### Activities for this list:

definitions & notes only words
1. equation
a mathematical statement that two expressions are the same
Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values.

4.0
2. factoring
(mathematics) the resolution of an entity into factors such that when multiplied together they give the original entity
Students apply basic factoring techniques to second- and simple third-degree polynomials.
evaluation of performance by assigning a score
CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST
Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
4. analyze
break down into components or essential features
Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
1.2
5. expository
serving to expound or set forth
In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
6. evaluate
estimate the nature, quality, ability or significance of
Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of text.
3.0
7. paragraph
one of several distinct subdivisions of a text
Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective transitions, parallel structures, and similar writing techniques.
1.3
8. assess
estimate the nature, quality, ability or significance of
First on the pages that follow are lists of the standards assessed on the Grade 8 English–
Language Arts Test.
9. include
have as a part, be made up out of
In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
10. conceptually
in a conceptual manner
Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by using these techniques.

14.0
11. juxtapose
place side by side
Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
1.3
12. document
a representation of a person's thinking with symbolic marks
Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
2.2
13. variable
something that is likely to change
Include all the factors and variables that need to be considered.
c.
14. concept
an abstract or general idea inferred from specific instances
Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.1
15. appropriate
suitable for a particular person, place, or situation
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level- appropriate words.
16. define
show the form or outline of
Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
17. analysis
abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.3
18. structural
relating to the composition of something
Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1
19. identify
recognize as being
Identify and analyze recurring themes (e.g., good versus evil) across traditional and contemporary works.
3.6
20. formatting
the organization of information according to preset specifications (usually for computer processing)
Use formatting techniques (e.g., headings, differing fonts) to aid comprehension.
21. text
the words of something written
They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
22. thesis
an unproved statement advanced as a premise in an argument
Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion.
1.2
23. technique
a practical method or art applied to some particular task
Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective transitions, parallel structures, and similar writing techniques.
1.3
24. solar
relating to the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun
Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.
25. summarize
present the main points in a concise form
Record important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize all perspectives on the topic, as appropriate.
c.
26. solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
Students are able to solve a system of two linear inequalities in two variables and to sketch the solution sets.

10.0
27. describe
give a statement representing something
They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
28. factor
anything that contributes causally to a result
Include all the factors and variables that need to be considered.
c.
29. represent
be a delegate or spokesperson for
The Word Analysis Strand/Cluster

The following three California English–Language Arts content standards are included in the Word Analysis
strand/cluster and are represented in this booklet by 11 test questions for grade 8.
30. strand
line consisting of a complex of fibers twisted together
As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
31. function
what something is used for
Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and functions.
32. ethnicity
an affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to
ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics
such as gender, ethnicity, and language.
33. coherence
the state of sticking together
Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of text.
3.0
34. exposure
the state of being vulnerable to something
For best results, allow Sun Veil Sunscreen to dry for
15 minutes before exposure to the sun.
35. reminisce
recall the past
CSR01333.198
2 What is the main purpose of “ Reminiscing”?
36. paraphrase
express the same message in different words
Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from authorities, comparisons, and similar devices.
37. strategy
an elaborate and systematic plan of action
Writing Strategies
Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays.
38. reschedule
assign a new time and place for an event
B Many student activities should be rescheduled.
39. distributive
serving to allot or disperse
C Yes, the equations are equivalent by the
Distributive Property of Multiplication over
40. molecule
the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers.
d.
41. structure
a complex entity made of many parts
They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
42. selection
the act of choosing
The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
43. property
something owned
Students identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four basic arithmetic operations where applicable:

1.1
44. intercept
seize, interrupt, or stop something on its way
Students graph a linear equation and compute the x- and y- intercepts (e.g., graph 2x + 6y = 4).
45. provide
give something useful or necessary to
Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments.
2.5
46. textual
relating to or based on writing
Connect the student's own responses to the writer's techniques and to specific textual references.
c.
47. defined
showing clearly the outline or profile or boundary
Include a well- defined thesis (i.e., one that makes a clear and knowledgeable judgment).
b.
48. warranty
written assurance that a product or service will be provided
Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
2.2
49. content
satisfied or showing satisfaction with things as they are
They evaluate the content of oral communication.
50. involve
contain as a part
Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values.

4.0
51. rectangle
a parallelogram with four right angles
CST Released Test Questions Algebra I
Released Test Questions Algebra I
51 A volleyball court is shaped like a rectangle.
52. source
the place where something begins
Record important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize all perspectives on the topic, as appropriate.
c.
53. formula
a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement
Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula.

8.0
54. perimeter
a line enclosing a plane area
It was
obvious that the statue builders had cut down the island’s trees to make rolling logs
and wooden scaffolds, which were then used to carry the huge statues from the
quarry to the island’s perimeter.
55. ensure
make certain of
Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is used.
56. asteroid
a small celestial body composed of rock and metal
Students know the appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids.
57. environmentally
for the environment
Two types of environmentally friendly energy sources are
hydropower and solar power.
the period of time in life after physical growth has stopped
A to tell a story about a childhood experience
B to capture a feeling from the past
C to debate whether childhood or adulthood is
better
D to describe a person who was important in the
life of a child
CSR10200.098
3 In lines 11 and 12 of “Piano,” the words “my
manhood is cast down in the flood of
remembrance” mean that the speaker feels
A proud of what he has accomplished.
59. pattern
a perceptual structure
Analyze text that uses proposition and support patterns.
60. narrative
an account that tells the particulars of an act or event
In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
61. velocity
distance travelled per unit time
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.
62. amaze
affect with wonder
CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
The Amazing Maize Maze
(1) When the Egyptians built the pyramids, they included mazes to trap thieves.
(2) Even if a thief managed to enter a pyramid, they would probably never find his or her
way out. (3) Other ancient mazes have been found, from Sweden to New Mexico.
(4) Some are carved in rock or painted on cave walls, while others are built from dirt,
...
63. appropriateness
the quality of being specially suitable
All questions on the California Standards Tests are evaluated by committees of content experts, including
teachers and administrators, to ensure their appropriateness for measuring the California academic content
standards in Grade 8 English–Language Arts.
64. evaluation
act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of
Evaluation and Revision
1.6
65. culturally
with regard to a culture
Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
66. excerpt
a passage selected from a larger work
CSR12123.263
18 Which excerpt reveals the author’s inability to
train Murphy?
67. symbolic
relating to or using arbitrary signs
Algebra I
Grades Eight Through Twelve - Mathematics Content Standards

Symbolic reasoning and calculations with symbols are central in algebra.
68. relevant
having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
2.2
69. rational
consistent with or based on or using reason
Students identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four basic arithmetic operations where applicable:

