composed of numerous somites each bearing one pair of legs: centipedes
    Diplopoda, Myriapoda, class Diplopoda, class Myriapoda
    arthropods having the body composed of numerous double somites each with two pairs of legs: millipedes
    Pentastomida, subphylum Pentastomida
    tongue worms
    Mammalia, class Mammalia
    warm-blooded vertebrates characterized by mammary glands in the female
    mammal family
    a family of mammals
    mammal genus
    a genus of mammals
    Prototheria, subclass Prototheria
    echidnas; platypus
    Pantotheria, subclass Pantotheria
    generalized extinct mammals widespread during the Jurassic; commonly conceded to be ancestral to marsupial and placental mammals
    Metatheria, subclass Metatheria
    pouched animals
    Eutheria, subclass Eutheria
    all mammals except monotremes and marsupials
    Parazoa, subkingdom Parazoa
    multicellular organisms having less-specialized cells than in the Metazoa; comprises the single phylum Porifera
    Porifera, phylum Porifera
    coextensive with the subkingdom Parazoa: sponges
    sponge genus
    a genus of Porifera
    Hyalospongiae, class Hyalospongiae
    sponges with siliceous spicules that have six rays; choanocytes are restricted to finger-shaped chambers
    coelenterate family
    a family of coelenterates
    coelenterate genus
    a genus of coelenterates
    Metazoa, subkingdom Metazoa
    multicellular animals having cells differentiated into tissues and organs and usually a digestive cavity and nervous system
    Cnidaria, Coelenterata, phylum Cnidaria, phylum Coelenterata
    hydras; polyps; jellyfishes; sea anemones; corals
    Scyphozoa, class Scyphozoa
    coelenterates in which the polyp stage is absent or at least inconspicuous: jellyfishes
    Hydrozoa, class Hydrozoa
    coelenterates typically having alternation of generations; hydroid phase is usually colonial giving rise to the medusoid phase by budding: hydras and jellyfishes
    Actinozoa, Anthozoa, class Actinozoa, class Anthozoa
    a large class of sedentary marine coelenterates that includes sea anemones and corals; the medusoid phase is entirely suppressed
    ctenophore family
    a family of ctenophores
    ctenophore genus
    a genus of ctenophores
    Ctenophora, phylum Ctenophora
    comb jellies; sea acorns; a small phylum formerly considered a class of Coelenterata
    Nuda, class Nuda
    ctenophores lacking tentacles; comprises one genus: beroe
    Tentaculata, class Tentaculata
    ctenophores have retractile tentacles
    worm family
    a family of worms
    worm genus
    a genus of worms
    Acanthocephala, phylum Acanthocephala
    phylum or class of elongated wormlike parasites that live in the intestines of vertebrates: spiny-headed worms
    Chaetognatha, phylum Chaetognatha
    arrowworms: a group of small active transparent marine worms
    Platyhelminthes, phylum Platyhelminthes
    Turbellaria, class Turbellaria
    free-living flatworms
    Trematoda, class Trematoda
    parasitic flatworms (including flukes)
    Cestoda, class Cestoda
    Nemertea, Nemertina, phylum Nemertea, phylum Nemertina
    proboscis worms
    Pogonophora, phylum Pogonophora
    beard worms
    Rotifera, phylum Rotifera
    a phylum including: rotifers
    Aschelminthes, Nematoda, phylum Aschelminthes, phylum Nematoda
    unsegmented worms: roundworms; threadworms; eelworms
    Aphasmidia, class Aphasmidia
    one of two subgroups of Nematoda used in some classification systems
    Phasmidia, class Phasmidia
    one of two subgroups of Nematoda used in some classification systems
    Annelida, phylum Annelida
    segmented worms: earthworms; lugworms; leeches
    Archiannelida, class Archiannelida
    a class of Annelida
    Oligochaeta, class Oligochaeta
    Polychaeta, class Polychaeta
    marine annelid worms
    Hirudinea, class Hirudinea
    hermaphroditic aquatic or terrestrial or parasitic annelids
    mollusk family
    a family of mollusks
    mollusk genus
    a genus of mollusks
    Mollusca, phylum Mollusca
    gastropods; bivalves; cephalopods; chitons
    Scaphopoda, class Scaphopoda
    small class of bilaterally symmetrical marine forms comprising the tooth shells
    Gasteropoda, Gastropoda, class Gasteropoda, class Gastropoda
