Definitions of taxon

n animal or plant group having natural relations

taxonomic category, taxonomic group
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Adapid, Adapid group
extinct small mostly diurnal lower primates that fed on leaves and fruit; abundant in North America and Europe 30 to 50 million years ago; their descendents probably include the lemurs; some authorities consider them ancestral to anthropoids but others consider them only cousins
Omomyid, Omomyid group
extinct tiny nocturnal lower primates that fed on fruit and insects; abundant in North America and Europe 30 to 50 million years ago; probably gave rise to the tarsiers; some authorities consider them ancestral to anthropoids but others consider them only cousins
the highest taxonomic group into which organisms are grouped; one of five biological categories: Monera or Protoctista or Plantae or Fungi or Animalia
(biology) a taxonomic group comprising a major division of a kingdom
(biology) a taxonomic category consisting of members of a species that differ from others of the same species in minor but heritable characteristics
(biology) the major taxonomic group of animals and plants; contains classes
(biology) a taxonomic group ranking between a phylum and a class
(biology) a taxonomic group ranking between a phylum and below a class or subclass
(biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders
(biology) a taxonomic category below a class and above an order
(biology) a taxonomic class below a phylum and above a class
(biology) taxonomic group containing one or more families
(biology) taxonomic group that is a subdivision of an order
(biology) a taxonomic group ranking above an order and below a class or subclass
(biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more genera
(biology) a taxonomic group ranking below an order but above a family
(biology) a taxonomic category below a family
(biology) a taxonomic category between a genus and a subfamily
(biology) taxonomic group containing one or more species
(biology) taxonomic group between a genus and a species
(biology) a taxonomic group with a single member (a single species or genus)
(biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
race, subspecies
(biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species
form, strain, var., variant
(biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups
(biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon
Pteridospermae, Pteridospermaphyta, group Pteridospermae, group Pteridospermaphyta
used in some classification systems: a group of extinct fossil gymnosperms coextensive with the order Cycadofilicales
Centrospermae, group Centrospermae
used in former classification systems; approximately synonymous with order Caryophyllales
Amentiferae, group Amentiferae
used in some classification systems for plants that bear catkins
Phycomycetes, Phycomycetes group
a large and probably unnatural group of fungi and funguslike organisms comprising the Mastigomycota (including the Oomycetes) and Zygomycota subdivisions of the division Eumycota; a category not used in all systems
Animalia, animal kingdom, kingdom Animalia
taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals
form genus
an artificial taxonomic category established on the basis of morphological resemblance for organisms of obscure true relationships especially fossil forms
a family of threadlike RNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees)
Monera, Prokayotae, kingdom Monera, kingdom Prokaryotae
prokaryotic bacteria and blue-green algae and various primitive pathogens; because of lack of consensus on how to divide the organisms into phyla informal names are used for the major divisions
animal order
the order of animals
protoctist order
the order of protoctists
bacteria family
a family of bacteria
bacteria genus
a genus of bacteria
bacteria species
a species of bacteria
Schizomycetes, class Schizomycetes
a former classification
Cyanophyceae, class Cyanobacteria, class Cyanophyceae
photosynthetic bacteria found in fresh and salt water, having chlorophyll a and phycobilins; once thought to be algae: blue-green algae
Protoctista, kingdom Protoctista
in most modern classifications, replacement for the Protista; includes: Protozoa; Euglenophyta; Chlorophyta; Cryptophyta; Heterokontophyta; Rhodophyta; unicellular protists and their descendant multicellular organisms: regarded as distinct from plants and animals
protoctist family