1.1
70. equivalent
being essentially equal to something
The regiment unit even played a role in securing equivalent pay
for African-American soldiers.
4 After fighting at Fort Wagner, however, the men of the 54th had no time to rest.
71. specific
stated explicitly or in detail
Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
2.2
72. context
the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
73. collide
crash together with violent impact
Students know that in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate; in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another; and in gases the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently.
f.
74. parameter
a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied
Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.
d.
75. create
bring into existence
Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion.
1.2
76. relevance
the relation of something to the matter at hand
Analyze the relevance of the setting (e.g., place, time, customs) to the mood, tone, and meaning of the text.
3.5
77. elements
violent or severe weather
Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
2.2
78. parallel
being everywhere equidistant and not intersecting
Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
3.3
79. item
a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group
Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
1.3
80. demonstrate
give an exhibition of to an interested audience
Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
81. parallelism
similarity by virtue of corresponding
Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
1.3
82. significance
the quality of being important
Reveal the significance of, or the writer's attitude about, the subject.
c.
83. rally
gather or bring together
She could see the value of pep
rallies for football games; for example, she wanted other sports, clubs, and organizations to
benefit from the spirit and encouragement our students show at pep rallies.
84. focus
the concentration of attention or energy on something
Reading Comprehension ( Focus on Informational Materials)
85. transition
the act of passing from one state or place to the next
Establish coherence within and among paragraphs through effective transitions, parallel structures, and similar writing techniques.
1.3
86. revise
make changes to
Revise writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point of view; and transitions between paragraphs, passages, and ideas.
2.0
87. reinforce
strengthen and support with rewards
Jackson's opposition to the National Bank; early decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court that reinforced the sanctity of contracts and a capitalist economic system of law).
4.
88. response
the speech act of continuing a conversational exchange
Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
89. device
an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose
Understand and explain the use of a complex mechanical device by following technical directions.
2.6
90. summary
a brief statement that presents the main points
Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
2.5
91. divide
a serious disagreement between two groups of people
Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide monomials and polynomials.
92. metaphor
a figure of speech that suggests a non-literal similarity
Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
1.2
93. devices
an inclination or desire
Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
94. periodic
happening or recurring at regular intervals
Students know how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds.
95. validity
the quality of being legitimate and rigorous
Students use properties of the number system to judge the validity of results, to justify each step of a procedure, and to prove or disprove statements:

25.1
96. processed
subjected to a special treatment
Upon receiving a returned book or order, your refund will be processed, but you will not be reimbursed for
shipping charges.
97. dermatologist
a doctor who specializes in the physiology of the skin
According to the National Council of Dermatologists, limiting sun exposure, wearing protective
clothing, and using sunscreens may reduce the risk of skin damage and other harmful effects of
the sun.
98. element
a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances
Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
2.2
99. participate
be involved in
Students understand the foundation of the American political system and the ways in which citizens participate in it.
1.
100. compute
make a mathematical calculation
Students graph a linear equation and compute the x- and y-intercepts (e.g., graph 2x + 6y = 4).
101. level
a relative position or degree of value in a graded group
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade- level-appropriate words.
102. differentiate
acquire a distinct character
Present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between facts and opinion.
c.
103. interpret
make sense of; assign a meaning to
Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
104. reduce
make smaller
Students simplify fractions with polynomials in the numerator and denominator by factoring both and reducing them to the lowest terms.

13.0
105. clarify
make clear by removing impurities or solids, as by heating
They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works.
106. challenging
requiring full use of your abilities or resources
Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by using these techniques.

14.0
107. conclusion
a position or opinion reached after consideration
Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions.
108. draft
a current of air
Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
109. significant
rich in implication
Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
110. phenomenal
exceedingly or unbelievably great
Begin now by taking advantage of this phenomenal offer.
111. complexity
the quality of being intricate and compounded
The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
112. consumer
a person who uses goods or services
Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
2.2
113. convention
the act of meeting formally
Written and Oral English Language Conventions
The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.
1.0
114. enumerate
specify individually
Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Constitution and compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.
1.
115. galaxy
a collection of star systems
The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution.
116. emphasis
intensity or forcefulness of expression
Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
1.3
117. error
a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance
Any return due to shipping error or product defect may be returned free of charge.
118. combine
Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements.
c.
119. coordination
regulation of diverse elements into a harmonious operation
Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas.
120. inductive
influencing or causing to arise
Students explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and identify and provide examples of each.

24.2
121. genre
a kind of literary or artistic work
Writing Applications ( Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive essays of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre.
122. punctuate
insert marks to clarify meaning
What is the correct way to punctuate the
underlined part of the sentence?
123. illustrate
depict with a visual representation
The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
124. challenge
a call to engage in a contest or fight
Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by using these techniques.

14.0
125. reciprocal
concerning each of two or more persons or things
Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power.
126. randomly
in a random manner
A normally
B occasionally
C always
D randomly
CSL20316.071
99 Which quotation would best support the thesis
of the letter?
127. damage
the occurrence of a change for the worse
CSR02043.278
8 The purpose of Document B is to explain
A why damaged items cannot be returned.
128. object
a tangible and visible entity
Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.

24.0
129. simile
a figure of speech expressing a resemblance between things
Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
1.2
130. derive
come from
Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula.

8.0
131. motivation
psychological feature arousing action toward a desired goal
Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters from different historical eras confronting similar situations or conflicts.
3.4
132. reflect
throw or bend back from a surface
Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
133. resourceful
This
house makes our whole neighborhood look sloppy, and something must be done soon.
2 I am a pretty resourceful guy, so before writing to you, I tried to solve the problem myself.
134. enhance
increase
Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
135. contrast
the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared
Use word meanings within the appropriate context and show ability to verify those meanings by definition, restatement, example, comparison, or contrast.
2.0
136. arrive
reach a destination
The island is shaped like a boomerang, and each of
its three corners has an extinct volcano.

2 Easter Island was relatively unknown until 1722, when Dutch Admiral Roggeveen
arrived with the first Europeans ever to set foot on the island.
137. quotation
a passage or expression that is cited
Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from authorities, comparisons, and similar devices.
138. data
a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.
c.
139. assignment
an undertaking that you have been told to perform
Any good teacher would make allowances for students who don’t want their
5 Grading one another’s papers may be one of the best ways for students to reinforce
within themselves the ways to respond to the most difficult parts of what they are
learning.
140. support
the act of bearing the weight of or strengthening
Analyze text that uses proposition and support patterns.
141. denote
have as a meaning
* Denotes key standards

— 2 —

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
142. formulate
prepare according to instructions
Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

25.2
143. outline
the line that appears to bound an object
Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
144. codify
organize into a system, such as a body of law
Analyze the principles and concepts codified in state constitutions between 1777 and 1781 that created the context out of which American political institutions and ideas developed.
2.
145. contain
hold or have within
Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions.
146. analogy
drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity
Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
1.2
147. effect
a phenomenon that is caused by some previous phenomenon
Draw supported inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience.
d.
148. wispy
thin and weak
He found a cave, pulled12 a tree aside, went in where only he13 on hands and knees could slither deeper14 on his belly, could hitch along15 after the candle flicker, the plunk16 of water somewhere past the tunnel’s17 bend, breathing all his breath away18 deep at the tight place to be19 smaller than he was: wispy little20 body way down under the cold21 rock of the world.
22 The dark opened23 in a room.
149. figurative
not literal
Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
1.2
150. chart
a visual display of information
Organize and display information on charts, maps, and graphs.
2.4
151. economic
of or relating to production and management of wealth
They learn about the challenges facing the new nation, with an emphasis on the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. They make connections between the rise of industrialization and contemporary social and economic conditions.
8.1
152. domain
a particular environment or walk of life
Students determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent variables defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression.

18.0
153. logical
based on known statements or events or conditions
Students use and know simple aspects of a logical argument:

24.1
154. spatial
pertaining to the expanse in which things are located
List the reasons for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g.,
155. underlie
be underneath
Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
2.5
156. physical
involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit
Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
2.2
157. reaction
an idea evoked by some experience
Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters from different historical eras confronting similar situations or conflicts.
3.4
158. role
the actions and activities assigned to a person or group
United States History and Geography: Growth and Conflict

Students in grade eight study the ideas, issues, and events from the framing of the Constitution up to World War I, with an emphasis on America's role in the war.
159. crucial
of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis
And the simple act of
listening is crucial to the concept of language, more crucial even than
reading and writing, and language in turn is crucial to human society.
160. percent
a proportion in relation to a whole
Students apply algebraic techniques to solve rate problems, work problems, and percent mixture problems.

16.0
161. region
the extended spatial location of something
They are also able to sketch the region defined by linear inequality (e.g., they sketch the region defined by 2x + 6y < 4).

