Maturation is the process that a living thing goes through as it ages and becomes ripe or fully developed. Things that go through maturation include soybeans, antelope, bourbon, frogs, magnolia trees, the human sex drive, peaches, and much more.
As something becomes mature it goes through maturation. To be mature is to be ripe, ready, and fully grown. Some natural maturation processes are easy to identify, like the duration of a fruit fly’s development from egg to adult, but others are more difficult to pinpoint. For instance, you may know some people who, despite having passed their fortieth birthdays, seem to have missed that bit of maturation that would keep them from calling their friends toilet-themed nicknames.