types:
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conceptualisation, conceptuality, conceptualization
an elaborated concept

notion
a general inclusive concept

category
a general concept that marks divisions or coordinations in a conceptual scheme

regulation, rule
a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior

attribute, dimension, property
a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished

abstract, abstraction
a concept or idea not associated with any specific instance

quantity
the concept that something has a magnitude and can be represented in mathematical expressions by a constant or a variable

division, part, section
one of the portions into which something is regarded as divided and which together constitute a whole

whole
all of something including all its component elements or parts

law, natural law
a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society

law, law of nature
a generalization that describes recurring facts or events in nature

lexicalized concept
a concept that is expressed by a word (in some particular language)

hypothesis, possibility, theory
a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena

fact
a concept whose truth can be proved

linguistic rule, rule
(linguistics) a rule describing (or prescribing) a linguistic practice

frame
one of the ten divisions into which bowling is divided

right
an abstract idea of that which is due to a person or governmental body by law or tradition or nature

perception
a way of conceiving something

mumpsimus
a traditional notion that is obstinately held although it is unreasonable

form, kind, sort, variety
a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality

pigeonhole
a specific (often simplistic) category

rubric
category name

way
a general category of things; used in the expression `in the way of'

limitation, restriction
a principle that limits the extent of something

guideline, guidepost, rule of thumb
a rule or principle that provides guidance to appropriate behavior

cy pres, cy pres doctrine, rule of cy pres
a rule that when literal compliance is impossible the intention of a donor or testator should be carried out as nearly as possible

working principle, working rule
a rule that is adequate to permit work to be done

character, lineament, quality
a characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something

characteristic, feature
a prominent attribute or aspect of something

feature, feature of speech
(linguistics) a distinctive characteristic of a linguistic unit that serves to distinguish it from other units of the same kind

absolute
something that is conceived or that exists independently and not in relation to other things; something that does not depend on anything else and is beyond human control; something that is not relative

teacher
a personified abstraction that teaches

thing
a special abstraction

quantum
a discrete amount of something that is analogous to the quantities in quantum theory

term
any distinct quantity contained in a polynomial

numerical quantity
a quantity expressed as a number

operand
a quantity upon which a mathematical operation is performed

variable, variable quantity
a quantity that can assume any of a set of values

constant, constant quantity, invariable
a quantity that does not vary

parameter
a quantity (such as the mean or variance) that characterizes a statistical population and that can be estimated by calculations from sample data

mathematical product, product
a quantity obtained by multiplication

amount, sum, total
a quantity obtained by the addition of a group of numbers

proportional
one of the quantities in a mathematical proportion

beginning
the first part or section of something

middle
an intermediate part or section

end
a final part or section

high point
the most enjoyable part of a given experience

component, constituent, element, factor, ingredient
an abstract part of something

unit
a single undivided whole

compound
a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts

complex, composite
a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts

divine law
a law that is believed to come directly from God

principle
a basic truth or law or assumption

allornone law
(neurophysiology) a nerve impulse resulting from a weak stimulus is just as strong as a nerve impulse resulting from a strong stimulus

principle, rule
a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system

Archimedes' principle, law of Archimedes
(hydrostatics) the apparent loss in weight of a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid

Avogadro's hypothesis, Avogadro's law
the principle that equal volumes of all gases (given the same temperature and pressure) contain equal numbers of molecules

Bernoulli's law, law of large numbers
(statistics) law stating that a large number of items taken at random from a population will (on the average) have the population statistics

Benford's law
a law used by auditors to identify fictitious populations of numbers; applies to any population of numbers derived from other numbers

BoseEinstein statistics
(physics) statistical law obeyed by a system of particles whose wave function is not changed when two particles are interchanged (the Pauli exclusion principle does not apply)

Boyle's law, Mariotte's law
the pressure of an ideal gas at constant temperature varies inversely with the volume

Coulomb's Law
a fundamental principle of electrostatics; the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged particles is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the distance between them; principle also holds for magnetic poles

Dalton's law, Dalton's law of partial pressures, law of partial pressures
(chemistry and physics) law stating that the pressure exerted by a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture; the pressure of a gas in a mixture equals the pressure it would exert if it occupied the same volume alone at the same temperature

distribution law
(chemistry) the total energy in an assembly of molecules is not distributed equally but is distributed around an average value according to a statistical distribution

equilibrium law, law of chemical equilibrium
(chemistry) the principle that (at chemical equilibrium) in a reversible reaction the ratio of the rate of the forward reaction to the rate of the reverse reaction is a constant for that reaction

Fechner's law, WeberFechner law
(psychophysics) the concept that the magnitude of a subjective sensation increases proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity; based on early work by E. H. Weber

FermiDirac statistics
(physics) law obeyed by a systems of particles whose wave function changes when two particles are interchanged (the Pauli exclusion principle applies)

