Bedrock is the hard layer of rock beneath looser rocks and soil. In some places, the bedrock is exposed, while in others it lies deep underground.
A geologist who's interested in studying the bedrock in different areas might have to dig through the various layers of soil to reach that bedrock. You can also use the word in a figurative way, to mean "the heart of the matter," or "the basic, fundamental principles." For example, you might say that fairness and freedom is the bedrock of a good government. The word combines bed — here meaning "plot of land" — and rock.