7.0
162. isotope
atom with same atomic number, different number of neutrons
Students know each element has a specific number of protons in the nucleus (the atomic number) and each isotope of the element has a different but specific number of neutrons in the nucleus.
c.
163. stanza
a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem
Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, using voice
modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning.
164. perspective
a way of regarding situations or topics
They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
165. emergence
the act of coming out into view
After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
166. club
a formal association of people with similar interests
CST Release Test Questions Grade 8 ELA
Released Test QuestionsEnglish–Language Arts8
Document AEvergreen Teen Book Club OfferThe Evergreen Teen Book Club invites you to join us and take full advantage of our limited-time introductory offer.
167. zero
the mathematical symbol 0 denoting absence of quantity
Students use the quadratic formula or factoring techniques or both to determine whether the graph of a quadratic function will intersect the x-axis in zero, one, or two points.

23.0
168. simple
having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved
Write documents related to career development, including simple business letters and job applications:
a.
169. regiment
army unit smaller than a division
Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee) and soldiers on both sides of the war, including those of black soldiers and regiments.
6.
170. conflict
an open clash between two opposing groups
Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
3.3
171. immerse
cause to be submerged
All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.
172. pertinent
being of striking appropriateness
Students understand the concepts of a relation and a function, determine whether a given relation defines a function, and give pertinent information about given relations and functions.

17.0
173. consistency
a harmonious uniformity or agreement among things or parts
Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of text.
3.0
174. splatter
dash a liquid upon or against
I walk into the dark, urine- splattered
corridor to find him resting comfortably, paws crossed.
a fully developed person from maturity onward
CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
11 The purpose of including the list of activities in
Document A is to illustrate to the consumer
that Sun Veil Sunscreen 30 is
A for both adults and children.
176. council
a body serving in an administrative capacity
According to the National Council of Dermatologists, limiting sun exposure, wearing protective
clothing, and using sunscreens may reduce the risk of skin damage and other harmful effects of
the sun.
get something; come into possession of
178. refute
overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof
Students use counterexamples to show that an assertion is false and recognize that a single counterexample is sufficient to refute an assertion.

25.0
179. achieve
gain with effort
Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original ideas.
180. elegy
a mournful poem; a lament for the dead
Determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different forms of poetry (e.g., ballad, lyric, couplet, epic, elegy, ode, sonnet).
181. lecturing
teaching by giving a discourse on some subject
Jane Addams: A Woman of Character(1) When you think of women in history who have been true pioneers, the name
Jane Addams should come to mind. (2) In the late 1800s, she founded Hull House, an
institution called a settlement house, in Chicago, Illinois. (3) Hull House was established
as a resource for immigrants as well as for any other residents of Chicago in need of
assistance. (4) Its mission reflected the compassionate spirit of its founder, who had visited
a similar institution, ca...
182. reimburse
pay back for some expense incurred
Upon receiving a returned book or order, your refund will be processed, but you will not be reimbursed for
shipping charges.
183. subordination
the state of being lower in rank to something
Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas.
184. energy
forceful exertion
Some of that time and energy can be saved by spending a few minutes in class, while
providing an invaluable learning experience.
4 I understand that some individuals are sensitive to their classmates seeing their work
associated with an educational institution
All questions on the California Standards Tests are evaluated by committees of content experts, including
teachers and administrators, to ensure their appropriateness for measuring the California academic content
standards in Grade 8 English–Language Arts.
186. underlying
in the nature of something though not readily apparent
Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
2.5
187. statue
a sculpture representing a human or animal
To their surprise, they
were greeted by hundreds of mammoth stone statues lining the shores.
188. focused
brought into sharp clarity
Writing Strategies
Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays.
189. format
the general appearance of a publication
Follow the conventional format for the type of document (e.g., letter of inquiry, memorandum).
2.6
190. area
the extent of a two-dimensional surface within a boundary
Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
4.
191. complete
having all necessary qualities
Students solve a quadratic equation by factoring or completing the square.

15.0
192. commemorate
call to remembrance
In 1897, a Monument was
sculpted in Boston, Massachusetts, to commemorate the heroism of the 54th.
193. participating
taking part in an activity
• DRIVING A CAR• WALKING TO THE STORE• PLAYING ON THE PLAYGROUND• RELAXING AT THE BEACH OR POOL• PARTICIPATING IN OUTDOOR
SPORTS OR RECREATION

Sun Veil Sunscreen protects you so you can have fun in the sun, young or old.
194. assigned
appointed to a post or duty
Clarisse Jones
Social Studies
Ms. Montoya
May 9, 2003
The Massachusetts 54th Infantry Regiment
1 In 1863, Governor John Andrew of Massachusetts made an important decision
when he allowed African-American men to enlist as Union soldiers in the Civil War.
Some of these new enlistees was assigned to the 54th Infantry Regiment.
195. recognize
perceive to be the same
These techniques include finding a common factor for all terms in a polynomial, recognizing the difference of two squares, and recognizing perfect squares of binomials.

12.0
the place where a person or organization can be found
Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
3.3
197. exponent
notation of how many times to multiply a quantity by itself
They understand and use the rules of exponents.

3.0
198. valid
well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force
Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

25.2
in an opposing direction
Two types of UV rays
exist within our atmosphere: UVA and UVB. UVA rays do not immediately affect the skin but cause long-
term adverse effects, like skin aging, wrinkles, and, in some cases, skin cancer.
200. thermal
relating to or associated with heat
Students know substances can be classified by their properties, including their melting temperature, density, hardness, and thermal and electrical conductivity.
201. similar
having the same or nearly the same characteristics
Compare and contrast motivations and reactions of literary characters from different historical eras confronting similar situations or conflicts.
3.4
202. convey
transmit or serve as the medium for transmission
Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
2.5
203. author
a person who writes professionally
Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its author.
204. idiom
expression whose meaning cannot be inferred from its words
Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
1.2
205. bias
a partiality preventing objective consideration of an issue
Evaluate the credibility of a speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted or biased material).
1.9
206. examine
observe, check out, and look over carefully or inspect
Examine the women's suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony).
7.
207. environment
the totality of surrounding conditions
Examine the characteristics of white Southern society and how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War.
4.
208. interact
do something together or with others
Students know reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties.
b.
209. connect
fasten or put together two or more pieces
They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
210. cringe
draw back, as with fear, pain, or embarrassment
Document B
Con
1 A girl cringes as her classmate announces her failing test grade and hands her the
paper, bathed in the red ink of the student grader.
211. recommend
express a good opinion of
The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
212. technological
of a practical subject organized by scientific principles
Discuss the influence of industrialization and technological developments on the region, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction).
2.
213. slither
pass or move unobtrusively or smoothly
He found a cave, pulled12 a tree aside, went in where only he13 on hands and knees could slither deeper14 on his belly, could hitch along15 after the candle flicker, the plunk16 of water somewhere past the tunnel’s17 bend, breathing all his breath away18 deep at the tight place to be19 smaller than he was: wispy little20 body way down under the cold21 rock of the world.
22 The dark opened23 in a room.
214. buoyant
tending to float on a liquid or rise in air or gas
All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.
215. monitor
someone who observes to ensure fairness or prevent mistakes
Describe the basic law-making process and how the Constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., function of elections, political parties, interest groups).
7.
216. irrational
not consistent with or using reason
Students identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four basic arithmetic operations where applicable:

