Academic Word List words (Coxhead, 2000)

This list was compiled by Pamela Bogart at the University of Michigan English Language Institute. The list includes most of the 570 headwords of Averil Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List. The source of the words here is The definitions and examples come from selections made available by, unless noted otherwise.
The manually-added notes are examples for and from graduate students in various fields at the University of Michigan.
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Full list of words from this list:

  1. abandon
    forsake; leave behind
    As people abandon desktop computers for mobile ones, existing tech companies’ business models are being upended and new companies are blooming.
    Common academic collocations: abandon a hypothesis, abandon a line of research
    COCA ( indicates academic collocates include decision, efforts, position, policy...i couldn't find any examples in mechanical engineering, so this might be a verb used more in policy-related fields?
  2. abstract
    existing only in the mind
    The other group wrote in a more abstract, evaluative way, prompted by questions such as “Why did the event happen?Scientific American (Dec 28, 2012)
    Also a noun. the abstract of an article is a structured summary of its contents. We need to supply abstracts of conference presentations for the conference program or conference proposals sometimes too.
  3. access
    the right to enter
    But one reason may be, paradoxically, greater access to health insurance.
    I need to remember to pronounce the /k/ sound in the middle: AEK sess. If not, I sound like I'm saying the verb "assess"
  4. accommodate
    have room for; hold without crowding
    City clerks' offices around Maine scheduled extra office hours to accommodate same-sex couples rushing to wed.
    academic collocations: "accommodate needs," "designed to accommodate [something]" common nouns that collocate with this verb are "learning, changes, differences" (COCA at
  5. accompany
    go or travel along with
    Mr. Obama demands that any spending cuts be accompanied by revenue increases.
  6. accumulate
    get or gather together
    Business would still be left with record reserves, much higher than those accumulated in earlier recessions.
  7. acknowledge
    declare to be true or admit the existence or reality of
    Acknowledging differences in work style enables leaders to structure interactions better.
  8. acquire
    come into the possession of something concrete or abstract
    The design of the product resembles gadgets made by Nest Labs, the connected home company Google acquired earlier this year for $3.2 billion.Wall Street Journal (Sep 10, 2014)
    collocations: acquire a house, knowledge, experience
    q is /k/
    stress on QUIRE
    obtain, get, buy
    members of the word family: acquisition (mergers and acquisitions)
  9. adapt
    make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose
    Japanese officials said adapting overseas technologies presented a particular challenge.
  10. adequate
    having the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task
    Better said it had injected significant funds into the business "without adequate returns".
  11. adjust
    alter or regulate so as to conform to a standard
    The managers typically adjust their holdings based on algorithms and charts tracking trends in global markets.Wall Street Journal (Jan 6, 2013)
  12. advocate
    speak, plead, or argue in favor of
    He was probably best known for his work on heart disease, advocating prevention through exercise and diet, particularly foods low in animal fat and sodium.
  13. affect
    have an influence upon
    Would adding this data to someone's medical record affect health insurance rates?Slate (Jan 7, 2013)
  14. aggregate
    a sum total of many heterogeneous things taken together
    Using data from Twitter covering 60,000 trips, aggregated within a ten mile radius, Fischer created this map of Europe's transport network.
  15. allocate
    distribute according to a plan or set apart for a purpose
    Existing x86 processor designs allocate cache on a first come, first served basis, which allows some workloads to monopolize the shared pool.Forbes (Sep 10, 2014)
    allocate resources
  16. alter
    cause to change; make different
    Yet scientists have struggled to understand whether climate change is altering that cycle.Scientific American (Jan 4, 2013)
  17. ambiguous
    having more than one possible meaning
    The fourth is currently classified as probable case and his infection status may remain ambiguous.Scientific American (Dec 5, 2012)
  18. analogy
    drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity
    While both air travel and pipelines are safer than their road alternatives, the analogy only extends so far.Scientific American (Nov 16, 2012)
  19. annual
    occurring every year
    What are the annual sales of electric vehicles in India?Forbes (Jan 7, 2013)
  20. anticipate
    regard something as probable or likely
    “We anticipate some potential short-term disruption,” Mr. Morton said, “but no significant long-term implications.”
  21. apparent
    clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment
    The report of Rain's apparent romance with popular South Korean actress Kim Tae-hee, 32, broke in local media on Tuesday.
  22. append
    fix to; attach
    The hashtag has been appended to quite a few approving tweets.
  23. appreciate
    be fully aware of; realize fully
    There are, of course, plenty of things to appreciate about Downton.
  24. approach
    ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem
    He said a better understanding of the links between high blood pressure and dementia could be crucial for developing new treatments or approaches to prevention.
  25. appropriate
    suitable for a particular person, place, or situation
    Mr. Frederick said “that kind of legal strategy is perfectly appropriate.”
  26. approximate
    judge tentatively or form an estimate of
    Food technology means they aren't bad these days, but they're only going to approximate the real thing.
  27. arbitrary
    based on or subject to individual discretion or preference
    His works are often intentionally placed in unglamorous, arbitrary surroundings like abandoned buildings, far from the sleek world of urban galleries.
  28. aspect
    a characteristic to be considered
    He will oversee all aspects of marketing for the company, including advertising, brand management, social media, and communications, LivingSocial said on Tuesday.
  29. assess
    estimate the nature, quality, ability or significance of
    Another complexity: most studies assess maternal drinking through interviews, and pregnant women might lie about or underestimate their consumption out of embarrassment or shame.Scientific American (Jan 4, 2013)
  30. assign
    select something or someone for a specific purpose
    A larger staff has been assigned to the school, she said, including mental health professionals.
  31. assume
    take to be the case or to be true
    The market, it is generally assumed, will eventually drive up wages.
  32. attach
    be in contact with
    “Indonesians are religious people, they are very much attached to their religious teachings, their religious values,” he said.
  33. attain
    gain with effort
    He joined the Army near the end of and attained the rank of staff sergeant, remaining in the United States.
  34. attribute
    a quality belonging to or characteristic of an entity
    Ms. Ora attributes much of her fashion education to her surroundings.
  35. authority
    the power or right to give orders or make decisions
    Soccer authorities have been helping those banned with getting back on their feet and finding a way back into society.
  36. behalf
    as the agent of or on someone's part
    The husband sits in the dominant, protective role, watching his wife’s efforts on behalf of the family and taking pride.
  37. bias
    a partiality preventing objective consideration of an issue
    More than 300 political parties contested the last general elections, representing various concerns, biases, cries for justice and pressure groups.
  38. brief
    give essential information to someone
    “Flu vaccines are tough,” Bresee said during a telephone briefing with reporters.
  39. bulk
    the property possessed by a large mass
    Across Portugal, supermarkets and hypermarkets, with their inexpensive packaged goods and bulk items, continued to gain ground.
  40. capable
    having ability
    As John Stuart Mill emphasized many years ago, those who are capable of supporting themselves should not rely on the habitual aid of others.
  41. capacity
    capability to perform or produce
    “The hospitals treating the injured are at maximum capacity.
  42. cease
    put an end to a state or an activity
    The company said it was also temporarily ceasing sales of modern sporting rifles nationwide.
  43. channel
    transmit or serve as the medium for transmission
    Options include channeling more funds to the banking sector to boost lending, buying government bonds on the secondary market and even reducing foreign currency reserves.
  44. chart
    a visual display of information
    In some countries, including the largest developing economies in Asia, the G.D.P. charts show no indication that bad things ever happened.
  45. cite
    make reference to
    The ratings agency cited India's high saving and investment rates, relatively competitive private sector and diverse economy as rationale behind its decision.
  46. civil
    of or occurring between or among citizens of the state
    What followed, officials said, was a remarkable show of international cooperation over Syria's civil war.
  47. clarify
    make clear and comprehensible
    He later clarified his meaning and said the media had his misconstrued his comments.
