Gustation is a fancy word for "taste." It's gustation that allows you to experience sweetness and saltiness when you bite into a barbecue potato chip.
Gustation, from the Latin gustare, "to taste, partake of, or enjoy," shares a Proto-Indo-European root with gusto. This is especially apt when you think about enthusiastically eating a meal that's complex and delicious. The process of gustation involves tastes like salty, sour, sweet, and bitter. Gustation begins when you take a bite of food and special cells on your tongue's taste buds begin to react chemically with it.