1.1
217. rely
have confidence or faith in
C that his mother relied on him when he was
a child.
218. process
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.
219. aplomb
great coolness and composure under strain
Reminiscingby Ralph Cortez1 Watermelons were so much sweeter then,
2 When boys were the stuff of super men,
3 And summers seemed so much longer too,
4 With nothing pending and nothing due.
5 We were swordsmen—swashbuckling heroes,
6 Eternal victors—never zeroes;
7 Second basemen and clean-up hitters;
8 Forever winners, never quitters.
9 Play was a ritual in those days,
10 To go on magical mind forays,
11 To play the game with aplomb and ease,
12 To venture forth when and where we’d pl...
220. compromise
an accommodation in which both sides make concessions
Discuss the importance of the slavery issue as raised by the annexation of Texas and California's admission to the union as a free state under the Compromise of 1850.
5.
221. immigration
movement of persons into a place
List the reasons for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g.,
222. inverse
turned backward in order or nature or effect
A –1
B 0
1
C
1000
D 3
CSA10152
16 What is the multiplicative inverse of ?
2
A •2
1
B •
2
1C
2
D 2
CSA10153

— 6 —

This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
223. expansion
the act of increasing in size or volume or quantity or scope
Describe the country's physical landscapes, political divisions, and territorial expansion during the terms of the first four presidents.
2.
224. location
the act of putting something in a certain place
Describe the development of the agrarian economy in the South, identify the locations of the cotton-producing states, and discuss the significance of cotton and the cotton gin.
2.
225. precise
sharply exact or accurate or delimited
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
226. awareness
state of elementary or undifferentiated consciousness
The writing exhibits students' awareness of audience and purpose.
227. assign
select something or someone for a specific purpose
Clarisse Jones
Social Studies
Ms. Montoya
May 9, 2003
The Massachusetts 54th Infantry Regiment
1 In 1863, Governor John Andrew of Massachusetts made an important decision
when he allowed African-American men to enlist as Union soldiers in the Civil War.
Some of these new enlistees was assigned to the 54th Infantry Regiment.
228. story
a record or narrative description of past events
Write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or narratives:
a.
229. normally
under normal conditions
For Indoor Photography:
In a normally lit room—1/30 of a second
In a brightly lit room—1/60 of a second
For Outdoor Photography:
Cloudy conditions—1/125 of a second
Sunny conditions—1/250 of a second
Extremely bright conditions—1/500
or 1/1000 of a second

Picture of a Shutter Speed Dial
60
125
250
30
500
1
1000
2
B
For Photography in Very Dark Settings:
1—The “1” stands for 1 second.
2—The “2” stands for 2 seconds.
230. underestimate
make too low an approximation of
A The amount of time spent in direct sunlight is
usually underestimated.
231. rope
a strong line
The Sixth no sooner had begun
Than, seizing on the swinging tail
40 That fell within his scope,
“I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant
Is very like a rope!”
232. symbolism
the practice of investing things with arbitrary meaning
Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
233. amendment
a statement that is added to a proposal or document
Understand the significance of Jefferson's Statute for Religious Freedom as a forerunner of the First Amendment and the origins, purpose, and differing views of the founding fathers on the issue of the separation of church and state.
6.
234. gender
the biological or cultural traits associated with one sex
In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to
ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics
such as gender, ethnicity, and language.
in a sufficient manner
NUMBER OF NUMBER OF
STRAND/REPORTING CLUSTER QUESTIONS RELEASED
ON EXAM TEST QUESTIONS
• Word Analysis 9 11
• Literary Response and Analysis 15 23
• Writing Strategies 17 25
• Written Conventions 16 28
TOTAL 75114

In selecting test questions for release, three criteria are used: (1) the questions adequately cover a selection of
the academic content standards assessed on the Grade 8 English–Language Arts Test; (2) the questions
demonstrate a ran...
236. label
a brief description given for purposes of identification
This can be done by attaching the pre-addressed return
label enclosed in every shipment.
237. rent
a payment or series of payments made by a lessee to an owner
Mr. Jones used to rent that house, but he
moved out over six months ago.
238. contact
the act of touching physically
In this instance, contact our Customer Service Department by calling 1-800-613-XXXX between 9:00 a.m.
and 5:00 p.m.
239. chemical
produced by reactions involving atomic or molecular changes
Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.
240. criterion
the ideal in terms of which something can be judged
NUMBER OF NUMBER OF
STRAND/REPORTING CLUSTER QUESTIONS RELEASED
ON EXAM TEST QUESTIONS
• Word Analysis 9 11
• Literary Response and Analysis 15 23
• Writing Strategies 17 25
• Written Conventions 16 28
TOTAL 75114

In selecting test questions for release, three criteria are used: (1) the questions adequately cover a selection of
the academic content standards assessed on the Grade 8 English–Language Arts Test; (2) the questions
demonstrate a ran...
241. hypothesis
a tentative insight that is not yet verified or tested
Students identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction.

24.3
242. mammoth
extinct elephant widely distributed in the Pleistocene
To their surprise, they
were greeted by hundreds of mammoth stone statues lining the shores.
243. formal
in accord with established conventions and requirements
Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions.
244. issue
some situation or event that is thought about
United States History and Geography: Growth and Conflict

Students in grade eight study the ideas, issues, and events from the framing of the Constitution up to World War I, with an emphasis on America's role in the war.
245. biased
favoring one person or side over another
Evaluate the credibility of a speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted or biased material).
1.9
246. gravity
the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.

24.0
247. technical
of or relating to aptitude in a practical skill
Understand and explain the use of a complex mechanical device by following technical directions.
2.6
248. integrate
make into a whole or make part of a whole
Some of the released test questions for Algebra I are
the same test questions found in different combinations on the Integrated Mathematics 1 and 2 California
Standards Tests and the Summative High School Mathematics California Standards Test.
249. flag
a rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design
CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
The Amazing Maize Maze
(1) When the Egyptians built the pyramids, they included mazes to trap thieves.
(2) Even if a thief managed to enter a pyramid, they would probably never find his or her
way out. (3) Other ancient mazes have been found, from Sweden to New Mexico.
(4) Some are carved in rock or painted on cave walls, while others are built from dirt,
stones,...
250. contemporary
occurring in the same period of time
In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
251. deteriorate
become worse or disintegrate
The composure of the classroom

— 21 —
This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
252. motion
the act of changing location from one place to another
Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.

24.0
253. pause
cease an action temporarily
Press START/ PAUSE two times to begin play.
254. hyperbole
extravagant exaggeration
The author uses a hyperbole to illustrate that
the dog grew
A surprisingly affectionate.
255. slope
be at an angle
Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point- slope formula.

8.0
256. indicate
designate a place, direction, person, or thing
Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas.
257. locate
determine the place of by searching or examining
Trace patterns of agricultural and industrial development as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets, and trade and locate such development on a map.
2.
258. generate
bring into existence
CST Release Test Questions Grade 8 ELA
Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
95 Which sentence could best be added at the
end of the first paragraph to generate reader
interest?
259. direction
a line leading to a place or point
Understand and explain the use of a complex mechanical device by following technical directions.
2.6
260. interpretation
the act of expressing something in an artistic performance
Exhibit careful reading and insight in their interpretations.
b.
261. articulate
express or state clearly
Determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different forms of poetry (e.g., ballad, lyric, couplet, epic, elegy, ode, sonnet).
262. involved
connected by participation or association or use
Outline the physical obstacles to and the economic and political factors involved in building a network of roads, canals, and railroads (e.g.,
263. positive
characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance
The sun gives life to the world.
2 Along with the many positive aspects of the sun, however, there are dangerous effects to consider.
264. community
a group of people living in a particular local area
Study the lives of black Americans who gained freedom in the North and founded schools and churches to advance their rights and communities.
5.
265. clue
evidence that helps to solve a problem
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
266. affect
have an influence upon
Interpret and evaluate the various ways in which visual image makers (e.g., graphic artists, illustrators, news photographers) communicate information and affect impressions and opinions.
2.0
267. recite
repeat aloud from memory
Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, using voice
modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning.
268. immigrant
a person who comes to a country in order to settle there
Irish immigrants and the Great Irish Famine).
4.
269. institution
a custom that has been an important feature of some group
After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
270. prepare
Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of organization, which generally includes an introduction; transitions, previews, and summaries; a logically developed body; and an effective conclusion.
1.5
271. scope
the state of the environment in which a situation exists
Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or organization of ideas.
2.4
272. cultural
relating to the shared knowledge and values of a society
Trace the origins and development of slavery; its effects on black Americans and on the region's political, social, religious, economic, and cultural development; and identify the strategies that were tried to both overturn and preserve it (e.g., through the writings and historical documents on Nat Turner, Denmark Vesey).
3.
273. access
the right to enter
I
used the Internet to access public records about the house, but the owner of that house
is not listed.
274. researcher
a scientist devoted to systematic investigation
According to a report entitled “Are Students Getting Enough Sleep?”
from a recent edition of Sebastian Valley Times, “sleepiness decreases concentration,
reduces short-term memory, and causes bad moods.”