  48. classic
    of recognized authority or excellence
    “The Blue Angel,” adapted from Heinrich Mann’s novel “Small Town Tyrant,” is a cinema classic that made Marlene Dietrich a star.
  49. code
    a set of rules or principles or laws
    France's Civil Code says one must have another nationality in order to give up French citizenship because it is forbidden to be stateless.New York Times (Jan 3, 2013)
  50. coherent
    marked by an orderly and consistent relation of parts
    That leadership vacuum, Mr. Bealefeld and others said, has inevitably depleted morale and kept the agency from developing a coherent agenda.
  51. coincide
    happen simultaneously
    The cutbacks in education and growing youth unemployment coincide with two demographic crises facing European governments.
  52. collapse
    break down, literally or metaphorically
    The collapse of Latvia’s largest bank in 1995 wiped out many people’s savings.
  53. commence
    set in motion, cause to start
    Training commences with what is known as a “warm welcome.”New York Times (Jun 24, 2012)
  54. commission
    a special group delegated to consider some matter
    The commission collected evidence that showed the authorities discussed covering up killings, including by quickly burying the bodies of victims.
  55. commit
    give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause
    A lawyer for the medical examiner’s office, Mimi Mairs, said the agency had committed to “leaving no stone unturned in recalling casework she touched.”
  56. communicate
    interchange information or ideas
    By introducing the rating system to games that rely on digital distribution, Vance said, developers will be able to better communicate their nature to consumers.
  57. community
    group of interdependent organisms living in the same region
    In November, Hurricane Sandy devastated entire communities in coastal New York and New Jersey and killed over 100 people.
  58. compatible
    able to exist and perform in harmonious combination
    Starting in late June, a system that sends emergency alerts via texts began operating on compatible cellphones.New York Times (Aug 14, 2012)
  59. compensate
    make amends for
    The German government has already compensated Jews who were forced to work in the ghettos.
  60. compile
    get or gather together
    Mobile video calling has risen so quickly that industry analysts have not yet compiled exact numbers.
  61. complement
    something added to embellish or make perfect
    Third, in 2008-9, monetary and fiscal policies were complemented by government capital injections directly into United States and European banks.New York Times (Aug 11, 2011)
  62. component
    one of the individual parts making up a larger entity
    Avoiding turnovers, hitting the offensive boards and getting to the free throw line are all key components of an efficient offense.
  63. compound
    a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts
    The New England Compounding Center was shut down, and inspections found extensive contamination.
  64. comprehensive
    including all or everything
    Comprehensive investigative reports for the four equine fatalities from the inner track meet are being completed by board staff.”
  65. comprise
    be made of
    Peck, though, was surprised to learn the other team nicknames used in his league, which was comprised entirely of white men.Washington Post (Jun 27, 2012)
  66. conceive
    have the idea for
    This strategy, while not entirely random, was hardly well conceived.New York Times (May 21, 2012)
  67. concentrate
    make denser, stronger, or purer
    Mostly we were silent, concentrating on our steps, but occasionally we would chat.
  68. concept
    an abstract or general idea inferred from specific instances
    There is little technical artistry involved, the focus instead on simple concepts and difficult execution.
  69. conclude
    bring to a close
    Taken together, the reports have led analysts to conclude that after years of being an economic drag, housing is now contributing to economic growth.
  70. concurrent
    occurring or operating at the same time
    Problem solving was concurrent with physical effort, so the brain must have adapted by developing appropriate regions to enhance neurocognition.New York Times (Sep 15, 2010)
  71. conduct
    the way a person behaves toward other people
    For years, lawmakers, urged by the NRA, have placed so-called riders on spending bills that restrict these and other agencies from conducting such research.
  72. confer
    have a meeting in order to talk something over
    He especially prefers having a radiologist on-site because he believes that conferring in person helps prevent mistaken readings and gets quicker results.
  73. confine
    place limits on
    Is erotic sculpture confined to temples or particular religious cults?
  74. confirm
    establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts
    The identities have yet to be officially confirmed, he said.
  75. conform
    be similar, be in line with
    In other words, they conformed to feminine stereotypes.
  76. consent
    give an affirmative reply to; respond favorably to
    Companies also must get parental consent before using tracking tools such as cookies that peek into children’s IP addresses and device identification numbers.
  77. considerable
    large in number, amount, extent, or degree
    In other words, the trial court wanted to treat the mass media like a public utility, which carried considerable consequences.
  78. consist
    have its essential character
    They consist of arms, elbows and very long finger bones connected by two layers of thin skin.
  79. constant
    uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing
    False reviews are a constant problem on consumer Web sites.
  80. constitute
    form or compose
    The FDA said it is also working on proposed safety regulations targeting imported food – which constitutes 15% of what’s eaten in the U.S.
  81. constrain
    hold back
    Constrained school budgets are likely to prevent any mass hiring or arming of security officers.
  82. construct
    make by combining materials and parts
    He wanted and received some honest feedback to help construct a game plan that would put them in better positions to succeed.
  83. consult
    get or ask advice from
    She said she had decided to step down after consulting family members and friends.
  84. consume
    use up, as resources or materials
    The technology in theory allows for thinner screens that consume less power.
  85. contact
    be in or establish communication with
    Beck made eye contact with me and nodded.
  86. contemporary
    belonging to the present time
    There is, in other words, much to appreciate about contemporary movies this year.
  87. context
    the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation
    Geological Survey has posted some useful context and interpretation.
  88. contract
    a binding agreement that is enforceable by law
    Other league business will also resume, including trades and contract signings.
  89. contradict
    prove negative; show to be false
    The C.I.A.’s acting director, Michael Morell, recently contradicted that, saying harsh techniques did produce some tips that led to Bin Laden.
  90. contrary
    exact opposition
    On the contrary, he wrote, such clauses are used in most debt restructuring exercises, and investors “would expect Greece to use it.”
  91. contribute
    give to some cause
    In 2009, researchers at Mount Sinai Medical Center reported finding evidence suggesting that the chemicals may also contribute to obesity in girls.
  92. controversy
    a dispute where there is strong disagreement
    But the performance has been clouded by controversy.
  93. convene
    meet formally
    One week later, the sides convened again with federal mediators in New Jersey, but still couldn't make progress.New York Times (Dec 29, 2012)
  94. converse
    carry on a discussion
    But people in traditional societies converse constantly, learning from one another and sharing.
  95. convert
    change the nature, purpose, or function of something
    Let us embrace book shelves that convert to dining room tables.
  96. convince
    make realize the truth or validity of something
    They are still not convinced of Mr. Bozizé’s good will.
  97. cooperate
    work together on a common enterprise or project
    We are cooperating with authorities and conducting a full internal investigation.
  98. core
    the choicest or most vital part of some idea or experience
    College admission personnel will focus on your performance in this year's core academic classes.
  99. correspond
    be compatible, similar, or consistent
    Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had made the temporary cease-fire by Israel’s airplanes conditional on a corresponding halt to rocket fire from Gaza.
  100. create
    bring into existence
    What started as a few coins to buy one hen ends up creating jobs for people all over Ghana.
  101. criterion
    the ideal in terms of which something can be judged
    Regulators say lenders must consider at least eight criteria, including a borrower’s credit history, debt obligations, employment status, income and assets.
  102. crucial
    of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis
    Developing Internet programming is a crucial part of Sony’s future, he said.
  103. culture
    a particular society at a particular time and place
    “It was really mixed cultures growing up,” she said.
  104. currency
    the metal or paper medium of exchange that is presently used
    The main move in currency markets Tuesday was a stronger yen.Wall Street Journal (Jan 7, 2013)
  105. cycle
    a periodically repeated sequence of events
    But real estate tends to move in longer cycles, and Mr. Case is still saying now is a good time to buy.