any of the families of Protoctista
protoctist genus
any genus of Protoctista
Pyrrophyta, phylum Pyrrophyta
a division of lower plants comprising unicellular and biflagellate algae that form starchy compounds
Protozoa, phylum Protozoa
in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers
Sarcodina, class Sarcodina
characterized by the formation of pseudopods for locomotion and taking food: Actinopoda; Rhizopoda
Actinopoda, subclass Actinopoda
heliozoans; radiolarians
Rhizopoda, subclass Rhizopoda
creeping protozoans: amoebas and foraminifers
Endamoebidae, family Endamoebidae
a large family of endoparasitic amebas that invade the digestive tract
Ciliata, Ciliophora, class Ciliata, class Ciliophora
class of protozoa having cilia or hairlike appendages on part or all of the surface during some part of the life cycle
Infusoria, subclass Infusoria
in some recent classifications, coextensive with the Ciliata: minute organisms found in decomposing infusions of organic matter
Chrysophyceae, Heterokontae, class Chrysophyceae, class Heterokontae
all the yellow-green algae having flagella of unequal length
Xanthophyceae, class Xanthophyceae
yellow-green algae
Bacillariophyceae, Diatomophyceae, class Bacillariophyceae, class Diatomophyceae
marine and freshwater eukaryotic algae: diatoms
Phaeophyceae, class Phaeophyceae
brown algae; mostly marine and littoral eukaryotic algae
Cyclosporeae, class Cyclosporeae
in more recent classifications superseded by the order Fucales
Euglenophyceae, class Euglenophyceae
coextensive with the division Euglenophyta
Chlorophyceae, class Chlorophyceae
algae distinguished chiefly by having flagella and a clear green color, their chlorophyll being masked little if at all by other pigments
Ulvophyceae, class Ulvophyceae
alternative name for the class Chlorophyceae in some classifications
Charophyceae, class Charophyceae
in some classifications: contains only the order Charales
Rhodophyceae, class Rhodophyceae
coextensive with the Rhodophyta: red algae
Flagellata, Mastigophora, class Flagellata, class Mastigophora
protozoa having flagella
Zoomastigina, subclass Zoomastigina
in some classifications considered a phylum of the kingdom Protista; holozoic or saprozoic flagellates
Phytomastigina, subclass Phytomastigina
plantlike flagellates containing chlorophyll; often considered unicellular algae
Cryptophyta, phylum Cryptophyta
a phylum in the kingdom Protoctista
Cryptophyceae, class Cryptophyceae
motile usually brownish-green protozoa-like algae
Sporozoa, class Sporozoa
strictly parasitic protozoans that are usually immobile; includes plasmodia and coccidia and piroplasms and malaria parasites
Telosporidia, subclass Telosporidia
parasitic sporozoans that form spores containing one or more infective sporozoites
Acnidosporidia, subclass Acnidosporidia
a subclass of Sporozoa
Cnidosporidia, subclass Cnidosporidia
single-host parasites of lower vertebrates and invertebrates
fish family
any of various families of fish
fish genus
any of various genus of fish
Chordata, phylum Chordata
comprises true vertebrates and animals having a notochord
chordate family
any family in the phylum Chordata
chordate genus
any genus in the phylum Chordata
Cephalochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata
Tunicata, Urochorda, Urochordata, subphylum Tunicata, subphylum Urochorda, subphylum Urochordata
Ascidiaceae, class Ascidiaceae
sometimes classified as an order: sea squirts
Thaliacea, class Thaliacea
small class of free-swimming tunicates; sometimes classified as an order
Larvacea, class Larvacea
small free-swimming tunicates; sometimes classified as an order
Craniata, Vertebrata, subphylum Craniata, subphylum Vertebrata
fishes; amphibians; reptiles; birds; mammals
Agnatha, superclass Agnatha
superclass of eel-shaped chordates lacking jaws and pelvic fins: lampreys; hagfishes; some extinct forms
Gnathostomata, superclass Gnathostomata
comprising all vertebrates with upper and lower jaws
Placodermi, class Placodermi
extinct group of bony-plated fishes with primitive jaws
Chondrichthyes, class Chondrichthyes
cartilaginous fishes
Holocephali, subclass Holocephali
chimaeras and extinct forms
Elasmobranchii, Selachii, subclass Elasmobranchii, subclass Selachii
sharks; rays; dogfishes; skates
Aves, class Aves
(ornithology) the class of birds
bird family
a family of warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrates characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings
bird genus
a genus of birds
