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calculus

Calculus is a way of using math to study changes in a system. Moral calculus, on the other hand, is a way of measuring morals and ethics, like choosing the lesser of two evils.

After an apple bonked him on the head, Newton used calculus to fine-tune his Law of Gravity. Don’t break that law, or you’ll fall right off the planet. Today, if you take a calculus class, you’ve probably already taken geometry and trigonometry. Well done. You’ll measure changes between infinitesimally small points or the area of a curve. In the medical world, a calculus is a hard, crusty mass like a kidney stone; or tartar on a tooth. In Latin, calculus means "small pebble used for counting."

Definitions of calculus
  1. noun
    the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions
    synonyms: infinitesimal calculus
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    analysis
    a branch of mathematics involving calculus and the theory of limits; sequences and series and integration and differentiation
    differential calculus, method of fluxions
    the part of calculus that deals with the variation of a function with respect to changes in the independent variable (or variables) by means of the concepts of derivative and differential
    integral calculus
    the part of calculus that deals with integration and its application in the solution of differential equations and in determining areas or volumes etc.
    calculus of variations
    the calculus of maxima and minima of definite integrals
    Fourier analysis, harmonic analysis
    analysis of a periodic function into a sum of simple sinusoidal components
    type of:
    pure mathematics
    the branches of mathematics that study and develop the principles of mathematics for their own sake rather than for their immediate usefulness
  2. noun
    a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body
    “renal calculi can be very painful”
    synonyms: concretion
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    bladder stone, cystolith
    a calculus formed in the bladder
    enterolith
    a calculus occurring in the intestines
    bilestone, gallstone
    a calculus formed in the gall bladder or its ducts
    kidney stone, nephrolith, renal calculus, urinary calculus
    a calculus formed in the kidney
    ptyalith
    calculus in a salivary gland
    salivary calculus, sialolith
    a stone formed in the salivary gland
    urolith
    a urinary stone
    type of:
    rock, stone
    a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter
  3. noun
    an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums
    synonyms: tartar, tophus
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    type of:
    crust, encrustation, incrustation
    a hard outer layer that covers something
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