  106. debate
    a discussion with reasons for and against some proposal
    “Political capital in the gun debate only goes so far.
  107. decade
    a period of 10 years
    Decades ago, Andrews whittled wood, watching the shavings fall away to reveal something recognizable.
  108. decline
    grow worse
    But there will be less dancing now, because the chickens’ numbers have declined.
  109. deduce
    conclude by reasoning
    Looking at a map later, I deduced that this one was private too.New York Times (Nov 30, 2011)
  110. define
    show the form or outline of
    Relative greatness can be tricky to define across tennis eras.
  111. definite
    precise; explicit and clearly defined
    While there are no definite plans yet, “we are looking to broaden our outreach beyond New York,” said Terry Lynam, a spokesman for North Shore.New York Times (Mar 8, 2012)
  112. demonstrate
    give an exhibition of to an interested audience
    “Over a century of experience in the United States has demonstrated the powerful role women’s colleges play in educating women leaders.”
  113. denote
    be a sign or indication of
    Heard in that light, the work’s agonized gestures, halting pace and tense silences denoted courage and ineffable dignity.New York Times (Mar 12, 2012)
  114. deny
    declare untrue; contradict
    Both the military and Mr. Qadri have publicly denied working together.
  115. depress
    push down
    "It was the most depressing meeting ever," said one attendee who spoke on the condition of anonymity.
  116. derive
    come from
    He said his son was "a very simple person at heart" who " derives pleasures from simple things in life."
  117. design
    the act of working out the form of something
    The previous models had identical designs that made it easier for bump drafting because the front and rear bumpers lined up squarely.New York Times (Jan 12, 2013)
  118. detect
    discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of
    But soon enough, they detected something wrong, not least that Mr. Holmes was apparently trying to conceal a handgun.
  119. device
    an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose
    Mr. Scal said wireless fitness devices were becoming popular because they address basic needs for consumers, unlike another trend seen at the show, enormous televisions.
  120. devote
    He says movies based on video games rarely please devoted fans and could taint the brand.
  121. differentiate
    be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait
    “Whirlpool’s key differentiating points are quality and innovation,” said Mr. Beck, and “the icing is that, hey, we’re made in the United States.”
  122. dimension
    a construct distinguishing objects or individuals
    And then there are Houston’s narrow field dimensions, a factor in United’s struggles this year.
  123. diminish
    decrease in size, extent, or range
    The market malfunctions have been assigned part of the blame for the diminishing amount of trading happening on the nation’s stock exchanges.
  124. discrete
    constituting a separate entity or part
    The film’s narrative is divided into discrete chapters and told out of chronological sequence.New York Times (Dec 12, 2011)
  125. displace
    cause to move, usually with force or pressure
    “There are these young guys in the camps, very well dressed, that are definitely not displaced persons,” Mr. Goffeau said.
  126. display
    something intended to communicate a particular impression
    Eighty of his black-and-white photographs, taken over a 70-year period, will be on display in this exhibition.
  127. dispose
    throw or cast away
    Food trash has to be disposed of immediately, the futon tucked into its slot every morning, each object stored after use.
  128. distinct
    recognizable; marked
    The small plant in Montreal is divided into two distinct operations.
  129. distort
    twist and press out of shape
    But he insists that his work has been intentionally distorted by critics.
  130. distribute
    give to several people
    Mr. Guevara said he believed the institute should stop producing films and be limited to, say, renting out sets and distributing movies.
  131. diverse
    distinctly dissimilar or unlike
    “They represent what New York City is all about: a truly diverse melting pot.”
  132. document
    writing that provides information
    The document showed that the containers originated in Iran and declared the contents to be “building materials.”
  133. domain
    territory over which rule or control is exercised
    He said China’s claims included an area that was “clearly part of the Philippines’ territory and maritime domain.”
  134. dominate
    be in control
    The Chinese economy remains dominated by manufacturing and factory overcapacity still exists in some sectors.
  135. draft
    any of the various versions in the development of a work
    Rethinking Those Words for Screen Any writer knows the sinking feeling: This line, this draft, this entire project, is not quite working.
  136. drama
    a work intended for performance by actors on a stage
    She studied art, music and drama in high school and later attended Compton Community College.
  137. duration
    the period of time during which something continues
    The researchers also found that short sleep duration and snoring were each independently associated with a greater likelihood of sleepy driving.
  138. economy
    the system of production and distribution and consumption
    The Chinese economy remains dominated by manufacturing and factory overcapacity still exists in some sectors.
  139. element
    one of the individual parts making up a composite entity
    The importance of employment for former fighters is acknowledged as an important element of keeping them from picking up arms again.
  140. eliminate
    end, take out, or do away with
    School districts have reported eliminating thousands of jobs, increasing class sizes and reducing library services and other programs.
  141. emerge
    come out into view, as from concealment
    But an emerging labor shortage, particularly of young workers, has changed that picture.
  142. emphasis
    special importance or significance
    Instead, Mr. Langston explained, the emphasis is on using existing geriatricians as educators and consultants for the generalist physicians who will actually treat older patients.
  143. empirical
    derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
    The precise impact can only be determined by careful analysis unencumbered by dogmatic beliefs not anchored in empirical results.
  144. enable
    provide the means to perform some task
    New technologies have raised productivity and profits, while enabling companies to shed workers and slice payroll.
  145. encounter
    a casual or unexpected convergence
    Mr. Reimer also reported that both diesel engines shut off around this time, Mr. Sumwalt said, though he encountered no problems with steering.
  146. enforce
    compel to behave in a certain way
    These rules were strictly enforced using the flight recording equipment they carried.
  147. enhance
    make better or more attractive
    Happily, the field is evolving in ways that may enhance safety.
  148. enormous
    extraordinarily large in size or extent or degree
    Some exhibits designed by Gallagher & Associates are less enticing, including enormous interactive video databases.
  149. ensure
    make certain of
    The Interior Department remains focused on ensuring safe drilling rather than barring drilling off Alaska’s coast.
  150. entity
    that which is perceived to have its own distinct existence
    He said about half of all companies today were structured as so-called pass-through entities.
  151. environment
    the totality of surrounding conditions
    “I would rather him be in a classroom environment,” Ms. Allen said.
  152. equate
    consider or describe as similar or analogous
    Bacon said physical activity was important to good health but might not necessarily equate with weight loss.
  153. equip
    provide with, usually for a specific purpose
    Some are getting rid of checkout lanes and registers altogether in favor of roaming clerks equipped with mobile devices, for instance.
  154. equivalent
    being essentially comparable to something
    And 100 half-time employees are considered equivalent to 50 full-time employees.
  155. erode
    become ground down or deteriorate
    “The state’s historical lack of spending has had an eroding effect on the district,” he said.
  156. establish
    set up or found
    The most recent one was established by Ford Motors in Mountain View, Calif., in June.
  157. estate
    extensive landed property retained by the owner
    Today he earns his living in the real estate market niche known as A.R.V., for “after repair value.”
  158. estimate
    judge tentatively
    By some estimates, half of the nation’s health care plans are run by companies in the Nashville area.
  159. ethic
    the principles of right and wrong for an individual or group
    Professor Gillers, the legal ethics expert, agreed, saying the ethics rules do not forbid paying for information.
  160. ethnic
    distinctive of the ways of living of a group of people
    A vibrant ethnic melting pot, Marseille is also home to an increasing number of contemporary art and avant-garde performances.
  161. evaluate
    estimate the nature, quality, ability or significance of
    On Wednesday, his office released a statement saying the public prosecutor would evaluate the commission’s findings.
  162. eventual
    expected to follow in the indefinite future
    As the U.S. economic recovery gains traction, investors also are trying to factor in an eventual end to the Fed's fiscal stimulus.Wall Street Journal (Jan 8, 2013)
  163. evident
    clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment
    In addition, the report’s loss estimates are somewhat surprising given that the loans it examined were made after the mortgage crisis became evident.
