Individualism is all about taking care of yourself; it is the belief and practice that every person is unique and self-reliant. A belief in individualism also implies that you believe that the government should bud out of your individual affairs.
The concept of individualism is rooted in historical contexts where people’s personal differences were dismissed or even punished by the ruling body. In particular, the United States is known for having a strong bent towards individualism because it was founded by people who sought the freedom to practice whatever religion they chose. The counterpoints to individualism are socialism and communism (among others). Those who prefer individualism often site fear of governmental control over their life decisions as reason for that inclination.