Use the noun analysis to refer to the way you understand something by looking at it in different ways and studying its different parts.
Analysis is a noun that is used in many ways and by many fields. It makes sense, since it is "a method of studying the nature of something or of determining its essential features and their relations," which means everyone does it at some point. In fact, every time you solve a problem you use analysis. Analysis is also shorthand for psychoanalysis, used for understanding psychological and mental processes.