  164. evolve
    undergo development
    “This is an evolving and emerging threat,” he said.
  165. exceed
    be superior or better than some standard
    An earlier review by the commission found that credit card tips exceeded 20 percent in fall 2009.
  166. exclude
    prevent from entering; shut out
    The most rigorous Drug Free Sport testing panel excludes drugs like peptide hormones, stimulants, narcotics and many masking agents.
  167. exhibit
    show; make visible or apparent
    Some exhibits designed by Gallagher & Associates are less enticing, including enormous interactive video databases.
  168. expand
    make bigger or wider in size, volume, or quantity
    American economic output has continued to expand at a sluggish pace.
  169. expert
    a person with special knowledge who performs skillfully
    But even so, such controls have some benefits, public health experts say.
  170. explicit
    precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable
    And then there’s the film’s explicit subject matter.
  171. exploit
    use or manipulate to one's advantage
    But their potential in other subject areas is already being exploited.
  172. export
    sell or transfer abroad
    Such findings have implications for national export officials.
  173. expose
    show; make visible or apparent
    Empty picture frames hang on exposed brick walls, blank as the mind.
  174. external
    happening or arising outside some limits or surface
    External demand seems to be holding up better than we had thought,” Mr. Moëc said.
  175. extract
    remove, usually with some force or effort
    Green tea extracts, more richly concentrated with EGCG, may not be much better.
  176. facilitate
    make easier
    “We have seen over and over again that states are very eager to facilitate direct investment promotion efforts,” Mr. Riskind said.
  177. factor
    anything that contributes causally to a result
    So other factors, such as genetics, may be more important for human longevity.
  178. feature
    a prominent attribute or aspect of something
    The organic results featured several Nike entries and various shoe retailers, but no comparison shopping sites, at least not on the first page.
  179. federal
    of a government with central and regional authorities
    Currently, people using the card get only one free withdrawal per deposit of federal funds.
  180. finance
    the commercial activity of providing funds and capital
    Some of the student exchanges are financed by the Erasmus Program, while others rely on joint agreements.
  181. finite
    bounded in magnitude or spatial or temporal extent
    But a broken bone, unlike stretched ligaments, usually heals completely in a finite period of time.
  182. flexible
    able to adjust readily to different conditions
    Where screens are concerned, apparently, the future remains flexible.
  183. fluctuate
    move or sway in a rising and falling or wavelike pattern
    This create a fluctuating magnetic field that generates heat without physical contact.
  184. focus
    the concentration of attention or energy on something
    The second half focused on specific 20th-century songs in the Gilbert and Sullivan style.
  185. format
    the organization of data according to preset specifications
    What customers are now seeing reflects changes in the format of Google results.
  186. formula
    a symbolic representation of the composition of a compound
    One former member of the DNA Subcommittee said he was concerned the formula was based on assumptions, not practice.
  187. forthcoming
    easygoing and open when speaking or sharing information
    Reflecting on the match Broad outlined the problem clearly enough but was less forthcoming about the likely solution.
    "Forthcoming" also implies that someone will say something that others might be reluctant to say, or that the context might suggest one would be uncomfortable saying.
  188. foundation
    education or instruction in the fundamentals of a field
    The foundation has grown, supporting visual as well as performing artists and changing its name to the Foundation for Contemporary Arts.
  189. framework
    the underlying structure
    The ratings firm said that the unpredictable nature of the policy framework in Europe is weighing on Spain's credit rating.Wall Street Journal (Oct 11, 2012)
  190. function
    what something is used for
    Her best works function like brilliant collages, creating meaning through idiosyncratic constellations of references and concepts.
  191. fund
    a reserve of money set aside for some purpose
    A year later, he and other enthusiasts received a state charter to start collecting funds and archival material.
  192. fundamental
    serving as an essential component
    “Providing access to the fundamental technology is entirely different,” he said in an e-mail Friday.
  193. furthermore
    in addition
    Furthermore, the train in Europe or Asia is likely to have traveled at much higher speed.
  194. gender
    properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of sex
    Thousands marching for gender justice on New Years eve.
    The definitions of gender lack a common academic use of the word in sociology, anthropology, and other social sciences to denote the socially constructed category of gender identity, e.g. what it means to be "male" or "female" and how something in-between is silently categorized as abnormal.
  195. generate
    bring into existence
    But China is not particularly interested in sharing much of the wealth the railroad would generate.
  196. generation
    a coming into being
    Among them: research showing that boomers are giving their time to community groups at higher rates than past generations.
  197. globe
    an object with a spherical shape
    Some artists have created somewhat darker snow globes.
  198. goal
    the state of affairs that a plan is intended to achieve
    Goals can be extremely effective, depending on how people set and approach them,” he says.
  199. grade
    a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality
    In all, 17,000 students and more than 1,100 teachers would be affected by closings, program changes and new grade configurations.
  200. grant
    allow to have
    The change is allowed under a "local option" granted by the church's General Convention, church leaders said.New York Times (Jan 9, 2013)
  201. guarantee
    an unconditional commitment that something will happen
    He found his previous job within 30 days, picking up a year’s guaranteed contract work in Hartford.
  202. guideline
    a rule that provides direction for appropriate behavior
    Hang gliding became safer as technology improved and training guidelines were established.
  203. hierarchy
    a series of ordered groupings within a system
    Hyenas live in huge social groups called clans that are structured by a “linear dominance hierarchy.”Scientific American (Nov 29, 2012)
  204. highlight
    move into the foreground to make more visible or prominent
    One particularly striking finding in their analysis highlights the power that comes with drawing the maps.
  205. hypothesis
    a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
    His hypothesis was neglected for many years because the methodology for detecting such chemical factors in the living embryo was not yet available.Scientific American (Jan 3, 2013)
  206. identical
    being the exact same one
    The previous models had identical designs that made it easier for bump drafting because the front and rear bumpers lined up squarely.New York Times (Jan 11, 2013)
  207. identify
    give the name or characteristics of
    The spokeswoman declined to be identified by name, citing company policy.
  208. ideology
    an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group
    Unfortunately, some United States officials are so captured or captivated by the ideology of modern banking that they want to play along.
  209. ignorance
    the lack of knowledge or education
    One thing I felt keenly while reading was the ignorance of even great minds, based on when they lived in history.New York Times (Jun 6, 2012)
  210. illustrate
    depict with a visual representation
    Investigators have so far not linked any historical pipeline problems to malicious cyberactivity, but software malfunctions have illustrated the potential threat.
  211. image
    a visual representation produced on a surface
    Images of a hang glider soaring through the Grand Canyon were offset by reports of dozens of pilots dying each year in accidents.
  212. immigrate
    come into a new country and change residency
    When Mr. Salomon was 19, he immigrated to the United States; his father worked in a factory in New York City.
  213. impact
    have an effect upon
    Whatever the economic impact of low interest rates, they seem to be helping corporate America.
  214. implement
    apply in a manner consistent with its purpose or design
    The big idea: Many business leaders struggle with implementing strategic change.
  215. implicate
    bring into intimate and incriminating connection
    The cases involving big banks, he said, lacked sufficient evidence implicating C.E.Os.
  216. implicit
    suggested though not directly expressed
    But he said there was an implicit understanding that high-ranking officials were off limits.
  217. imply
    express or state indirectly
    Foreign exchange reserves have remained largely static for 18 months, implying that the Chinese central bank has made no major intervention in the currency.
  218. impose
    compel to behave in a certain way
    Similar restrictions have been imposed by the United Kingdom, Chile and Brazil.
  219. incentive
    a positive motivational influence
    But using generous economic incentives and relying on conventions has been called an outdated economic strategy.
  220. incidence
    the relative frequency of occurrence of something
    “The incidences are higher and it’s more threatening,” he said.New York Times (Jun 28, 2012)
  221. incline
    lower or bend, as in a nod or bow
    Corporations are generally inclined to settle potential cases because even being indicted can cripple business.
