stone

Another name for a stone, or hard mineral lump, is a rock. If you turn over a large stone in the forest, you might find a whole colony of worms, beetles, and other creepy-crawlies living underneath.

Stones are commonly used to build walls and buildings. Sculptures are carved from stone, and patios and garden walls are constructed of individual stones. Someone who seems to have "turned to stone" becomes as unmoving and unemotional as a piece of rock. Sometimes a valuable gem is colloquially called a stone, and the hard pit in a plum or apricot is another kind of stone. A stone is also a unit of measuring weight in Britain—equal to 14 pounds.

Definitions of stone
  1. noun
    a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter
    synonyms: rock
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    types:
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    achondrite
    a stony meteor lacking chondrules
    bedrock
    solid unweathered rock lying beneath surface deposits of soil
    boulder, bowlder
    a large smooth mass of rock detached from its place of origin
    calculus, concretion
    a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body
    chondrite
    a rock of meteoric origin containing chondrules
    clastic rock
    (geology) a rock composed of broken pieces of older rocks
    crystal, crystallisation, crystallization
    a rock formed by the solidification of a substance; has regularly repeating internal structure; external plane faces
    intrusion
    rock produced by an intrusive process
    outcrop, outcropping, rock outcrop
    the part of a rock formation that appears above the surface of the surrounding land
    pebble
    a small smooth rounded rock
    petrifaction
    a rock created by petrifaction; an organic object infiltrated with mineral matter and preserved in its original form
    sill
    (geology) a flat (usually horizontal) mass of igneous rock between two layers of older sedimentary rock
    stepping stone
    a stone in a marsh or shallow water that can be stepped on in crossing
    tor
    a prominent rock or pile of rocks on a hill
    wall rock
    a rock immediately adjacent to a vein or fault
    whin, whinstone
    any of various hard colored rocks (especially rocks consisting of chert or basalt)
    xenolith
    (geology) a piece of rock of different origin from the igneous rock in which it is embedded
    belay
    something to which a mountain climber's rope can be secured
    bladder stone, cystolith
    a calculus formed in the bladder
    crystallite
    any of numerous minute rudimentary crystalline bodies of unknown composition found in glassy igneous rock
    enterolith
    a calculus occurring in the intestines
    bilestone, gallstone
    a calculus formed in the gall bladder or its ducts
    glacial boulder
    a boulder that has been carried by a glacier to a place far distant from its place of origin
    kidney stone, nephrolith, renal calculus, urinary calculus
    a calculus formed in the kidney
    outthrust
    an outcropping of rock that extends outward
    ptyalith
    calculus in a salivary gland
    river boulder
    a boulder that has been carried by a river to a place remote from its place of origin
    shore boulder
    a boulder found on a shore remote from its place of origin
    salivary calculus, sialolith
    a stone formed in the salivary gland
    urolith
    a urinary stone
    type of:
    natural object
    an object occurring naturally; not made by man
  2. noun
    material consisting of the aggregate of minerals like those making up the Earth's crust
    stone is abundant in New England and there are many quarries”
    synonyms: rock
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    types:
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    quartzite
    hard metamorphic rock consisting essentially of interlocking quartz crystals
    road metal
    broken rock used for repairing or making roads
    sedimentary rock
    rock formed from consolidated clay sediments
    sial
    the granitelike rocks that form the outermost layer of the earth's crust; rich in silicon and aluminum
    sima
    rock that form the continuous lower layer of the earth's crust; rich in silicon and magnesium
    metamorphic rock
    rock altered by pressure and heat
    crushed rock, gravel
    rock fragments and pebbles
    caliche
    nitrate-bearing rock or gravel of the sodium nitrate deposits of Chile and Peru
    shingling
    (geology) sediment in which flat pebbles are uniformly tilted in the same direction
    pumice, pumice stone
    a light glass formed on the surface of some lavas; used as an abrasive
    aphanite
    fine-grained homogeneous rock (such as basalt) containing minerals undetectable by the naked eye
    claystone
    fine-grained rock consisting of compacted clay particles
    dolomite
    a kind of sedimentary rock resembling marble or limestone but rich in magnesium carbonate
    emery rock, emery stone
    a mixture of emery dust and a binder; can be molded into grindstones
    conglomerate, pudding stone
    a composite rock made up of particles of varying size
    fieldstone
    stone that occurs naturally in fields; often used as building material