Archaeornithes, subclass Archaeornithes
primitive reptile-like fossil birds of the Jurassic or early Cretaceous
amphibia, class Amphibia
the class of vertebrates that live on land but breed in water; frogs; toads; newts; salamanders; caecilians
amphibian family
any family of amphibians
amphibian genus
any genus of amphibians
reptile family
a family of reptiles
reptile genus
a genus of reptiles
Reptilia, class Reptilia
class of cold-blooded air-breathing vertebrates with completely ossified skeleton and a body usually covered with scales or horny plates; once the dominant land animals
Anapsida, subclass Anapsida
oldest known reptiles; turtles and extinct Permian forms
Lepidosauria, subclass Lepidosauria
diapsid reptiles: lizards; snakes; tuataras
Archosauria, subclass Archosauria
a large subclass of diapsid reptiles including: crocodiles; alligators; dinosaurs; pterosaurs; plesiosaurs; ichthyosaurs; thecodonts
Synapsida, subclass Synapsida
extinct reptiles of the Permian to Jurassic considered ancestral to mammals
arthropod family
any of the arthropods
arthropod genus
a genus of arthropods
Arthropoda, phylum Arthropoda
jointed-foot invertebrates: arachnids; crustaceans; insects; millipedes; centipedes
Chelicerata, superclass Chelicerata
spiders; scorpions; horseshoe crabs
Arachnida, class Arachnida
a large class of arthropods including spiders and ticks and scorpions and daddy longlegs; have four pairs of walking legs and no wings
superclass Myriapoda
used in some classifications to encompass the millipedes (Diplopoda) and centipedes (Chilopoda); formerly a large taxon including also the Pauropoda and Symphyla; the term Myriapoda now usually used synonymously with Diplopoda and limited to the millipedes
Pauropoda, class Pauropoda
an obscure class of minute arthropods with branched antennae and 8 to 10 pairs of legs
Symphyla, class Symphyla
small class of minute arthropods; unimportant except for the garden centipede
Tardigrada, class Tardigrada
in some classifications considered a separate phylum: microscopic arachnid-like invertebrates living in water or damp moss having 4 pairs of legs and instead of a mouth a pair of stylets or needlelike piercing organs connected with the pharynx
Chilopoda, class Chilopoda
arthropods having the trunk composed of numerous somites each bearing one pair of legs: centipedes
Diplopoda, Myriapoda, class Diplopoda, class Myriapoda
arthropods having the body composed of numerous double somites each with two pairs of legs: millipedes
Pentastomida, subphylum Pentastomida
tongue worms
Mammalia, class Mammalia
warm-blooded vertebrates characterized by mammary glands in the female
mammal family
a family of mammals
mammal genus
a genus of mammals
Prototheria, subclass Prototheria
echidnas; platypus
Pantotheria, subclass Pantotheria
generalized extinct mammals widespread during the Jurassic; commonly conceded to be ancestral to marsupial and placental mammals
Metatheria, subclass Metatheria
pouched animals
Eutheria, subclass Eutheria
all mammals except monotremes and marsupials
Parazoa, subkingdom Parazoa
multicellular organisms having less-specialized cells than in the Metazoa; comprises the single phylum Porifera
Porifera, phylum Porifera
coextensive with the subkingdom Parazoa: sponges
sponge genus
a genus of Porifera
Hyalospongiae, class Hyalospongiae
sponges with siliceous spicules that have six rays; choanocytes are restricted to finger-shaped chambers
coelenterate family
a family of coelenterates
coelenterate genus
a genus of coelenterates
Metazoa, subkingdom Metazoa
multicellular animals having cells differentiated into tissues and organs and usually a digestive cavity and nervous system
Cnidaria, Coelenterata, phylum Cnidaria, phylum Coelenterata
hydras; polyps; jellyfishes; sea anemones; corals
Scyphozoa, class Scyphozoa
coelenterates in which the polyp stage is absent or at least inconspicuous: jellyfishes
Hydrozoa, class Hydrozoa
coelenterates typically having alternation of generations; hydroid phase is usually colonial giving rise to the medusoid phase by budding: hydras and jellyfishes
Actinozoa, Anthozoa, class Actinozoa, class Anthozoa
a large class of sedentary marine coelenterates that includes sea anemones and corals; the medusoid phase is entirely suppressed
ctenophore family
a family of ctenophores
ctenophore genus
a genus of ctenophores
Ctenophora, phylum Ctenophora
comb jellies; sea acorns; a small phylum formerly considered a class of Coelenterata