  222. income
    the amount of money one makes over a period of time
    Even if income tax rates are higher later, I think the tax deferral” makes up for that increase.
  223. incorporate
    unite or merge with something already in existence
    Clinton said he incorporated both of Obama’s suggestions — “He was right!” exclaimed the former president.Washington Post (Sep 12, 2012)
  224. indicate
    designate a place, direction, person, or thing
    Instead, he indicated he might have some inside information on who will be.
  225. individual
    being or characteristic of a single thing or person
    “Everybody needs to put individual thoughts behind them,” Smith said.
  226. induce
    cause to act in a specified manner
    Ms. Ortega was not in a medically induced coma.
  227. inevitable
    incapable of being avoided or prevented
    But, he said, “In time, as society becomes more comfortable and legal concerns are ironed out, full autonomy will become practical, inevitable and necessary.”
  228. infer
    conclude by reasoning
    From this they inferred that infants comprehend the cartoon character’s perspective, Dr. Endress said.New York Times (Jan 3, 2011)
  229. infrastructure
    the basic features of a system or organization
    Mongolia’s vast grasslands have long attracted adventure travelers, particularly those willing to go on horseback, but a limited tourism infrastructure has kept numbers low.
  230. inherent
    existing as an essential constituent or characteristic
    But all predictions based on computer projections have inherent uncertainties.
  231. inhibit
    limit the range or extent of
    However, she said that the respondents might have been inhibited in answering because their interviews were carried out in front of other family members.
  232. initial
    occurring at the beginning
    In fact, Emery still has initial interviews scheduled.
  233. initiate
    set in motion, start an event or prepare the way for
    In the last half-dozen presidential campaigns, the news media have attempted to bring more accountability by initiating ad watches and fact checks.
  234. injure
    cause damage or affect negatively
    Players saw Smith benched two months ago because he admitted he was injured.
  235. innovate
    bring something new to an environment
    They are really looking for someone to innovate in nutrition and hunger solutions.
  236. insert
    put or introduce into something
    He said he tried unsuccessfully to insert renovations into Lincoln Center’s master plan, “but basically the program was over.”
  237. insight
    clear or deep perception of a situation
    But he found that being calm, clear and compassionate gave him better insights and better timing.
  238. inspect
    look over carefully
    Accredited outside auditors inspected the factory on Walmart’s behalf at least twice in 2011, he said.
  239. instance
    an item of information that is typical of a class or group
    Research has found, for instance, that Indian mothers tend to breast-feed boys longer than they do girls, Ms. Anderson said.
  240. institute
    set up or lay the groundwork for
    The Electric Power Research Institute has some advice, none of it encouraging.
    There is an additional meaning of "institute" not raised in, that is, to implement.
  241. instruct
    impart skills or knowledge to
    He is not technically an assistant coach, but he helps instruct the quarterbacks.
  242. integral
    existing as an essential constituent or characteristic
    As this season has gone on, it has become more integral in Seattle's offense.
  243. integrate
    make into a whole or make part of a whole
    This mission is complicated by the fact that Moscow’s ruling class is, in fact, already deeply integrated into Western Europe.
  244. integrity
    an undivided or unbroken completeness with nothing wanting
    Engineers determined that weaker ones were originally installed, raising concerns about the structure’s integrity.
  245. intelligence
    the ability to comprehend
    He also noted that to carry out commando raids, the American military needs bases, an intelligence network and arrangements for medical evacuation.
  246. intense
    extremely sharp
    “Currently in China people are unusually sensitive to developments like this, and so the reaction has been quite intense,” Mr. Zhan said.
  247. interact
    do something together or with others
    He clearly enjoyed interacting with sports fans of Chicago he respects.
  248. intermediate
    around the middle of a scale of evaluation
    Has also assumed a bigger role in the passing game, primarily at the intermediate levels.
  249. internal
    located inward
    The Internal Revenue Service issued guidance to employers to increase withholding from paychecks beginning Tuesday to match new tax rates at every income level.
  250. interpret
    make sense of; assign a meaning to
    But people do interpret and observe religion differently and, as Celtics Coach Doc Rivers noted, a fair number of folks “do work on Christmas.”
  251. interval
    the distance between things
    Players who sustained head injuries also received scans at three intervals after the injuries, with researchers using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques.
  252. intervene
    get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action
    Meanwhile, financial markets remain focused on how the European Central Bank might actually go about intervening in government bond markets.New York Times (Aug 20, 2012)
  253. intrinsic
    belonging to a thing by its very nature
    Roughly speaking, some Christian thinkers believe animals have intrinsic rights to be treated well, like people.New York Times (Oct 15, 2011)
  254. investigate
    conduct an inquiry of
    Police detectives are investigating several thefts in at least two precincts that appear to include the same suspects, said Sgt.
  255. invoke
    cite as an authority
    Yet the concepts invoked are often abstract, requiring reflection and explanation.
  256. involve
    contain as a part
    Another United States Attorney’s office could reopen that investigation, several lawyers involved in the case said, although that is unlikely.
  257. isolate
    place or set apart
    That damage would have been reduced by about two-thirds if controllers in Houston isolated the rupture as soon as problems emerged, investigators said.
  258. issue
    some situation or event that is thought about
    The big issues that Nokia faces, he said, are “managing efficiently, building great products and changing the way we operate.
  259. journal
    a periodical dedicated to a particular subject
    The findings were published online January 10 in the Journal of Breath Research.Scientific American (Jan 11, 2013)
  260. justify
    show to be right by providing proof
    Justifying her sentence, she noted that the men were driven by financial motives and difficult family circumstances rather than ideology.
  261. label
    a brief description given for purposes of identification
    Ms. Lutz, the Living Essentials spokeswoman, said the bold “No Crash Later” statement on product labels was followed by a special mark.
  262. layer
    a single thickness of some substance or material
    “If Disney can drive more value from existing infrastructure by layering on technology, that is extremely powerful,” said Mr. Brown of Lo-Q.
  263. lecture
    an educational talk delivered by a teacher in a classroom
    But each year, Mr. Wright gives a lecture on his experiences as a parent of a child with special needs.
  264. legal
    established by or founded upon law or official rules
    As required by state law, the patient’s legal guardian was notified, along with local law enforcement.
  265. legislate
    make laws or bills
    But the recently introduced Lisbon Treaty has widened the scope for Brussels to ask member nations to legislate on criminal matters.New York Times (Dec 8, 2010)
  266. locate
    determine the place of by searching or examining
    But no one has ever thought that the fountain might be located beneath a house in Maine.
  267. maintain
    keep in a certain state, position, or activity
    Mr. Sprecher indicated that he was willing to maintain two headquarters, ICE's home in Atlanta and the Big Board's center in New York City.
  268. major
    greater in number or size or amount
    Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. also is meeting separately Thursday with major gun retailers, including Wal-Mart.
  269. manipulate
    influence or control shrewdly or deviously
    As the financial crisis was heating up, Barclays said it manipulated rates to increase profits and hide its failing financial health.
  270. manual
    of or relating to the hands
    However, back at the other office, Mr. Tuli did point out an engineer who was translating manuals for companies assembling DataWind tablets in China.
  271. margin
    the boundary line or area immediately inside the boundary
    The new military spending bill, known as the 2013 National Defense Authorization Act, was passed in both houses of Congress by wide margins.
  272. mature
    having reached full natural growth or development
    Coach Mike Smith said Monday they had learned from and been matured by their recent disappointments.
  273. mechanism
    device consisting of a piece of machinery
    Mr. Kasuri expressed surprise over the government’s failure to install an effective firewall mechanism despite having months to do so.
  274. medium
    the surrounding environment
    Witnesses told local news media that the helicopter appeared to have exploded after hitting the ground.