4 Researchers have learned that teens routinely fall asleep and wake up later than
275. nutrient
any substance that can be metabolized to give energy
D The health teacher asserts, “Eating well
provides the body with important nutrients.”
276. consistent
the same throughout in structure or composition
Revise writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point of view; and transitions between paragraphs, passages, and ideas.
2.0
277. clear
Writing Strategies
Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays.
278. precede
be earlier in time
Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.
1.
279. revision
the act of altering
Evaluation and Revision
1.6
280. progress
the act of moving forward, as toward a goal
Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.
281. emphasize
stress or single out as important
Compare the conflicting interpretations of state and federal authority as emphasized in the speeches and writings of statesmen such as Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun.
2.
282. purchase
acquire by means of a financial transaction
However, if you decide to
purchase just one book at regular club price, you will receive a certificate for an
a specific practice of long standing
Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its author.
284. application
the action of putting something into operation
Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive essays of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre.
285. respond
show a reaction to something
Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science.
286. displace
cause to move, usually with force or pressure
Students know the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid the object has displaced.
d.
287. policy
a plan of action adopted by an individual or social group
Understand how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties (e.g., view of foreign policy, Alien and Sedition Acts, economic policy, National Bank, funding and assumption of the revolutionary debt).
5.
288. event
something that happens at a given place and time
Relate a clear, coherent incident, event, or situation by using well-chosen details.
b.
289. federal
of a government with central and regional authorities
Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Constitution and compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.
1.
290. complex
complicated in structure
Understand and explain the use of a complex mechanical device by following technical directions.
2.6
291. train
educate for a future role or function
Picture of a beagle named "Murphy"
2 Murphy was the first dog I ever trained personally, and I was delighted at the enthusiasm with which he
took to the newspaper.
supervise or be in charge of
This
test is one of the California Standards Tests administered as part of the Standardized Testing and Reporting
(STAR) Program under policies set by the State Board of Education.
293. similarity
the quality of being alike
Find similarities and differences between texts in the treatment, scope, or organization of ideas.
2.4
294. alternate
go back and forth
B alternate the length of lines.
295. install
set up for use
Once installed, solar panels do not need to be monotored very often.
296. major
greater in scope or effect
After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
297. fluency
powerful and effective language
WORD ANALYSIS, FLUENCY, AND SYSTEMATIC VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT:
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as
historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized
vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level appropriate words.

8RW1.1
298. founding
the act of starting something for the first time
Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.
1.
299. assimilate
make alike
Trace the development of the American education system from its earliest roots, including the roles of religious and private schools and Horace Mann's campaign for free public education and its assimilating role in American culture.
6.
300. proviso
a stipulated condition
Analyze the significance of the States' Rights Doctrine, the Missouri Compromise (1820), the Wilmot Proviso (1846), the Compromise of 1850, Henry Clay's role in the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), the Dred Scott v.
301. feature
a prominent attribute or aspect of something
Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1
302. deduction
the act of removing a part from the whole
Students identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction.

24.3
303. initial
occurring at the beginning
While the
initial cost and effort of using environmentally friendly power sources might be high,
the price of not using them is even higher.
304. announce
make known
You know, Brucie is usually
so distant with strangers.”
5 At a dinner party last week, after I had been mugged by a large sheepdog, I announced quite piteously,
“Oh dear, he seems to have swallowed one of my earrings.”
305. essential
basic and fundamental
They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
306. cumulative
Students know when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces.
c.
307. construct
make by combining materials and parts
Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

25.2
308. experience
the content of observation or participation in an event
Identify the push-pull factors in the movement of former slaves to the cities in the North and to the West and their differing experiences in those regions (e.g., the experiences of Buffalo Soldiers).
3.
309. concluding
occurring at or forming an end or termination
A obviously
B however
C still
D likewise

CSW00062.008

64 Which of these would make the best concluding

sentence to Edward’s letter?
310. incline
lower or bend, as in a nod or bow
CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
Released Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
The Blind Men and the Elephant

by John Godfrey Saxe

It was six men of Indostan

To learning much inclined,
Who went to see the Elephant
(Though all of them were blind),

5 That each by observation
Might satisfy his mind.
311. found
food and lodging provided in addition to money
After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
312. research
a seeking for knowledge
Research and Technology
1.4
313. drafting
the craft of drawing blueprints
Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
314. raise
move upwards
Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power.
315. wave
(physics) a movement up and down or back and forth
List the reasons for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g.,
316. specify
Describe the political philosophy underpinning the Constitution as specified in the Federalist Papers (authored by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay) and the role of such leaders as Madison, George Washington, Roger Sherman, Gouverneur Morris, and James Wilson in the writing and ratification of the Constitution.
5.
317. style
how something is done or how it happens
Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
318. conserve
keep in safety and protect from harm, loss, or destruction
Do you look for new ways
to conserve energy?
319. develop
progress or evolve through a process of natural growth
Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of organization, which generally includes an introduction; transitions, previews, and summaries; a logically developed body; and an effective conclusion.
1.5
320. anticipate
regard something as probable or likely
Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments.
2.5
321. surprise
come upon or take unawares
Don’t let anyone think you’re a greenhorn.”
10 After George counted his money he looked out of the window and was surprised to see that the train was
still in Winesburg.
11 The young man, going out of his town to meet the adventure of life, began to think but he did not think of
anything very big or dramatic.
12 He thought of little things—Turk Smollet wheeling boards through the main street of his town in the
morning, Butch Wheeler, the lamp lighter of Winesburg, hurrying throu...
322. trace
an indication that something has been present
After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
323. whistle
the sound made by something moving rapidly
Her eyes, one blue, one brown
never leave them.

10 When the Shepherd’s whistle
releases her,
she’s off, like an arrow, running east,
her bared teeth showing
the wolf that still lives in her.

15 She circles wide, closing in,
a black and white blur at
the edge of a sheep’s bad dream.
324. reliable
worthy of trust
A reliable
B relied upon
C relying on them
D are reliable
CSL11192.133

— 59 —
This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
325. negative
characterized by denial or opposition or resistance
UVB rays produce immediate
negative effects and are the main culprits of sunburns.
3 Skin protection is extremely important.
326. quarry
animal hunted or caught for food
The discovery of a large
stone quarry unlocked clues.
327. liquid
fluid matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
Students know the states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular motion.
e.
328. limit
as far as something can go
Describe the lives of free blacks and the laws that limited their freedom and economic opportunities.
8.10
329. sequence
a following of one thing after another in time
Identify the sequence of activities needed to design a system, operate a tool, or explain the bylaws of an organization.
b.
330. brave
possessing or displaying courage
group one of the most famous.
2 In May 1863, the 54th Infantry Regiment, led by Colonel Robert Shaw, completed
its training and headed into battle.
331. sum
a quantity obtained by the addition of a group of numbers
The rest of the student body could get a little more sleep
and arrive an hour or so later.