Nuda, class Nuda
ctenophores lacking tentacles; comprises one genus: beroe
Tentaculata, class Tentaculata
ctenophores have retractile tentacles
worm family
a family of worms
worm genus
a genus of worms
Acanthocephala, phylum Acanthocephala
phylum or class of elongated wormlike parasites that live in the intestines of vertebrates: spiny-headed worms
Chaetognatha, phylum Chaetognatha
arrowworms: a group of small active transparent marine worms
Platyhelminthes, phylum Platyhelminthes
Turbellaria, class Turbellaria
free-living flatworms
Trematoda, class Trematoda
parasitic flatworms (including flukes)
Cestoda, class Cestoda
Nemertea, Nemertina, phylum Nemertea, phylum Nemertina
proboscis worms
Pogonophora, phylum Pogonophora
beard worms
Rotifera, phylum Rotifera
a phylum including: rotifers
Aschelminthes, Nematoda, phylum Aschelminthes, phylum Nematoda
unsegmented worms: roundworms; threadworms; eelworms
Aphasmidia, class Aphasmidia
one of two subgroups of Nematoda used in some classification systems
Phasmidia, class Phasmidia
one of two subgroups of Nematoda used in some classification systems
Annelida, phylum Annelida
segmented worms: earthworms; lugworms; leeches
Archiannelida, class Archiannelida
a class of Annelida
Oligochaeta, class Oligochaeta
Polychaeta, class Polychaeta
marine annelid worms
Hirudinea, class Hirudinea
hermaphroditic aquatic or terrestrial or parasitic annelids
mollusk family
a family of mollusks
mollusk genus
a genus of mollusks
Mollusca, phylum Mollusca
gastropods; bivalves; cephalopods; chitons
Scaphopoda, class Scaphopoda
small class of bilaterally symmetrical marine forms comprising the tooth shells
Gasteropoda, Gastropoda, class Gasteropoda, class Gastropoda
snails and slugs and their relatives
Opisthobranchia, subclass Opisthobranchia
gastropods having the gills when present posterior to the heart and having no operculum: includes sea slugs; sea butterflies; sea hares
Amphineura, subclass Amphineura
a class of Gastropoda
Polyplacophora, class Polyplacophora
small class of marine mollusks comprising the chitons; sometimes considered an order of the subclass Amphineura
Bivalvia, Lamellibranchia, class Bivalvia, class Lamellibranchia, class Pelecypoda
oysters; clams; scallops; mussels
Cephalopoda, class Cephalopoda
octopuses; squids; cuttlefish; pearly nautilus
Dibranchia, Dibranchiata, subclass Dibranchia, subclass Dibranchiata
comprising all living cephalopods except the family Nautilidae: the orders Octopoda (octopuses) and Decapoda (squids and cuttlefish)
Crustacea, class Crustacea
class of mandibulate arthropods including: lobsters; crabs; shrimps; woodlice; barnacles; decapods; water fleas
Malacostraca, subclass Malacostraca
largest subclass of Crustacea including most of the well-known marine, freshwater, and terrestrial crustaceans: crabs; lobsters; shrimps; sow bugs; beach flies
Entomostraca, subclass Entomostraca
in some older classifications includes the Branchiopoda and Copepoda and Ostracoda and Cirripedia; no longer in technical use
Branchiopoda, subclass Branchiopoda
primitive aquatic mainly freshwater crustaceans: fairy shrimps; brine shrimps; tadpole shrimps; can shrimps; water fleas
Copepoda, subclass Copepoda
minute planktonic or parasitic crustaceans
Ostracoda, subclass Ostracoda
seed shrimps
Cirripedia, subclass Cirripedia
Onychophora, class Onychophora
enigmatic small elongated wormlike terrestrial invertebrates of damp dark habitats in warm regions; distinct from the phylum Annelida; resemble slugs with legs and are sometimes described as the missing link between arthropods and annelids
Hexapoda, Insecta, class Hexapoda, class Insecta
insects; about five-sixths of all known animal species
Panorpidae, family Panorpidae
a family of insects of the order Mecoptera
Bittacidae, family Bittacidae
a family of predacious tropical insects of the order Mecoptera
Exopterygota, Hemimetabola, subclass Exopterygota
subclass of insects characterized by gradual and usually incomplete metamorphosis
Phoronida, Phoronidea, phylum Phoronida
small phylum of wormlike marine animals
Bryozoa, phylum Bryozoa, polyzoa
marine or freshwater animals that form colonies of zooids
Ectoprocta, phylum Ectoprocta
coextensive with or a subphylum of Bryozoa
Endoprocta, Entoprocta, phylum Entoprocta
sometimes considered a subphylum of Bryozoa
Cycliophora, phylum Cycliophora
tiny marine organisms each the size of a period found in great numbers on lobsters' lips; identified tentatively in 1995 as a new phylum or as possible link between Entoprocta and Ectoprocta