    snails and slugs and their relatives
    Opisthobranchia, subclass Opisthobranchia
    gastropods having the gills when present posterior to the heart and having no operculum: includes sea slugs; sea butterflies; sea hares
    Amphineura, subclass Amphineura
    a class of Gastropoda
    Polyplacophora, class Polyplacophora
    small class of marine mollusks comprising the chitons; sometimes considered an order of the subclass Amphineura
    Bivalvia, Lamellibranchia, class Bivalvia, class Lamellibranchia, class Pelecypoda
    oysters; clams; scallops; mussels
    Cephalopoda, class Cephalopoda
    octopuses; squids; cuttlefish; pearly nautilus
    Dibranchia, Dibranchiata, subclass Dibranchia, subclass Dibranchiata
    comprising all living cephalopods except the family Nautilidae: the orders Octopoda (octopuses) and Decapoda (squids and cuttlefish)
    Crustacea, class Crustacea
    class of mandibulate arthropods including: lobsters; crabs; shrimps; woodlice; barnacles; decapods; water fleas
    Malacostraca, subclass Malacostraca
    largest subclass of Crustacea including most of the well-known marine, freshwater, and terrestrial crustaceans: crabs; lobsters; shrimps; sow bugs; beach flies
    Entomostraca, subclass Entomostraca
    in some older classifications includes the Branchiopoda and Copepoda and Ostracoda and Cirripedia; no longer in technical use
    Branchiopoda, subclass Branchiopoda
    primitive aquatic mainly freshwater crustaceans: fairy shrimps; brine shrimps; tadpole shrimps; can shrimps; water fleas
    Copepoda, subclass Copepoda
    minute planktonic or parasitic crustaceans
    Ostracoda, subclass Ostracoda
    seed shrimps
    Cirripedia, subclass Cirripedia
    Onychophora, class Onychophora
    enigmatic small elongated wormlike terrestrial invertebrates of damp dark habitats in warm regions; distinct from the phylum Annelida; resemble slugs with legs and are sometimes described as the missing link between arthropods and annelids
    Hexapoda, Insecta, class Hexapoda, class Insecta
    insects; about five-sixths of all known animal species
    Panorpidae, family Panorpidae
    a family of insects of the order Mecoptera
    Bittacidae, family Bittacidae
    a family of predacious tropical insects of the order Mecoptera
    Exopterygota, Hemimetabola, subclass Exopterygota
    subclass of insects characterized by gradual and usually incomplete metamorphosis
    Phoronida, Phoronidea, phylum Phoronida
    small phylum of wormlike marine animals
    Bryozoa, phylum Bryozoa, polyzoa
    marine or freshwater animals that form colonies of zooids
    Ectoprocta, phylum Ectoprocta
    coextensive with or a subphylum of Bryozoa
    Endoprocta, Entoprocta, phylum Entoprocta
    sometimes considered a subphylum of Bryozoa
    Cycliophora, phylum Cycliophora
    tiny marine organisms each the size of a period found in great numbers on lobsters' lips; identified tentatively in 1995 as a new phylum or as possible link between Entoprocta and Ectoprocta
    Brachiopoda, phylum Brachiopoda
    marine invertebrates that resemble mollusks
    Sipuncula, phylum Sipuncula
    peanut worms
    echinoderm family
    a family of echinoderms
    echinoderm genus
    a genus of echinoderms
    Echinodermata, phylum Echinodermata
    radially symmetrical marine invertebrates including e.g. starfish and sea urchins and sea cucumbers
    Asteroidea, class Asteroidea
    sea stars
    Ophiuroidea, class Ophiuroidea
    brittle stars and basket stars
    Ophiurida, subclass Ophiurida
    brittle stars
    Euryalida, subclass Euryalida
    basket stars
    Echinoidea, class Echinoidea
    sea urchins and sand dollars
    Crinoidea, class Crinoidea
    sea lilies
    Holothuroidea, class Holothuroidea
    class of echinoderms including the sea cucumbers
    Bovini, tribe Bovini
    term not used technically; essentially coextensive with genus Bos
    Hominoidea, superfamily Hominoidea
    anthropoid apes and human beings
    Channidae, class Channidae
    Osteichthyes, class Osteichthyes
    a class of fish having a skeleton composed of bone in addition to cartilage
    Crossopterygii, subclass Crossopterygii
    fishes having paired fins resembling limbs and regarded as ancestral to amphibians
    Dipnoi, subclass Dipnoi