  275. mediate
    act between parties with a view to reconciling differences
    A few violence interrupters were mediating between the gangs' leaders, while the rest worked the crowd, calming people down.
  276. medical
    relating to the study or practice of medicine
    But some critics said that poor and uninsured patients sometimes used the emergency room as their primary source of medical care.
  277. mental
    involving the mind or an intellectual process
    Yet Justice Del Giudice, who was scheduled to sentence Mr. Isaac, ordered a mental health examination instead.
  278. method
    a way of doing something, especially a systematic way
    Other schools have also adopted inventive methods to promote graduating in four years.
    What's missing in this definition is "the scientific method," or the "Methods" section of a research paper.
  279. migrate
    move from one country or region to another and settle there
    Jeffrey Hart is a Briton migrating back and forth between Canada and the United States on work visas, gaining experience in natural building.New York Times (Aug 20, 2012)
  280. minimal
    the least possible
    The fighters are operating on a minimal budget, eating just one meal a day, he added.
  281. minimum
    the smallest possible quantity
    Employees will be given a minimum 60-day notice before any furlough of longer than 22 days takes place, according to the document.
  282. minor
    inferior in number or size or amount
    In my next post, we'll look at how seemingly minor details in a transaction, if not handled properly,  can make your life miserable.
  283. mode
    how something is done or how it happens
    Altogether, shifting transportation modes would drive up prices, he said, adding, “Rail is not the answer.”
  284. modify
    cause to change; make different
    Riders complained about inaccurate modified schedules on the Web site — a criticism the agency sometimes acknowledged.
  285. monitor
    keep an eye on; keep under surveillance
    A screen in one corner relayed footage from the closed circuit cameras installed across the office floors, monitoring staff activity.
  286. motive
    the reason that arouses action toward a desired goal
    But his prime motive in choosing Google, he said, was online collaboration.
  287. mutual
    common to or shared by two or more parties
    Teams are taught four skill sets: leadership, mutual support, situation monitoring and communication.
  288. negate
    make ineffective by counterbalancing the effect of
    She notes that salad dressing packets typically contain as many as four servings, which can negate any nutritional value of the greens.Washington Post (Dec 20, 2011)
  289. neutral
    having no personal preference
    As head of state, the queen performs some ceremonial and formal duties related to government but must remain neutral on political matters.New York Times (Dec 19, 2012)
  290. nevertheless
    despite anything to the contrary
    Nevertheless, Mr. Ostreicher ended up in June 2011 as the only American in Palmasola Prison, an experience he described as “sheer terror.”
  291. nonetheless
    despite anything to the contrary
    Nonetheless, Mr. Cowen’s illnesses have led to his falling about $8,400 behind in his rent; he could face eviction proceedings beginning next month.
  292. norm
    a standard or model or pattern regarded as typical
    However, let’s take it one step further, beyond social norms.
  293. normal
    conforming with a standard, level, or type
    “I think this is going to end up like a regular summer weekend, no more busy than normal,” he said.
  294. notion
    a general inclusive concept
    The notion that India’s weak manufacturing sector can catch up to China in advanced computer hardware also strikes some experts as far-fetched.
  295. notwithstanding
    despite anything to the contrary
    The gloomy weather forecast notwithstanding, the day was indeed summery.New York Times (Jun 30, 2012)
  296. nuclear
    constituting the core or central part
    A few prominent environmentalists argue that the rapidly heating world cannot make wrenching changes without nuclear power to ease the transition.
  297. objective
    the goal intended to be attained
    Mr. Dempsey's stated main objective was to preserve as many Tully's jobs as possible.
  298. obtain
    come into possession of
    A Web site marketing Wegelin's services said, "Neither the Swiss government nor any other government can obtain information about your bank account."
  299. obvious
    easily perceived by the senses or grasped by the mind
    Jet lag’s severity depends on several factors, the most obvious being how many time zones you crossed.
  300. occupy
    live in (a certain place)
    Next to it is a lane usually occupied by parked vehicles, and then a traffic lane.
  301. occur
    be found to exist
    However nothing else occurred, and in a few minutes he had gone back to sleep.
  302. offset
    a compensating equivalent
    That is a particularly weighty question, given the urgent need for tax revenue to offset the ballooning federal budget deficit.
  303. ongoing
    currently happening
    “Discussions with various authorities in relation to Libor setting are ongoing,” an RBS spokeswoman said.Wall Street Journal (Jan 10, 2013)
  304. option
    one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen
    “All options are on the table,” said a senior European official who is participating in the talks but was not authorized to speak publicly.
  305. outcome
    something that results
    Sure, compound interest has a powerful outcome, but it takes an awfully long time to become fun and exciting.
  306. output
    production of a certain amount
    American economic output has continued to expand at a sluggish pace.
  307. overall
    involving only main features
    Overall, though, analysts said the industry eased up on promotions such as rebates and low-interest financing.New York Times (Jan 3, 2013)
  308. overlap
    extend over and cover a part of
    The building housed a research center run by the national security agency, one of many overlapping intelligence agencies.New York Times (Jul 19, 2012)
  309. panel
    sheet that forms a distinct section of something
    On request, Mr. Singh showed a sample of a touchscreen panel that he said had been made at DataWind's manufacturing unit in Montreal.
  310. paradigm
    a standard or typical example
    Even if these new shows end up being remakes of familiar paradigms, more is at stake here.
  311. parallel
    being everywhere equidistant and not intersecting
    Increasingly she turned to writing about the recipes she was trying as her interest in cooking deepened in parallel to her relationship.
  312. participate
    be involved in
    “All options are on the table,” said a senior European official who is participating in the talks but was not authorized to speak publicly.
  313. passive
    lacking in energy or will
    On this night, Ms. Meade basically brought to a character a vulnerability that came across as passive.
  314. perceive
    become aware of through the senses
    Insurance, like taxes, quantifies the perceived societal cost of an activity.
  315. period
    an amount of time
    “We were a little bit lost last year when he was out for such an extended period of time,” Troy Brouwer said.
  316. persist
    continue to exist
    While the specific numbers have most likely shifted over time, the basic categories persist.
  317. perspective
    a way of regarding situations or topics
    It is helpful to summarize the important policy effects on the labor market from workers' perspectives in terms of marginal tax rates.
  318. phase
    any distinct time period in a sequence of events
    “He’s progressively gotten better in all phases,” Haslett said.
  319. phenomenon
    any state or process known through the senses
    Researchers found that employee turnover slows down considerably as businesses get older and bigger, which could be contributing to the wage phenomenon.
  320. philosophy
    a belief accepted as authoritative by some group or school
    He often coupled common sense with Greek philosophy, which, he wrote, "seemed to astonish the whole journalistic fraternity in New York City."
  321. physical
    involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit
    Various companies showed off tools that intervened in our physical lives.
  322. policy
    a plan of action adopted by an individual or social group
    “Chuck Hagel is out of the mainstream,” Mr. Graham says, “on most issues regarding foreign policy.”
  323. portion
    something determined in relation to a thing that includes it
    A large portion of that is held by a group of hedge funds including York Capital Management, which invests heavily in distressed debt.
  324. pose
    put into a certain place or abstract location
    Pointing out the potential hazards posed by data brokers and the like is part of Mr. Fertik’s M.O.
  325. positive
    characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance
    “Call me an optimist, but I see positive indications of the markets moving forward,” he said.
  326. potential
    existing in possibility
    Investors fixated last year on so-called tail risks, or potential negative surprises.
  327. practitioner
    someone who carries out a learned profession
    “Many practitioners haven’t caught up to the advanced technology yet,” he said.
  328. precede
    be earlier in time
    There are perils in having publicity precede peer review.New York Times (Jul 29, 2012)
  329. precise
    sharply exact or accurate or delimited
    The precise impact can only be determined by careful analysis unencumbered by dogmatic beliefs not anchored in empirical results.