6 To sum up, teens need as much or more sleep than adults, have a later sleep cycle,
and learn and behave better when rested.
332. consider
Include all the factors and variables that need to be considered.
c.
333. compose
form the substance of
All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.
334. resolve
Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
3.3
335. panel
sheet that forms a distinct section of something
After collecting energy from the sun, huge panels store
the solar power.
336. shape
a perceptual structure
After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
337. agrarian
relating to rural matters
Describe the development of the agrarian economy in the South, identify the locations of the cotton-producing states, and discuss the significance of cotton and the cotton gin.
2.
338. scuffle
fight or struggle in a confused way at close quarters
But after a few noisy scuffles in which he knocked a picture
off the wall, scratched the piano, and smashed a lamp, we just gave in—only to discover that, left to his own
devices, he hopped up and down as delicately as a ballet dancer.
4 It’s not just our own dogs that bother me.
339. peer
look searchingly
Document A
Pro
1 The Supreme Court was absolutely correct to say it’s OK for students to grade one
another’s homework, quizzes, and tests; in fact, it’s a great idea.
2 By grading one another’s papers and seeing the problems their peers encounter, as well
as their own, students double their exposure to the troubles that they may meet on future
exams and tests.
340. principle
a basic generalization that is accepted as true
Describe the nation's blend of civic republicanism, classical liberal principles, and English parliamentary traditions.
8.2
341. soliloquy
speech you make to yourself
Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, using voice
modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning.
342. inference
drawing a conclusion on the basis of circumstantial evidence
Draw supported inferences about the effects of a literary work on its audience.
d.
343. protect
shield from danger, injury, destruction, or damage
Enumerate the advantages of a common market among the states as foreseen in and protected by the Constitution's clauses on interstate commerce, common coinage, and full-faith and credit.
4.
344. injure
cause bodily harm to
Sergeant William Carney,
the flag bearer of the 54th, was severely injured as he carried the flag back to safety.
345. insect
small air-breathing arthropod
The
land becomes a wide green billiard table on which tiny human insects toil up and down.

4 All through his boyhood and young manhood, George Willard had been in the habit of walking on Trunion
Pike.
346. elapse
pass by
Students know that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.
c.
347. justification
the act of defending or explaining by reasoning
Students solve multistep problems, including word problems, involving linear equations and linear inequalities in one variable and provide justification for each step.

6.0
a wild and exciting undertaking
This catalog offers a wide selection of over 500 books in every issue, including mysteries, romances, adventures,
biographies, cookbooks, crafts, sports, and many more.
349. site
the piece of land on which something is located
Web site at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/resources.asp.

— 1 —
This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
350. individualism
the quality of being a single thing or person
Identify common themes in American art as well as transcendentalism and individualism (e.g., writings about and by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Herman Melville, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow).
8.7
351. recur
happen or occur again
Identify and analyze recurring themes (e.g., good versus evil) across traditional and contemporary works.
3.6
352. baffle
be a mystery or bewildering to
What was even more baffling was how the people
moved the creations, some of which weighed many tons.
353. influence
a power to affect persons or events
Understand the most important points in the history of English language and use common word origins to determine the historical influences on English word meanings.
1.3
someone who manages a government agency or department
All questions on the California Standards Tests are evaluated by committees of content experts, including
teachers and administrators, to ensure their appropriateness for measuring the California academic content
standards in Grade 8 English–Language Arts.
355. available
obtainable or accessible and ready for use or service
C available almost everywhere.
356. static
not in physical motion
Students know how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction.
e.
357. vary
become different in some particular way
Use correct and varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style.
1.2
358. interpreting
an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious
Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data.
e.
359. investigation
an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities
Investigation and Experimentation
9.
360. passage
the act of moving from one state or place to the next
Revise writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point of view; and transitions between paragraphs, passages, and ideas.
2.0
361. opportunity
a possibility from a favorable combination of circumstances
Describe the basic law-making process and how the Constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., function of elections, political parties, interest groups).
7.
362. economy
the system of production and distribution and consumption
After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences.
363. balance
harmonious arrangement or relation of parts within a whole
Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original ideas.
364. manual
of or relating to the hands
Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials to gain meaning from documents (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instruction manuals).
2.2
365. attitude
a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings
Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its author.
366. conclude
bring to a close
A obviously
B however
C still
D likewise

CSW00062.008

64 Which of these would make the best concluding

sentence to Edward’s letter?
367. civil
of or occurring between or among citizens of the state
They learn about the challenges facing the new nation, with an emphasis on the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. They make connections between the rise of industrialization and contemporary social and economic conditions.
8.1
368. frail
physically weak
My brain never loses
A touch I bring:
Frail of an eggshell,
20 Pull of a string,
Beat of a pulse
That tells me life
Thumps in a person
But not in a knife.
25 Signs that say:
Disappoint me
Very much.
369. aftermath
the consequences of an event
Describe the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War, including territorial settlements, the aftermath of the wars, and the effects the wars had on the lives of Americans, including Mexican Americans today.
8.9
370. relaxing
affording physical or mental rest
• DRIVING A CAR• WALKING TO THE STORE• PLAYING ON THE PLAYGROUND• RELAXING AT THE BEACH OR POOL• PARTICIPATING IN OUTDOOR
SPORTS OR RECREATION

Sun Veil Sunscreen protects you so you can have fun in the sun, young or old.
371. liberate
grant freedom to; free from confinement
Students know chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat.
d.
372. record
anything providing permanent evidence about past events
Record important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize all perspectives on the topic, as appropriate.
c.
373. suffrage
a legal right to vote
Examine the women's suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony).
7.
374. dialect
the usage or vocabulary characteristic of a group of people
Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
375. compound
a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts
Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements.
c.
376. maintain
keep in a certain state, position, or activity
Maintain a reasonable tone.
2.5
377. skid
a plank used to make a track for rolling or sliding objects
Feel the vibrations as your Rocket Ball glides through the universe, scoringpoints as it glances off Saturn’s rings or skids past Jupiter.
378. accurately
strictly correctly
Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
2.5
consisting of or derived from a practice of long standing
Identify and analyze recurring themes (e.g., good versus evil) across traditional and contemporary works.
3.6
380. justify
show to be right by providing proof
Students determine whether a relation defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion.

