A bulb is the roundish, tear-shaped part of some plants. If you plant a bulb, a flower will pop up. Bulb is also short for light bulb. Don’t try planting that kind, though, because lamps don't grow on trees.
Garlic, onions, and shallots are all bulbs, and many flowering plants also grow from underground bulbs, like lilies and daffodils. A different type of bulb is a light bulb, which shares the rounded shape of the plant version. The meaning of bulb in the 16th century was simply "onion," from the Greek bolbos, "plant with round swelling on underground stem."