Brachiopoda, phylum Brachiopoda
marine invertebrates that resemble mollusks
Sipuncula, phylum Sipuncula
peanut worms
echinoderm family
a family of echinoderms
echinoderm genus
a genus of echinoderms
Echinodermata, phylum Echinodermata
radially symmetrical marine invertebrates including e.g. starfish and sea urchins and sea cucumbers
Asteroidea, class Asteroidea
sea stars
Ophiuroidea, class Ophiuroidea
brittle stars and basket stars
Ophiurida, subclass Ophiurida
brittle stars
Euryalida, subclass Euryalida
basket stars
Echinoidea, class Echinoidea
sea urchins and sand dollars
Crinoidea, class Crinoidea
sea lilies
Holothuroidea, class Holothuroidea
class of echinoderms including the sea cucumbers
Bovini, tribe Bovini
term not used technically; essentially coextensive with genus Bos
Hominoidea, superfamily Hominoidea
anthropoid apes and human beings
Channidae, class Channidae
Osteichthyes, class Osteichthyes
a class of fish having a skeleton composed of bone in addition to cartilage
Crossopterygii, subclass Crossopterygii
fishes having paired fins resembling limbs and regarded as ancestral to amphibians
Dipnoi, subclass Dipnoi
bony fishes of the southern hemisphere that breathe by a modified air bladder as well as gills; sometimes classified as an order of Crossopterygii
Teleostei, subclass Teleostei
large diverse group of bony fishes; includes most living species
a subfamily of the family Centropomidae
breed, stock, strain
a special variety of domesticated animals within a species
form family
(biology) an artificial taxonomic category for organisms of which the true relationships are obscure
type genus
(biology) genus from which the name of a family or subfamily is formed; it is not necessarily the most representative genus but often the largest or best known or earliest described
form genus
(biology) an artificial taxonomic category for organisms of which the true relationships are obscure
endangered species
a species whose numbers are so small that the species is at risk of extinction
fish species
a species of fish
type species
(biology) the species that best exemplifies the essential characteristics of the genus to which it belongs
(botany) taxonomic unit of plants corresponding to a phylum
Plantae, kingdom Plantae, plant kingdom
(botany) the taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct plants
plant order
the order of plants
moss family
a family of mosses
moss genus
a genus of mosses
Anthoceropsida, class Anthoceropsida
hornworts: in some classification systems included in the class Hepaticopsida
Bryopsida, Musci, class Bryopsida, class Musci
true mosses: bryophytes having leafy rather than thalloid gametophytes: comprises orders Andreaeales; Bryales; Dicranales; Eubryales; Sphagnales
Hepaticae, Hepaticopsida, class Hepaticae, class Hepaticopsida
liverworts: comprises orders Anthocerotales; Jungermanniales; Marchantiales; Sphaerocarpales
gymnosperm genus
a genus of gymnosperms
liliopsid family, monocot family
family of flowering plants having a single cotyledon (embryonic leaf) in the seed
liliopsid genus, monocot genus
genus of flowering plants having a single cotyledon (embryonic leaf) in the seed
dicot family, magnoliopsid family
family of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination
dicot genus, magnoliopsid genus
genus of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination
fungus family
includes lichen families
fungus genus
includes lichen genera
fungus order
the order of fungi
Gymnospermae, Gymnospermophyta, class Gymnospermae, division Gymnospermophyta
plants having naked seeds not enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Gymnospermae) and in others a division (Gymnospermophyta); comprises three subdivisions (or classes): Cycadophytina (class Cycadopsida) and Gnetophytina (class Gnetopsida) and Coniferophytina (class Coniferopsida); in some classifications the Coniferophytina are divided into three groups: Pinophytina (class Pinopsida) and Ginkgophytina (class Ginkgopsida) and Taxophytina (class Taxopsida)
Gnetophyta, Gnetophytina, Gnetopsida, class Gnetopsida, subdivision Gnetophytina
gymnospermous flowering plants; supposed link between conifers and angiosperms; in some systems classified as a class (Gnetopsida) and in others as a subdivision (Gnetophytina or Gnetophyta)
Cycadophyta, Cycadophytina, Cycadopsida, class Cycadopsida, subdivision Cycadophyta, subdivision Cycadophytina