    bony fishes of the southern hemisphere that breathe by a modified air bladder as well as gills; sometimes classified as an order of Crossopterygii
    Teleostei, subclass Teleostei
    large diverse group of bony fishes; includes most living species
    a subfamily of the family Centropomidae
    breed, stock, strain
    a special variety of domesticated animals within a species
    form family
    (biology) an artificial taxonomic category for organisms of which the true relationships are obscure
    type genus
    (biology) genus from which the name of a family or subfamily is formed; it is not necessarily the most representative genus but often the largest or best known or earliest described
    form genus
    (biology) an artificial taxonomic category for organisms of which the true relationships are obscure
    endangered species
    a species whose numbers are so small that the species is at risk of extinction
    fish species
    a species of fish
    type species
    (biology) the species that best exemplifies the essential characteristics of the genus to which it belongs
    (botany) taxonomic unit of plants corresponding to a phylum
    Plantae, kingdom Plantae, plant kingdom
    (botany) the taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct plants
    plant order
    the order of plants
    moss family
    a family of mosses
    moss genus
    a genus of mosses
    Anthoceropsida, class Anthoceropsida
    hornworts: in some classification systems included in the class Hepaticopsida
    Bryopsida, Musci, class Bryopsida, class Musci
    true mosses: bryophytes having leafy rather than thalloid gametophytes: comprises orders Andreaeales; Bryales; Dicranales; Eubryales; Sphagnales
    Hepaticae, Hepaticopsida, class Hepaticae, class Hepaticopsida
    liverworts: comprises orders Anthocerotales; Jungermanniales; Marchantiales; Sphaerocarpales
    gymnosperm genus
    a genus of gymnosperms
    liliopsid family, monocot family
    family of flowering plants having a single cotyledon (embryonic leaf) in the seed
    liliopsid genus, monocot genus
    genus of flowering plants having a single cotyledon (embryonic leaf) in the seed
    dicot family, magnoliopsid family
    family of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination
    dicot genus, magnoliopsid genus
    genus of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination
    fungus family
    includes lichen families
    fungus genus
    includes lichen genera
    fungus order
    the order of fungi
    Gymnospermae, Gymnospermophyta, class Gymnospermae, division Gymnospermophyta
    plants having naked seeds not enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Gymnospermae) and in others a division (Gymnospermophyta); comprises three subdivisions (or classes): Cycadophytina (class Cycadopsida) and Gnetophytina (class Gnetopsida) and Coniferophytina (class Coniferopsida); in some classifications the Coniferophytina are divided into three groups: Pinophytina (class Pinopsida) and Ginkgophytina (class Ginkgopsida) and Taxophytina (class Taxopsida)
    Gnetophyta, Gnetophytina, Gnetopsida, class Gnetopsida, subdivision Gnetophytina
    gymnospermous flowering plants; supposed link between conifers and angiosperms; in some systems classified as a class (Gnetopsida) and in others as a subdivision (Gnetophytina or Gnetophyta)
    Cycadophyta, Cycadophytina, Cycadopsida, class Cycadopsida, subdivision Cycadophyta, subdivision Cycadophytina
    palmlike gymnosperms: includes the surviving order Cycadales and several extinct orders; possibly not a natural group; in some systems considered a class (Cycadopsida) and in others a subdivision (Cycadophytina or Cycadophyta)
    Pteridospermopsida, class Pteridospermopsida
    extinct gymnosperms most of Carboniferous to Jurassic: seed ferns and allies
    Coniferophyta, Coniferophytina, Coniferopsida, class Coniferopsida, subdivision Coniferophytina
    cone-bearing gymnosperms dating from the Carboniferous period; most are substantial trees; includes the classes Pinopsida (subdivision Pinophytina) and Ginkgopsida (subdivision Ginkgophytina) and Taxopsida (subdivision Taxophytina) which in turn include the surviving orders Coniferales and Taxales (yews) and sometimes Ginkgoales as well as extinct orders such as Cordaitales (of the Carboniferous and Permian)