Charles's law, GayLussac's law, law of volumes
(physics) the density of an ideal gas at constant pressure varies inversely with the temperature

Henry's law
(chemistry) law formulated by the English chemist William Henry; the amount of a gas that will be absorbed by water increases as the gas pressure increases

Hooke's law
(physics) the principle that (within the elastic limit) the stress applied to a solid is proportional to the strain produced

Hubble law, Hubble's law
(astronomy) the generalization that the speed of recession of distant galaxies (the red shift) is proportional to their distance from the observer

Kepler's law, Kepler's law of planetary motion
(astronomy) one of three empirical laws of planetary motion stated by Johannes Kepler

Kirchhoff's laws
(physics) two laws governing electric networks in which steady currents flow: the sum of all the currents at a point is zero and the sum of the voltage gains and drops around any closed circuit is zero

law of averages
a law affirming that in the long run probabilities will determine performance

law of constant proportion, law of definite proportions
(chemistry) law stating that every pure substance always contains the same elements combined in the same proportions by weight

law of diminishing returns
a law affirming that to continue after a certain level of performance has been reached will result in a decline in effectiveness

law of effect
(psychology) the principle that behaviors are selected by their consequences; behavior having good consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior that leads to bad consequences is not repeated

law of equivalent proportions, law of reciprocal proportions
(chemistry) law stating that the proportions in which two elements separately combine with a third element are also the proportions in which they combine together

Newton's law of gravitation, law of gravitation
(physics) the law that states any two bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

Dalton's law, law of multiple proportions
(chemistry) law stating that when two elements can combine to form more than one compound the amounts of one of them that combines with a fixed amount of the other will exhibit a simple multiple relation

law of mass action
(chemistry) the law that states the following principle: the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the molecular concentrations of the reacting substances

law of thermodynamics
(physics) a law governing the relations between states of energy in a closed system

Mendel's law
(genetics) one of two principles of heredity formulated by Gregor Mendel on the basis of his experiments with plants; the principles were limited and modified by subsequent genetic research

Newton's law, Newton's law of motion, law of motion
one of three basic laws of classical mechanics

Ohm's law
electric current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance; I = E/R

Pascal's law, Pascal's law of fluid pressures
pressure applied anywhere to a body of fluid causes a force to be transmitted equally in all directions; the force acts at right angles to any surface in contact with the fluid

Pauli exclusion principle, exclusion principle
no two electrons or protons or neutrons in a given system can be in states characterized by the same set of quantum numbers

Mendeleev's law, periodic law
(chemistry) the principle that chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

Planck's law
(physics) the basis of quantum theory; the energy of electromagnetic waves is contained in indivisible quanta that have to be radiated or absorbed as a whole; the magnitude is proportional to frequency where the constant of proportionality is given by Planck's constant

Planck's radiation law
(physics) an equation that expresses the distribution of energy in the radiated spectrum of an ideal black body

hypothetical
a hypothetical possibility, circumstance, statement, proposal, situation, etc.

gemmule
the physically discrete element that Darwin proposed as responsible for heredity

framework, model, theoretical account
a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process

conjecture, speculation
a hypothesis that has been formed by speculating or conjecturing (usually with little hard evidence)

assumption, supposal, supposition
a hypothesis that is taken for granted

principle of relativity
(physics) a universal law that states that the laws of mechanics are not affected by a uniform rectilinear motion of the system of coordinates to which they are referred

Stevens' law, Stevens' power law, power law
(psychophysics) the concept that the magnitude of a subjective sensation increases proportional to a power of the stimulus intensity

Weber's law
(psychophysics) the concept that a justnoticeable difference in a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus

binomial
(mathematics) a quantity expressed as a sum or difference of two terms; a polynomial with two terms

historicism
a theory that social and cultural events are determined by history

sound law
a law describing sound changes in the history of a language

linguistic universal, universal
(linguistics) a grammatical rule (or other linguistic feature) that is found in all languages

grammatical rule, rule of grammar
a linguistic rule for the syntax of grammatical utterances

morphological rule, rule of morphology
a linguistic rule for the formation of words

chukka, chukker
(polo) one of six divisions into which a polo match is divided

frame, inning
(baseball) one of nine divisions of play during which each team has a turn at bat

game
(tennis) a division of play during which one player serves

bout, round, turn
(sports) a division during which one team is on the offensive

first period
the first division into which the play of a game is divided

second period
the second division into which the play of a game is divided

final period
the final division into which the play of a game is divided

half
one of two divisions into which some games or performances are divided: the two divisions are separated by an interval

period
(ice hockey) one of three divisions into which play is divided in hockey games

quarter
(football, professional basketball) one of four divisions into which some games are divided

over
(cricket) the division of play during which six balls are bowled at the batsman by one player from the other team from the same end of the pitch