    greisen
    a granitic rock composed of quartz and mica
    calc-tufa, tufa
    a soft porous rock consisting of calcium carbonate deposited from springs rich in lime
    magma
    molten rock in the earth's crust
    igneous rock
    rock formed by the solidification of molten magma
    limestone
    a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcium that was deposited by the remains of marine animals
    marble
    a hard crystalline metamorphic rock that takes a high polish; used for sculpture and as building material
    matrix
    (geology) amass of fine-grained rock in which fossils, crystals, or gems are embedded
    amphibolite
    a metamorphic rock composed chiefly of amphibole and plagioclase
    argillite
    a sedimentary rock differing from shale in being bound by silica and from slate in having no slate cleavages
    arenaceous rock
    a sedimentary rock composed of sand
    argillaceous rock
    a sedimentary rock formed from clay deposits
    rudaceous rock
    a sedimentary rock formed of coarse-grained material
    marlite, marlstone
    metamorphic rock with approximately the same composition as marl
    hornfels, hornstone
    a fine-grained metamorphic rock formed by the action of heat on clay rocks
    ballast
    coarse gravel laid to form a bed for streets and railroads
    bank gravel, pit run, pit-run gravel
    gravel as found in natural deposits
    shingle
    coarse beach gravel of small waterworn stones and pebbles (or a stretch of shore covered with such gravel)
    slate
    a fine-grained metamorphic rock that can be split into thin layers
    andesite
    a dark grey volcanic rock
    aplite
    light-colored and fine-grained granitic rock consisting chiefly of quartz and feldspars
    gneiss
    a laminated metamorphic rock similar to granite
    schist
    any metamorphic rock that can be split into thin layers
    groundmass
    (geology) the matrix of fine-grained crystalline material in which larger crystals are embedded
    adesite
    dark greyish extrusive rock
    batholite, batholith, pluton, plutonic rock
    large mass of intrusive igneous rock believed to have solidified deep within the earth
    diorite
    a granular crystalline intrusive rock
    gabbro
    one of a family of granular intrusive rocks
    pegmatite
    a form of igneous rock consisting of extremely coarse granite resulting from the crystallization of magma rich in rare elements
    peridotite
    a dark coarse-grained igneous rock consisting principally of olivine
    rhyolite
    very acid volcanic rock
    volcanic rock
    extrusive igneous rock solidified near or on the surface of the Earth
    limestone
    a sedimentary rock consisting mainly of calcium that was deposited by the remains of marine animals
    rottenstone, tripoli
    a weathered and decomposed siliceous limestone; in powdered form it is used in polishing
    verd antique, verde antique
    a dark green impure marble
    porphyritic rock, porphyry
    any igneous rock with crystals embedded in a finer groundmass of minerals
    shale
    a sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay
    type of:
    material, stuff
    the tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object
  3. noun
    a crystalline rock that can be cut and polished for jewelry
    “she had jewels made of all the rarest stones
    synonyms: gem, gemstone
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    types:
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    cabochon
    a highly polished gem that is cut convexly but without facets
    opaque gem
    a gemstone that is opaque
    transparent gem
    a gemstone having the property of transmitting light without serious diffusion
    chrysoberyl
    a rare hard yellow green mineral consisting of beryllium aluminate in crystal form; used as a gemstone
    garnet
    any of a group of hard glassy minerals (silicates of various metals) used as gemstones and as an abrasive
    opal
    a translucent mineral consisting of hydrated silica of variable color; some varieties are used as gemstones
    amethyst
    a transparent purple variety of quartz; used as a gemstone
    aquamarine
    a transparent variety of beryl that is blue green in color
    cat's eye
    any of various gems (as chrysoberyl or chalcedony) that reflect light when cut in a rounded shape
    calcedony, chalcedony
    a milky or greyish translucent to transparent quartz
    chrysolite
    a brown or yellow-green olivine found in igneous and metamorphic rocks and used as a gemstone
    chrysoprase
    a green variety of chalcedony valued as a gemstone
    citrine
    semiprecious yellow quartz resembling topaz
    coral, precious coral, red coral
    the hard stony skeleton of a Mediterranean coral that has a delicate red or pink color and is used for jewelry
    adamant, diamond
    very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem
    emerald
    a green transparent form of beryl; highly valued as a gemstone
    jade, jadestone
    a semiprecious gemstone that takes a high polish; is usually green but sometimes whitish; consists of jadeite or nephrite
    jasper
    an opaque form of quartz; red or yellow or brown or dark green in color; used for ornamentation or as a gemstone