palmlike gymnosperms: includes the surviving order Cycadales and several extinct orders; possibly not a natural group; in some systems considered a class (Cycadopsida) and in others a subdivision (Cycadophytina or Cycadophyta)
Pteridospermopsida, class Pteridospermopsida
extinct gymnosperms most of Carboniferous to Jurassic: seed ferns and allies
Coniferophyta, Coniferophytina, Coniferopsida, class Coniferopsida, subdivision Coniferophytina
cone-bearing gymnosperms dating from the Carboniferous period; most are substantial trees; includes the classes Pinopsida (subdivision Pinophytina) and Ginkgopsida (subdivision Ginkgophytina) and Taxopsida (subdivision Taxophytina) which in turn include the surviving orders Coniferales and Taxales (yews) and sometimes Ginkgoales as well as extinct orders such as Cordaitales (of the Carboniferous and Permian)
Pinophytina, Pinopsida, class Pinopsida, subdivision Pinophytina
most conifers: in some systems classified as a class (Pinopsida) and in others as a subdivision (Pinophytina); used in some classifications for one of five subdivisions of Gymnospermophyta
Taxophytina, Taxopsida, class Taxopsida, subdivision Taxophytina
yews: in some systems classified as a class (Taxopsida) and in others as a subdivision (Taxophytina) used in some classifications for one of five subdivisions of Gymnospermophyta
Ginkgophytina, Ginkgopsida, class Ginkgophytina, class Ginkgopsida, subdivision Ginkgophyta, subdivision Ginkgophytina
ginkgos: in some systems classified as a class and in others as a subdivision; used in some classifications for one of five subdivisions of Gymnospermophyta
Angiospermae, Anthophyta, Magnoliophyta, class Angiospermae, division Anthophyta, division Magnoliophyta
comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Angiospermae) and in others a division (Magnoliophyta or Anthophyta)
Dicotyledonae, Dicotyledones, Magnoliopsida, class Dicotyledonae, class Dicotyledones, class Magnoliopsida
comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae; Asteridae
Magnoliidae, ranalian complex, subclass Magnoliidae
a group of families of trees and shrubs and herbs having well-developed perianths and apocarpous ovaries and generally regarded as the most primitive extant flowering plants; contains 36 families including Magnoliaceae and Ranunculaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder
Liliopsida, Monocotyledonae, Monocotyledones, class Liliopsida, class Monocotyledonae, class Monocotyledones
comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with a single cotyledon and parallel-veined leaves: includes grasses and lilies and palms and orchids; divided into four subclasses or superorders: Alismatidae; Arecidae; Commelinidae; and Liliidae
Alismatidae, subclass Alismatidae
one of four subclasses or superorders of Monocotyledones; comprises about 500 species in 14 families of aquatic and semiaquatic herbs
Arecidae, subclass Arecidae
one of four subclasses or superorder of Monocotyledones; comprises about 6400 species in 5 families of trees and shrubs and terrestrial herbs and a few free-floating aquatics including: Palmae; Araceae; Pandanaceae and Lemnaceae
Commelinidae, subclass Commelinidae
one of four subclasses or superorders of Monocotyledones; comprises about 19,000 species in 25 families of mostly terrestrial herbs especially of moist places including: Cyperaceae; Gramineae; Bromeliaceae; and Zingiberaceae
plant family
a family of plants
plant genus
a genus of plants
Caryophyllidae, subclass Caryophyllidae
a group of families of mostly flowers having basal or central placentation and trinucleate pollen (binucleate pollen is commoner in flowering plants); contains 14 families including: Caryophyllaceae (carnations and pinks); Aizoaceae; Amaranthaceae; Batidaceae; Chenopodiaceae; Cactaceae (order Opuntiales); Nyctaginaceae; Phytolaccaceae; corresponds approximately to order Caryophyllales; sometimes classified as a superorder
Asteridae, subclass Asteridae
a group of mostly sympetalous herbs and some trees and shrubs mostly with 2 fused carpels; contains 43 families including Campanulales; Solanaceae; Scrophulariaceae; Labiatae; Verbenaceae; Rubiaceae; Compositae; sometimes classified as a superorder
Bambuseae, tribe Bambuseae
Rosidae, subclass Rosidae
a group of trees and shrubs and herbs mostly with polypetalous flowers; contains 108 families including Rosaceae; Crassulaceae; Myrtaceae; Melastomaceae; Euphorbiaceae; Umbelliferae
Hamamelidae, subclass Hamamelidae