  330. predict
    make a guess about what will happen in the future
    Research is why he will never live in Seattle, he said; scientists are predicting a big earthquake someday.
  331. predominant
    having superior power and influence
    According to the World Health Organization, B flus are predominant in China.New York Times (Feb 24, 2012)
  332. preliminary
    preceding or in preparation for something more important
    West Bengal: A preliminary medical examination suggested that a three-year-old girl was raped in Goai village, the Indian Express reported.
  333. presume
    take to be the case or to be true
    The 32 remaining passengers are presumed to have drowned.
  334. previous
    just preceding something else in time or order
    He found his previous job within 30 days, picking up a year’s guaranteed contract work in Hartford.
  335. primary
    of first rank or importance or value
    But some critics said that poor and uninsured patients sometimes used the emergency room as their primary source of medical care.
  336. prime
    of or relating to the first or originating agent
    Acquiring the service would not only give Apple access to prime data but also, as Search Engine Land noted, would complement Apple in other ways.
  337. principal
    main or most important
    Among Wall Street's principal concerns about Facebook has been the company's ability to profit as its users increasingly log in on their mobile phones.
  338. principle
    a basic generalization that is accepted as true
    The business was built on two main principles: outstanding customer service and offering high-quality clothes to help people become accepted into society, relatives said.
  339. prior
    earlier in time
    Mr. Akhtar said that no prior warning or threat had been given to his organization by militants.
  340. priority
    status established in order of importance or urgency
    “When you are running investments, your priority needs to be maximizing return.”
  341. proceed
    move ahead; travel onward in time or space
    If successful, lawyers said, future proceedings, at least in the pre trial stage, will be open.
  342. process
    a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
    Hall of Fame voting is ultimately designed to be a consensus process.
  343. professional
    of or relating to or suitable as an occupation
    Mitchell, 30, entered his last fight coming off the longest layoff of his professional career.
  344. prohibit
    command against
    One student studying preschool education said she was prohibited from quitting her internship and was compelled to work night shifts.
  345. project
    a planned undertaking
    The landscaping project was announced in 2011 but has taken time to advance through public review as officials wrestled with the security question.
  346. promote
    contribute to the progress or growth of
    Some rinks installed concrete floors to promote cooling, but others employed newer technologies.
  347. proportion
    relation with respect to comparative quantity or magnitude
    Insulin is known to fuel cell growth, and cancer cells consume glucose out of proportion to other nutrients.
  348. prospect
    the possibility of future success
    Nothing to do, no prospects for getting out.
  349. protocol
    forms of ceremony and etiquette observed by officials
    But organizations that foster student musicians still mostly insist on standard protocols.
  350. psychology
    the science of mental life
    David Popplewell of Brasenose College grilled an experimental psychology candidate by asking: "Why do human beings have two eyes?"
  351. publication
    the act of issuing printed materials
    The New York Times and other mainstream publications published hundreds of the documents Private Manning is accused of leaking.
  352. publish
    prepare and issue for public distribution or sale
    The Smoking Gun Web site published the document online.
  353. purchase
    something acquired by buying
    He also said that there are no minimum purchases required by distributors, denouncing so-called "pay to play" allegations.
  354. pursue
    follow in an effort to capture
    Ask for help pursuing that interest beyond class assignments.
  355. qualitative
    involving distinguishing attributes
    It will also require improved techniques for integrating quantitative and qualitative information.New York Times (Nov 9, 2012)
  356. radical
    far beyond the norm
    Voters appeared to prefer stability over Mr. Moon’s calls for radical change.
  357. random
    lacking any definite plan or order or purpose
    Monte Carlo methods use a random process to solve complicated problems.
  358. range
    a variety of different things or activities
    He successfully fought to keep cost increases within a manageable range.
  359. ratio
    relation with respect to comparative quantity or magnitude
    Pythagoras, he tells us, used the concept of dissonance in coming to his theories about the simple ratios of whole numbers.
  360. rational
    consistent with or based on or using reason
    Is there any rational reason to think that things will change next year?
  361. react
    show a response to something
    Every college coach wants smart players — athletes who can grasp complex offenses, dissect sophisticated defenses and react quickly under pressure.
  362. recover
    regain or make up for
    Figure Skating Championships later this month while he recovers from hip surgery.
  363. refine
    reduce to a pure state
    But experts also suggested that concepts of fat be refined.
  364. regime
    the governing authority of a political unit
    “In general, I think the regime in Damascus is approaching collapse,” he said.
  365. region
    the extended spatial location of something
    The region is loaded with iron, and mining companies will continue to go after it.
  366. regulate
    bring into conformity with rules, principles, or usage
    While closely regulated by the Department of Environmental Conservation, New York also offers great fishing opportunities.
  367. reinforce
    strengthen and support
    Patterns of one or the other are reinforced over time.
  368. reject
    refuse to accept or acknowledge
    Intermittent fighting increased last month when the rebels rejected a government demand that they allow supply convoys to reach an army base.
  369. relax
    become loose or looser or less tight
    At a Tuesday morning news conference, Saban seemed relaxed.
  370. release
    grant freedom to; free from confinement
    Another senior official, speaking anonymously because he was not authorized to release military information, said two pilots were on board.
  371. relevant
    having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
    "But working on something so relevant to society caught my attention."
  372. reluctance
    a certain degree of unwillingness
    But he was expressing some reluctance to get on board.
  373. rely
    have confidence or faith in
    But there is an inherent risk in anything that relies on transporting natural resources because demand can vary.
  374. remove
    take something away as by lifting, pushing, or taking off
    Six thousand fewer tons of steel trusses, which were removed in 2004.
  375. require
    have need of
    Current law requires reporting multiple purchases of handguns, but not semi-automatic assault rifles.
  376. research
    a seeking for knowledge
    Research has found, for instance, that Indian mothers tend to breast-feed boys longer than they do girls, Ms. Anderson said.
  377. reside
    live in
    I was intrigued by our parallel worlds - two Muslim Middle Eastern women, eyes lined with pencils of coal, residing in the United States.
  378. resource
    aid or support that may be drawn upon when needed
    But there is an inherent risk in anything that relies on transporting natural resources because demand can vary.
  379. respond
    show a reaction to something
    Protest leaders said the court had given the state six days to respond.
  380. restore
    bring back into original existence, function, or position
    Some other buildings in the area have yet to have their phone service restored, however, Verizon officials said.
  381. restrain
    hold back
    Additional cuts in government spending later this year, above those already emanating from the cap on discretionary spending, would further restrain job creation.
  382. restrict
    limit access to
    But of greater concern was this: A hang gliding flight that crossed into restricted airspace was ineligible for the record book.
  383. retain
    hold back within
    Hirscher retained his lead in the overall World Cup standings.
  384. reveal
    make known to the public information previously kept secret
    If prodded, Mr. Gogu will reveal a few celebrity stories.
  385. revenue
    the entire amount of income before any deductions are made
    That is a particularly weighty question, given the urgent need for tax revenue to offset the ballooning federal budget deficit.
  386. reverse
    change to the contrary
    But Mrs. Nader and some others are beginning to reverse that trend.
  387. revise
    reorganize, especially for the purpose of improving
    The revised editorial instead lauded Communist Party’s policies.
  388. revolution
    a single complete turn
    The biggest winner in this revolution will likely be Google, with its free Android operating system.
  389. rigid
    fixed and unmoving
    The result is the smallest, most rigid playing field in recent history: One that excludes 41 states.
  390. role
    the actions and activities assigned to a person or group
    Newsome remembers Lewis’s first news conference after his role in the Atlanta murders was resolved.
  391. route
    an established line of travel or access
    Alabama, en route to its third national title in four years, scored the first three times it had the ball.
  392. scenario
    a postulated sequence of possible events
    “They are always prepared for different scenarios,” he said of the government.