19.0
381. resource
aid or support that may be drawn upon when needed
Explain how the ordinances of 1785 and 1787 privatized national resources and transferred federally owned lands into private holdings, townships, and states.
3.
382. exist
have a presence
In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to
ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics
such as gender, ethnicity, and language.
383. climax
the highest point of anything
Evaluate the structural elements of the plot (e.g., subplots, parallel episodes, climax), the plot's development, and the way in which conflicts are (or are not) addressed and resolved.
3.3
384. infer
conclude by reasoning
Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer the literal and figurative meanings of phrases.
1.2
385. functioning
performing or able to perform its regular purpose
Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems.
386. accomplish
achieve with effort
A to tell a story about a childhood experience
B to capture a feeling from the past
C to debate whether childhood or adulthood is
better
D to describe a person who was important in the
life of a child
CSR10200.098
3 In lines 11 and 12 of “Piano,” the words “my
manhood is cast down in the flood of
remembrance” mean that the speaker feels
A proud of what he has accomplished.
387. measure
determine the dimensions of something or somebody
Students know how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distances between the Sun, stars, and Earth.
d.
388. ordinance
an authoritative rule
Explain how the ordinances of 1785 and 1787 privatized national resources and transferred federally owned lands into private holdings, townships, and states.
3.
389. planet
a celestial body that revolves around the sun
Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.
390. bounce
spring back; spring away from an impact
Each time
you are able to use your flippers to
bounce your Rocket Ball off these moving
objects, you score bonus points.
391. conducive
tending to bring about; being partly responsible for
Releasing this sort of personal information should
be avoided, especially by institutions that seek to provide a supportive environment
conducive to mutual learning during essential years of human development.
392. award
give, especially as an honor
Jane Addams: A Woman of Character(1) When you think of women in history who have been true pioneers, the name
Jane Addams should come to mind. (2) In the late 1800s, she founded Hull House, an
institution called a settlement house, in Chicago, Illinois. (3) Hull House was established
as a resource for immigrants as well as for any other residents of Chicago in need of
assistance. (4) Its mission reflected the compassionate spirit of its founder, who had visited
a similar institution, ca...
393. rash
imprudently incurring risk
If the skin becomes irritated or a rash develops, discontinue use immediately.
394. antenna
one of a pair of mobile appendages on the head of insects
CST Released Test Questions for Grade 8 ELA
CALIFORNIA STANDARDS TEST GRADEReleased Test Questions English–Language Arts 8
My Fingers
by Mary O’Neill
My fingers are antennae.
395. absolute
perfect or complete or pure
Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values.

4.0
396. concern
something that interests you because it is important
Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments.
2.5
397. extraction
taking out something
Discuss the influence of industrialization and technological developments on the region, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction).
2.
398. statistics
a branch of mathematics concerned with quantitative data
Because of her letters and use of statistics,
hospitals began changing the way they take care of patients.
399. solid
not soft or yielding to pressure
Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers.
d.
400. employ
put into service
Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
2.2
401. foray
a sudden short attack
Reminiscingby Ralph Cortez1 Watermelons were so much sweeter then,
2 When boys were the stuff of super men,
3 And summers seemed so much longer too,
4 With nothing pending and nothing due.
5 We were swordsmen—swashbuckling heroes,
6 Eternal victors—never zeroes;
7 Second basemen and clean-up hitters;
8 Forever winners, never quitters.
9 Play was a ritual in those days,
10 To go on magical mind forays,
11 To play the game with aplomb and ease,
12 To venture forth when and where we’d pl...
402. logically
according to logical reasoning
Prepare a speech outline based upon a chosen pattern of organization, which generally includes an introduction; transitions, previews, and summaries; a logically developed body; and an effective conclusion.
1.5
403. constitutional
existing as an essential characteristic
Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.
1.
404. irony
incongruity between what might be expected and what occurs
Identify significant literary devices (e.g., metaphor, symbolism, dialect, irony) that define a writer's style and use those elements to interpret the work.
405. statistical
of or relating to the interpretation of quantitative data
The rest of her career was spent writing letters and working to improve
hospitals by using statistical studies.

2 Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 to a wealthy British family.
406. outcome
something that results
Outline the major treaties with American Indian nations during the administrations of the first four presidents and the varying outcomes of those treaties.

8.6
407. cycle
a periodically repeated sequence of events
Studies show that some schools have already adjusted school hours to better match
the teen sleep cycle; consequently, students in these schools are learning better on
the new schedule.

5 Some of my classmates argue that starting school an hour later will prevent them
from participating in after-school athletic programs and extracurricular activities.
408. statistic
a datum that can be represented numerically
Because of her letters and use of statistics,
hospitals began changing the way they take care of patients.
409. monument
a structure erected to commemorate persons or events
In 1897, a Monument was
sculpted in Boston, Massachusetts, to commemorate the heroism of the 54th.
410. touch
make physical contact with, come in contact with
C with a gentle touch.
411. epic
a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
Determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different forms of poetry (e.g., ballad, lyric, couplet, epic, elegy, ode, sonnet).
412. button
a round fastener sewn to shirts and coats
The shutter remains open for as long as
the shutter button is held down.

— 19 — CSR0P130
This is a sample of California Standards Test questions.
413. entrepreneur
someone who organizes a business venture
Discuss entrepreneurs, industrialists, and bankers in politics, commerce, and industry (e.g.,
414. commence
set in motion, cause to start
Dear Sebastian Valley School Board:

1 Currently, school commences before most people even dream about waking up.
415. insight
clear or deep perception of a situation
Exhibit careful reading and insight in their interpretations.
b.
416. theme
the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
Identify and analyze recurring themes (e.g., good versus evil) across traditional and contemporary works.
3.6
417. expose
show; make visible or apparent
DIRECTIONS:
Apply Sun Veil’s disappearing blue-colored sunblock liberally to completely cover all exposed
skin.
418. inert
unable to move or resist motion
Students know how to identify regions corresponding to metals, nonmetals, and inert gases.
b.
419. computer
a machine for performing calculations automatically
Plan and conduct multiple-step information searches by using computer networks and modems.
1.5
420. capture
seize as if by hunting, snaring, or trapping
Compare the original text to a summary to determine whether the summary accurately captures the main ideas, includes critical details, and conveys the underlying meaning.
2.5
421. insidious
working or spreading in a hidden and usually injurious way
Watermelon
Pianoby D. H. Lawrence1 Softly, in the dusk, a woman is singing to me:
2 Taking me back down the vista of years, till I see3 A child sitting under the piano, in the boom of the tingling strings4 And pressing the small, poised feet of a mother who smiles as she sings.
5 In spite of myself, the insidious mastery of song6 Betrays me back, till the heart of me weeps to belong7 To the old Sunday evenings at home, winter outside8 And hymns in the cozy parlor, the tinkling piano o...
422. tusk
a long pointed tooth specialized for fighting or digging
The Second, feeling of the tusk,
Cried, “Ho! what have we here
15 So very round and smooth and sharp?
423. appropriately
in an appropriate manner
This
memorial honors these heroes appropriately by depicting Colonel Shaw and his troops
marching into battle.
424. integrated
formed or united into a whole
Some of the released test questions for Algebra I are
the same test questions found in different combinations on the Integrated Mathematics 1 and 2 California
Standards Tests and the Summative High School Mathematics California Standards Test.
425. dawn
the first light of day
The east was pink with the dawn and long streaks of light climbed into the sky where a few stars still
shone.

3 Beyond the last house on Trunion Pike in Winesburg, there is a great stretch of open fields.
426. present
temporal sense
Present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between facts and opinion.
c.
427. identical
being the exact same one
They were very similar to one another, each
with a large nose and long ears, but they were not identical.
428. incident
a single distinct event
Relate a clear, coherent incident, event, or situation by using well-chosen details.
b.
429. releasing
emotionally purging (of e.g. art)
Releasing this sort of personal information should
be avoided, especially by institutions that seek to provide a supportive environment
conducive to mutual learning during essential years of human development.
430. symbol
something visible that represents something invisible
Algebra I
Grades Eight Through Twelve - Mathematics Content Standards

Symbolic reasoning and calculations with symbols are central in algebra.
431. utility
the quality of being of practical use
Consumers can and must make a difference by considering alternate
energy options.