    Pinophytina, Pinopsida, class Pinopsida, subdivision Pinophytina
    most conifers: in some systems classified as a class (Pinopsida) and in others as a subdivision (Pinophytina); used in some classifications for one of five subdivisions of Gymnospermophyta
    Taxophytina, Taxopsida, class Taxopsida, subdivision Taxophytina
    yews: in some systems classified as a class (Taxopsida) and in others as a subdivision (Taxophytina) used in some classifications for one of five subdivisions of Gymnospermophyta
    Ginkgophytina, Ginkgopsida, class Ginkgophytina, class Ginkgopsida, subdivision Ginkgophyta, subdivision Ginkgophytina
    ginkgos: in some systems classified as a class and in others as a subdivision; used in some classifications for one of five subdivisions of Gymnospermophyta
    Angiospermae, Anthophyta, Magnoliophyta, class Angiospermae, division Anthophyta, division Magnoliophyta
    comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Angiospermae) and in others a division (Magnoliophyta or Anthophyta)
    Dicotyledonae, Dicotyledones, Magnoliopsida, class Dicotyledonae, class Dicotyledones, class Magnoliopsida
    comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae; Asteridae
    Magnoliidae, ranalian complex, subclass Magnoliidae
    a group of families of trees and shrubs and herbs having well-developed perianths and apocarpous ovaries and generally regarded as the most primitive extant flowering plants; contains 36 families including Magnoliaceae and Ranunculaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder
    Liliopsida, Monocotyledonae, Monocotyledones, class Liliopsida, class Monocotyledonae, class Monocotyledones
    comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with a single cotyledon and parallel-veined leaves: includes grasses and lilies and palms and orchids; divided into four subclasses or superorders: Alismatidae; Arecidae; Commelinidae; and Liliidae
    Alismatidae, subclass Alismatidae
    one of four subclasses or superorders of Monocotyledones; comprises about 500 species in 14 families of aquatic and semiaquatic herbs
    Arecidae, subclass Arecidae
    one of four subclasses or superorder of Monocotyledones; comprises about 6400 species in 5 families of trees and shrubs and terrestrial herbs and a few free-floating aquatics including: Palmae; Araceae; Pandanaceae and Lemnaceae
    Commelinidae, subclass Commelinidae
    one of four subclasses or superorders of Monocotyledones; comprises about 19,000 species in 25 families of mostly terrestrial herbs especially of moist places including: Cyperaceae; Gramineae; Bromeliaceae; and Zingiberaceae
    plant family
    a family of plants
    plant genus
    a genus of plants
    Caryophyllidae, subclass Caryophyllidae
    a group of families of mostly flowers having basal or central placentation and trinucleate pollen (binucleate pollen is commoner in flowering plants); contains 14 families including: Caryophyllaceae (carnations and pinks); Aizoaceae; Amaranthaceae; Batidaceae; Chenopodiaceae; Cactaceae (order Opuntiales); Nyctaginaceae; Phytolaccaceae; corresponds approximately to order Caryophyllales; sometimes classified as a superorder
    Asteridae, subclass Asteridae
    a group of mostly sympetalous herbs and some trees and shrubs mostly with 2 fused carpels; contains 43 families including Campanulales; Solanaceae; Scrophulariaceae; Labiatae; Verbenaceae; Rubiaceae; Compositae; sometimes classified as a superorder
    Bambuseae, tribe Bambuseae
    Rosidae, subclass Rosidae
    a group of trees and shrubs and herbs mostly with polypetalous flowers; contains 108 families including Rosaceae; Crassulaceae; Myrtaceae; Melastomaceae; Euphorbiaceae; Umbelliferae
    Hamamelidae, subclass Hamamelidae
    a group of chiefly woody plants considered among the most primitive of angiosperms; perianth poorly developed or lacking; flowers often unisexual and often in catkins and often wind pollinated; contains 23 families including the Betulaceae and Fagaceae (includes the Amentiferae); sometimes classified as a superorder
    Dilleniidae, subclass Dilleniidae