  393. schedule
    a list of times at which things are planned to occur
    Washington is scheduled to open its season Saturday at Tampa Bay.
  394. scheme
    an elaborate and systematic plan of action
    Some of these offers turned out to be Ponzi schemes.
  395. scope
    an area in which something operates or has power or control
    The credit can also apply to a wide scope of industries — not just manufacturing, but computer software, architects, engineers, and food processing firms.
  396. section
    one of several parts or pieces that fit with others
    The Journal is planning a full page of excerpts in its Leisure & Arts section on Wednesday.
  397. sector
    a particular aspect of life or activity
    The China corporate sector has been battling falling profits.
  398. secure
    free from danger or risk
    Register online well in advance to secure a spot at your preferred test site.
  399. sequence
    a following of one thing after another in time
    “We built five separate set pieces to shoot different parts of the sequence,” Mr. Hennah said.
  400. series
    similar things placed in order or one after another
    But laying out a series of possible routes would allow readers to make an educated choice.
  401. shift
    move very slightly
    While the specific numbers have most likely shifted over time, the basic categories persist.
  402. significant
    important in effect or meaning
    "To go this far without significant problems after the worst housing crisis since the Great Depression is remarkable," Mr. Griffith said.
  403. simulate
    reproduce someone's behavior or looks
    They reported the results of the simulated audio invasion online on Wednesday in Biology Letters.New York Times (Jun 7, 2012)
  404. so-called
    doubtful or suspect
    Better still, he said, are so-called unconstrained bond funds whose managers have great flexibility in how they invest.
  405. source
    the place where something begins
    According to a reliable source, “Baseball has ruled on it.
  406. specific
    distinguishing something particular or unique
    Department stores like Saks Fifth Avenue use e-mail to target specific audiences, but older shoppers still must sift through clothes and accessories for all ages.
  407. specify
    be particular about
    The sentence mentioning the alternate swearing-in does not specify a date, and government officials have said that means Mr. Chávez can be sworn in later.
  408. sphere
    a round three-dimensional closed surface
    After surviving the collapse of the twin towers, the battered sphere was moved to Battery Park.
  409. stable
    resistant to change of position or condition
    Mr. Abrams said rental companies preferred to keep prices stable and spend their energy on trying to gain market share.
  410. statistic
    a datum that can be represented numerically
    In recent years, a growing number of high schools have stopped providing class rankings to colleges, raising questions about the value of the statistic.
  411. status
    the condition or someone or something at a particular time
    But he has made no mention of addressing North Korea’s status as one of the world’s least wired nations.
  412. straightforward
    pointed directly ahead
    "We are always looking for sophisticated and straightforward dishes to add to our tailgate menu," Jackson wrote.
  413. strategy
    an elaborate and systematic plan of action
    But using generous economic incentives and relying on conventions has been called an outdated economic strategy.
  414. stress
    difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension
    An estimated 75 to 90 percent of all doctors' visits are related to stress.
  415. structure
    the building of something and the arrangement of its parts
    Engineers determined that weaker ones were originally installed, raising concerns about the structure’s integrity.
  416. style
    a particular kind
    Tunisian Style Baked Cauliflower Frittata In the authentic version of this frittata there is a lot more olive oil, as well as chopped hard-boiled eggs.
  417. submit
    hand over formally
    Litigation often waits until after claims are submitted, evaluated and adjusted, said Lon Berk, partner at Hunton & Williams.Wall Street Journal (Dec 27, 2012)
  418. subordinate
    lower in rank or importance
    Being a United States Marine means showing no weakness, no pain, especially to your subordinates.New York Times (Jun 22, 2012)
  419. subsequent
    following in time or order
    But nothing in Mr. Sullivan’s universe is random, and subsequent chapters reveal a tangle of dark meanings under the surface.
  420. subsidy
    a grant of financial assistance, especially by a government
    Meanwhile, Mr. Chidambaram aims to cut India's budget deficit by reducing fuel subsidies.Wall Street Journal (Dec 18, 2012)
  421. substitute
    a person or thing that can take the place of another
    Cellphones, email and Skype allow more connection among family members and loved ones, but are no substitute for being there.
  422. successor
    a person who follows next in order
    His successor at the U.S. unit will be announced later, BP said.
  423. sufficient
    of a quantity that can fulfill a need or requirement
    The cases involving big banks, he said, lacked sufficient evidence implicating C.E.Os.
  424. summary
    a brief statement that presents the main points
    In the committee meetings, the summaries prepared by the first and second readers are often read out loud and discussed.
  425. supplement
    an additional component that improves capability
    Some contain anabolic steroids, and even high-quality protein supplements might be dangerous in large amounts, or if taken to replace meals, he said.
  426. survey
    ask people questions in order to gather data
    A survey in China on Monday found manufacturing activity in that country expanded for the third consecutive month.
  427. survive
    continue in existence after
    Last week, in fact, he survived a vigilante assassination attempt; a car bomb reportedly killed the would-be assassin.
  428. suspend
    stop a process or a habit by imposing a freeze on it
    Last spring, Binghamton University suspended pledging after a series of complaints about people being physically abused, deprived of sleep and forced to drink heavily.
  429. sustain
    lengthen or extend in duration or space
    He balked at describing the actions as “harassment” or “molestation,” saying that implied aggravated or sustained behavior.
  430. symbol
    something visible that represents something invisible
    She is looking for dinnerware painted with winged goddesses, holding aloft trumpets and bald eagles, which are symbols of the Society of the Cincinnati.
  431. target
    a reference point to shoot at
    In the mid-1990s, some joined suicide bombing attacks aimed at military and civilian targets, sometimes deflecting suspicion by dressing as though pregnant.
  432. task
    any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
    The task had taken considerably longer than expected.
  433. technical
    of or relating to aptitude in a practical skill
    Ultimately, Mr. Bevan noticed that Iran had published limited technical details of its cartridges, including bullet weights.
  434. technique
    a practical method or art applied to some particular task
    Each had been a licensed peace officer for five to seven years and had received specialized training in investigative techniques and firearms.
  435. technology
    the practical application of science to commerce or industry
    New technologies have raised productivity and profits, while enabling companies to shed workers and slice payroll.
  436. temporary
    not permanent; not lasting
    Then in late March, a temporary law financing the government expires.
  437. terminate
    be the last or concluding part of
    Terminating that case without a further fight, however, would mean giving up on charging other detainees with those offenses.
  438. text
    the words of something written
    Writing essays has never been my strong suit; I have as much difficulty conveying sincerity through text as I do in speech.
  439. theme
    the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
    “I derive my themes from what’s happening in everyday life,” Ms. Dimoula had said earlier.
  440. theory
    a belief that can guide behavior
    “In theory you could have fired that cannon,” Mr. Browne said, “because the powder was still working.”
  441. thereby
    by that means or because of that
    In principle, work and investment decisions become more efficient and thereby raise growth.
  442. thesis
    an unproved statement advanced as a premise in an argument
    My original thesis that only Washington Nationals employees, Washington Nationals fans and D.C. media members supported the strategy has turned out to be incorrect.Washington Post (Aug 29, 2012)
  443. topic
    the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
    Her newest book, “Prime Time,” a mix of advice on health, fitness, friendship, sex and other topics, recently came out in paperback.
  444. trace
    an indication that something has been present
    North Korea also deployed equipment to trace cellphone signals.
  445. tradition
    a specific practice of long standing
    Yes, it's a New York tradition, the first gathering having taken place in 1904.
  446. transfer
    move from one place to another
    He ended up at Division III Greensboro College for two years until Clark secured his transfer to Stanford.
  447. transform
    change or alter in appearance or nature
    Regulators say money market funds need to be fundamentally transformed to prevent them from creating too much systemic risk.
Created on December 28, 2012 (updated October 25, 2016)

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