    kunzite
    a pinkish lilac crystal form of the mineral spodumene that is used as a gemstone
    lapis lazuli, lazuli
    an azure blue semiprecious stone
    moonstone
    a transparent or translucent gemstone with a pearly luster; some specimens are orthoclase feldspar and others are plagioclase feldspar
    morganite
    a kind of pink beryl used as a gemstone
    peridot
    a pale green variety of chrysolite; used as a gemstone
    ruby
    a transparent deep red variety of corundum; used as a gemstone and in lasers
    water sapphire
    a deep blue cordierite often used as a gemstone
    sapphire
    a precious transparent stone of corundum, typically a rich blue, valued as a gemstone
    hiddenite
    a green transparent form of the mineral spodumene used as a gemstone
    aventurine, sunstone
    a translucent quartz spangled with bits of mica or other minerals
    topaz
    a mineral (fluosilicate of aluminum) that occurs in crystals of various colors and is used as a gemstone
    tourmaline
    a mineral that is a complex borosilicate and hydroxide of aluminum containing iron and magnesium and calcium and lithium and sodium; it is usually black but occurs in transparent colored forms that are used as gemstones
    turquoise
    a blue to grey green mineral consisting of copper aluminum phosphate
    type of:
    crystal
    a solid formed by the solidification of a chemical and having a highly regular atomic structure
  4. noun
    building material consisting of a piece of rock hewn in a definite shape for a special purpose
    “he wanted a special stone to mark the site”
    see moresee less
    examples:
    Blarney Stone
    a stone in a castle in Ireland that is said to impart skill in flattery to anyone who kisses it
    types:
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    ashlar
    a rectangular block of hewn stone used for building purposes
    capstone, copestone, coping stone, stretcher
    a stone that forms the top of wall or building
    cornerstone
    a stone at the outer corner of two intersecting masonry walls
    cornerstone
    a stone in the exterior of a large and important building; usually carved with a date and laid with appropriate ceremonies
    foundation stone
    a stone laid at a ceremony to mark the founding of a new building
    gravestone, headstone, tombstone
    a stone that is used to mark a grave
    grindstone
    a revolving stone shaped like a disk; used to grind or sharpen or polish edge tools
    hearthstone
    a stone that forms a hearth
    millstone
    one of a pair of heavy flat disk-shaped stones that are rotated against one another to grind the grain
    monolith
    a single great stone (often in the form of a column or obelisk)
    paving stone
    a stone used for paving
    impost, springer
    the lowest stone in an arch -- from which it springs
    stela, stele
    an ancient upright stone slab bearing markings
    whetstone
    a flat stone for sharpening edged tools or knives
    cobble, cobblestone, sett
    rectangular paving stone with curved top; once used to make roads
    curbstone, kerbstone
    a paving stone forming part of a curb
    flag, flagstone
    stratified stone that splits into pieces suitable as paving stones
    hone
    a whetstone made of fine gritstone; used for sharpening razors
    oilstone
    a whetstone for use with oil
    type of:
    building material
    material used for constructing buildings
  5. noun
    a lack of feeling or expression or movement
    “he must have a heart of stone
    “her face was as hard as stone
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    type of:
    chilliness, coldness, coolness, frigidity, frigidness, iciness
    a lack of affection or enthusiasm
  6. verb
    kill by throwing stones at
    synonyms: lapidate
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    type of:
    kill
    cause to die; put to death, usually intentionally or knowingly
  7. noun
    an avoirdupois unit used to measure the weight of a human body; equal to 14 pounds
    “a heavy chap who must have weighed more than twenty stone
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    type of:
    avoirdupois unit
    any of the units of the avoirdupois system of weights
  8. noun
    the hard inner (usually woody) layer of the pericarp of some fruits (as peaches or plums or cherries or olives) that contains the seed
    “you should remove the stones from prunes before cooking”
    synonyms: endocarp, pit
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    types:
    peach pit
    the stone seed of a peach
    cherry stone
    the stone seed of a cherry
    type of:
    pericarp, seed vessel
    the ripened and variously modified walls of a plant ovary
  9. verb
    remove the pits from
    synonyms: pit
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    type of:
    remove, take, take away, withdraw
    remove something concrete, as by lifting, pushing, or taking off, or remove something abstract
  10. adjective
    of any of various dull tannish or grey colors
    Synonyms:
    chromatic
    being or having or characterized by hue
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