    a group of families of more or less advanced trees and shrubs and herbs having either polypetalous or gamopetalous corollas and often with ovules attached to the walls of the ovary; contains 69 families including Ericaceae and Cruciferae and Malvaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder
    Liliidae, subclass Liliidae
    one of four subclasses or superorders of Monocotyledones; comprises 17 families including: Liliaceae; Alliaceae; Amaryllidaceae; Iridaceae; Orchidaceae; Trilliaceae
    Zygomycetes, class Zygomycetes
    class of fungi coextensive with subdivision Zygomycota
    Myxomycetes, class Myxomycetes
    the class of true slime molds; essentially equivalent to the division Myxomycota
    Acrasiomycetes, class Acrasiomycetes
    cellular slime molds; in some classifications placed in kingdom Protoctista
    Oomycetes, class Oomycetes
    nonphotosynthetic fungi that resemble algae and that reproduce by forming oospores; sometimes classified as protoctists
    Chytridiomycetes, class Chytridiomycetes
    a class of mostly aquatic fungi; saprophytic or parasitic on algae or fungi or plants
    Fungi, fungus kingdom, kingdom Fungi
    the taxonomic kingdom including yeast, molds, smuts, mushrooms, and toadstools; distinct from the green plants
    Eumycetes, class Eumycetes
    category used in some classifications: coextensive with division Eumycota
    Deuteromycetes, class Deuteromycetes
    form class; coextensive with subdivision Deuteromycota
    Basidiomycetes, class Basidiomycetes
    large class of higher fungi coextensive with subdivision Basidiomycota
    Homobasidiomycetes, subclass Homobasidiomycetes
    category used in some classification systems for various basidiomycetous fungi including e.g. mushrooms and puffballs which are usually placed in the classes Gasteromycetes and Hymenomycetes
    Heterobasidiomycetes, subclass Heterobasidiomycetes
    category used in some classification systems for various basidiomycetous fungi including rusts and smuts
    Hymenomycetes, class Hymenomycetes
    used in some classifications; usually coextensive with order Agaricales: mushrooms; toadstools; agarics; bracket fungi
    Ascomycetes, class Ascomycetes
    large class of higher fungi coextensive with division Ascomycota: sac fungi
    Euascomycetes, subclass Euascomycetes
    category not used in many classification systems
    Hemiascomycetes, class Hemiascomycetes
    class of fungi in which no ascocarps are formed: yeasts and some plant parasites
    Plectomycetes, class Plectomycetes
    class of fungi in which the fruiting body is a cleistothecium (it releases spores only on decay or disintegration)
    Pyrenomycetes, class Pyrenomycetes
    class of fungi in which the fruiting body is a perithecium; includes powdery mildews and ergot and Neurospora
    Discomycetes, subclass Discomycetes
    a large and taxonomically difficult group of Ascomycetes in which the fleshy fruiting body is disklike or cup-shaped
    Gasteromycetes, Gastromycetes, class Gasteromycetes, class Gastromycetes
    fungi in which the hymenium is enclosed until after spores have matured: puffballs; earth stars; stinkhorn fungi
    Tiliomycetes, class Tiliomycetes
    category used in some systems to comprise the two orders Ustilaginales (smuts) and Uredinales (rusts)
    a variety of a plant developed from a natural species and maintained under cultivation
    fern family
    families of ferns and fern allies
    fern genus
    genera of ferns and fern allies
    Filicinae, Filicopsida, class Filicinae, class Filicopsida
    Psilopsida, Psilotatae, class Psilopsida, class Psilotatae
    whisk ferns; comprising the family Psilotaceae or Psilotatae: vascular plants with no roots, partial if any leaf differentiation, and rudimentary spore sacs
    Equisetatae, Sphenopsida, class Equisetatae, class Sphenopsida
    horsetails and related forms
    Lycopodiate, Lycopsida, class Lycopodiate, class Lycopsida
    club mosses and related forms: includes Lycopodiales; Isoetales; Selaginellales; and extinct Lepidodendrales; sometimes considered a subdivision of Tracheophyta
    Lycopodineae, class Lycopodineae
    alternative designation for the class Lycopsida
    type of:
    biological group
    a group of plants or animals
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