a group of chiefly woody plants considered among the most primitive of angiosperms; perianth poorly developed or lacking; flowers often unisexual and often in catkins and often wind pollinated; contains 23 families including the Betulaceae and Fagaceae (includes the Amentiferae); sometimes classified as a superorder
Dilleniidae, subclass Dilleniidae
a group of families of more or less advanced trees and shrubs and herbs having either polypetalous or gamopetalous corollas and often with ovules attached to the walls of the ovary; contains 69 families including Ericaceae and Cruciferae and Malvaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder
Liliidae, subclass Liliidae
one of four subclasses or superorders of Monocotyledones; comprises 17 families including: Liliaceae; Alliaceae; Amaryllidaceae; Iridaceae; Orchidaceae; Trilliaceae
Zygomycetes, class Zygomycetes
class of fungi coextensive with subdivision Zygomycota
Myxomycetes, class Myxomycetes
the class of true slime molds; essentially equivalent to the division Myxomycota
Acrasiomycetes, class Acrasiomycetes
cellular slime molds; in some classifications placed in kingdom Protoctista
Oomycetes, class Oomycetes
nonphotosynthetic fungi that resemble algae and that reproduce by forming oospores; sometimes classified as protoctists
Chytridiomycetes, class Chytridiomycetes
a class of mostly aquatic fungi; saprophytic or parasitic on algae or fungi or plants
Fungi, fungus kingdom, kingdom Fungi
the taxonomic kingdom including yeast, molds, smuts, mushrooms, and toadstools; distinct from the green plants
Eumycetes, class Eumycetes
category used in some classifications: coextensive with division Eumycota
Deuteromycetes, class Deuteromycetes
form class; coextensive with subdivision Deuteromycota
Basidiomycetes, class Basidiomycetes
large class of higher fungi coextensive with subdivision Basidiomycota
Homobasidiomycetes, subclass Homobasidiomycetes
category used in some classification systems for various basidiomycetous fungi including e.g. mushrooms and puffballs which are usually placed in the classes Gasteromycetes and Hymenomycetes
Heterobasidiomycetes, subclass Heterobasidiomycetes
category used in some classification systems for various basidiomycetous fungi including rusts and smuts
Hymenomycetes, class Hymenomycetes
used in some classifications; usually coextensive with order Agaricales: mushrooms; toadstools; agarics; bracket fungi
Ascomycetes, class Ascomycetes
large class of higher fungi coextensive with division Ascomycota: sac fungi
Euascomycetes, subclass Euascomycetes
category not used in many classification systems
Hemiascomycetes, class Hemiascomycetes
class of fungi in which no ascocarps are formed: yeasts and some plant parasites
Plectomycetes, class Plectomycetes
class of fungi in which the fruiting body is a cleistothecium (it releases spores only on decay or disintegration)
Pyrenomycetes, class Pyrenomycetes
class of fungi in which the fruiting body is a perithecium; includes powdery mildews and ergot and Neurospora
Discomycetes, subclass Discomycetes
a large and taxonomically difficult group of Ascomycetes in which the fleshy fruiting body is disklike or cup-shaped
Gasteromycetes, Gastromycetes, class Gasteromycetes, class Gastromycetes
fungi in which the hymenium is enclosed until after spores have matured: puffballs; earth stars; stinkhorn fungi
Tiliomycetes, class Tiliomycetes
category used in some systems to comprise the two orders Ustilaginales (smuts) and Uredinales (rusts)
a variety of a plant developed from a natural species and maintained under cultivation
fern family
families of ferns and fern allies
fern genus
genera of ferns and fern allies
Filicinae, Filicopsida, class Filicinae, class Filicopsida
Psilopsida, Psilotatae, class Psilopsida, class Psilotatae
whisk ferns; comprising the family Psilotaceae or Psilotatae: vascular plants with no roots, partial if any leaf differentiation, and rudimentary spore sacs
Equisetatae, Sphenopsida, class Equisetatae, class Sphenopsida
horsetails and related forms
Lycopodiate, Lycopsida, class Lycopodiate, class Lycopsida
club mosses and related forms: includes Lycopodiales; Isoetales; Selaginellales; and extinct Lepidodendrales; sometimes considered a subdivision of Tracheophyta
Lycopodineae, class Lycopodineae
alternative designation for the class Lycopsida
Type of:
biological group
a group of plants or animals

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