2 Each year electric utilities in the United States provide trillions of kilowatt-hours to
their customers, but this energy source gives off tons of carbon monoxide.
432. dramatic
characteristic of a stage performance
Recite poems (of four to six stanzas), sections of speeches, or dramatic soliloquies, using voice
modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning.
433. select
pick out or choose from a number of alternatives
NUMBER OF NUMBER OF
STRAND/REPORTING CLUSTER QUESTIONS RELEASED
ON EXAM TEST QUESTIONS
• Word Analysis 9 11
• Literary Response and Analysis 15 23
• Writing Strategies 17 25
• Written Conventions 16 28
TOTAL 75114

In selecting test questions for release, three criteria are used: (1) the questions adequately cover a selection of
the academic content standards assessed on the Grade 8 English–Language Arts Test; (2) the questions
demonstrate a ran...
434. establish
set up or found
Create compositions that establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end with a clear and well-supported conclusion.
1.2
435. sedition
an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority
Understand how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties (e.g., view of foreign policy, Alien and Sedition Acts, economic policy, National Bank, funding and assumption of the revolutionary debt).
5.
436. wake
stop sleeping
Dear Sebastian Valley School Board:

1 Currently, school commences before most people even dream about waking up.
437. accumulate
get or gather together
You accumulate 2 bonus points with each cash purchase of one book.
438. logic
the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference
Evaluate the unity, coherence, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of text.
3.0
439. associate
bring or come into action
Describe the purpose, challenges, and economic incentives associated with westward expansion, including the concept of Manifest Destiny (e.g., the Lewis and Clark expedition, accounts of the removal of Indians, the Cherokees' "Trail of Tears," settlement of the Great Plains) and the territorial acquisitions that spanned numerous decades.
3.
440. funds
assets in the form of money
Jane Addams: A Woman of Character(1) When you think of women in history who have been true pioneers, the name
Jane Addams should come to mind. (2) In the late 1800s, she founded Hull House, an
institution called a settlement house, in Chicago, Illinois. (3) Hull House was established
as a resource for immigrants as well as for any other residents of Chicago in need of
assistance. (4) Its mission reflected the compassionate spirit of its founder, who had visited
a similar institution, ca...
441. host
a person who invites guests to a social event
I am sitting with a group in front of the fire when all of a sudden the
large mutt of the host appears in the archway.
442. battery
a collection of related things intended for use together
They do need a large, expensive battery bank; consequently, the cost of installation
can be high.

4 Hydropower which uses the movement of water to create energy, is less expensive
per kilowatt-hour than solar power and does not require a battery bank.
443. annually
by the year; every year
In addition, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).
444. scamper
run or move about quickly or lightly
He scampered hurriedly aboard.
445. replace
put something back where it belongs
Which word can best be used to replace the
word run without changing the meaning of the
sentence?
446. astronomical
relating to the branch of physics studying celestial bodies
Students know how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distances between the Sun, stars, and Earth.
d.
447. trunk
the main stem of a tree
The Third approached the animal,
20 And happening to take
The squirming trunk within his hands,
Thus boldly up and spake:
“I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant
Is very like a snake!”

25 The Fourth reached out an eager hand,
448. doctrine
a belief accepted as authoritative by some group or school
Know the changing boundaries of the United States and describe the relationships the country had with its neighbors (current Mexico and Canada) and Europe, including the influence of the Monroe Doctrine, and how those relationships influenced westward expansion and the Mexican-American War.
3.
449. preserve
keep in safety and protect from harm, loss, or destruction
Describe the principles of federalism, dual sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, the nature and purpose of majority rule, and the ways in which the American idea of constitutionalism preserves individual rights.
8.3
450. procedure
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
Students use properties of the number system to judge the validity of results, to justify each step of a procedure, and to prove or disprove statements:

25.1
451. nation
a politically organized body of people under a government
They learn about the challenges facing the new nation, with an emphasis on the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. They make connections between the rise of industrialization and contemporary social and economic conditions.
8.1
452. onslaught
an offensive against an enemy
As a result of his bravery, Carney was the first African American to receive the
Congressional Medal of Honor.
3 Almost half of the soldiers in the 54th Infantry Regiment were wounded or killed
in the onslaught at Fort Wagner.
453. communicate
transfer to another
Interpret and evaluate the various ways in which visual image makers (e.g., graphic artists, illustrators, news photographers) communicate information and affect impressions and opinions.
2.0
454. edit
prepare for publication or presentation by revising
Edit written manuscripts to ensure that correct grammar is used.
connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces
In this sentence, the word instead does not
456. removal
the act of taking out or causing to leave
Discuss the election of Andrew Jackson as president in 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and his actions as president (e.g., the spoils system, veto of the National Bank, policy of Indian removal, opposition to the Supreme Court).
2.
457. supreme
greatest in status or authority or power
Jackson's opposition to the National Bank; early decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court that reinforced the sanctity of contracts and a capitalist economic system of law).
4.
458. obnoxious
causing disapproval or protest
Jackson is athletic, graceful, obnoxious, and filled with conceit, while Hailey is slow, a little fat, and
gentle to her bones.

4 Jackson also has a truck neurosis.
459. breach
an opening, especially a gap in a dike or fortification
Teachers and schools should
traumatizing breach of privacy for students and families and it subjects students to harsh
judgments and treatment by their peers.
3 Since 1974, a law known as the Buckley Amendment has prohibited the release of
education records maintained by schools in order to preserve the privacy of students
and their families.
460. secession
formal separation from an alliance or federation
Identify the constitutional issues posed by the doctrine of nullification and secession and the earliest origins of that doctrine.
4.
461. length
the linear extent in space from one end to the other
B alternate the length of lines.
462. highlight
an area of lightness in a picture
Our catalog also contains such highlights as interviews with
your favorite authors, reviews of newly released novels, and a teen top-ten list for both fiction and nonfiction.
463. action
something done (usually as opposed to something said)
Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
2.2
464. soar
rise rapidly
Whenever a comet,
asteroid, or meteor takes a direct hit, your score will soar.
465. guarantee
an unconditional commitment that something will happen
Sun Veil Sunscreen is guaranteed 100% effective or your money back.
466. fund
a reserve of money set aside for some purpose
Understand how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties (e.g., view of foreign policy, Alien and Sedition Acts, economic policy, National Bank, funding and assumption of the revolutionary debt).
5.
467. approve
judge to be right or commendable; think well of
In addition to content, all items are reviewed and approved to
ensure their adherence to the principles of fairness and to ensure no bias exists with respect to characteristics
such as gender, ethnicity, and language.
468. debate
a discussion with reasons for and against some proposal
Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
4.
the quality of having a superior or more favorable position
Enumerate the advantages of a common market among the states as foreseen in and protected by the Constitution's clauses on interstate commerce, common coinage, and full-faith and credit.
4.
470. arrange
put into a proper or systematic order
Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments.
2.5
471. definition
a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase
Use word meanings within the appropriate context and show ability to verify those meanings by definition, restatement, example, comparison, or contrast.
2.0
472. accurate
characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth
Copyright © 2002 by The New York Times Company and Scholastic Inc. Reprinted bypermission of Scholastic Inc.
CSR1P150

 30 Which summary of paragraph 3 of Document A
is the most accurate?
473. reveal
make visible
Reveal the significance of, or the writer's attitude about, the subject.
c.
474. future
the time yet to come
Explain how the war affected combatants, civilians, the physical environment, and future warfare.
8.11
475. benefit
something that aids or promotes well-being
As our member, you can benefit from all of our super sales and our Bonus
Program.
476. clause
a separate section of a legal document
Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
4.
477. delight
a feeling of extreme pleasure or satisfaction
Picture of a beagle named "Murphy"
2 Murphy was the first dog I ever trained personally, and I was delighted at the enthusiasm with which he
took to the newspaper.
478. liberally
in a generous manner
DIRECTIONS:
Apply Sun Veil’s disappearing blue-colored sunblock liberally to completely cover all exposed
skin.
479. prior
earlier in time
Examine the characteristics of white Southern society and how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War.
4.
480. status
a state at a particular time
Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
4.