Good communication is at the heart of good relationships. Communication is the process of giving information or ideas to someone, as by using words, actions, or sounds.

In the plural form, communications has a few specialized meanings: a field of study, a profession, or a system involving the sending of information to people by the use of technology such as radio or satellite. In these senses, communications can be used with a singular or plural verb. The noun communication is from Latin communicare "to share, participate" (from communis "common") plus the suffix –ion "an act or process."

Definitions of communication

n the activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information

“they could not act without official communication from Moscow”
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communication by means of transmitted signals
mutual communication; communication with each other
an intervening substance through which signals can travel as a means for communication
channel, communication channel, line
(often plural) a means of communication or access
mail, mail service, post, postal service
the system whereby messages are transmitted via the post office
dramatic art, dramatics, dramaturgy, theater, theatre
the art of writing and producing plays
discourse, discussion, treatment
an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic
a communication intended to urge or persuade the recipients to take some action
expression, verbal expression, verbalism
the communication (in speech or writing) of your beliefs or opinions
exam, examination, test
a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge
persuasion, suasion
the act of persuading (or attempting to persuade); communication intended to induce belief or action
persuading not to do or believe something; talking someone out of a belief or an intended course of action
expostulation, objection, remonstrance, remonstration
the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest
contact, touch
a communicative interaction
the amount of activity over a communication system during a given period of time
conveyance, impartation, imparting
the transmission of information
airing, dissemination, public exposure, spreading
the opening of a subject to widespread discussion and debate
aether, ether
a medium that was once supposed to fill all space and to support the propagation of electromagnetic waves
air, airwave
medium for radio and television broadcasting
channel, transmission channel
a path over which electrical signals can pass
back channel
an alternative to the regular channels of communication that is used when agreements must be made secretly (especially in diplomacy or government)
(metaphor) a channel through which something can be seen or understood
contact, inter-group communication, liaison, link
a channel for communication between groups
official routes of communication
mass medium, medium
(usually plural) transmissions that are disseminated widely to the public
multimedia, multimedia system
transmission that combine media of communication (text and graphics and sound etc.)
airmail, airpost
a system of conveying mail by aircraft
snail mail
any mail that is physically delivered by the postal service
RFD, rural free delivery
free government delivery of mail in outlying country areas
electronic communication
communication by computer
fiber optics, fiberoptics, fibre optics, fibreoptics
the transmission of light signals via glass fibers
(electronics) the transmission of a signal by using it to vary a carrier wave; changing the carrier's amplitude or frequency or phase
the theater as a profession (usually `the stage')
persuasive but insincere talk that is usually intended to deceive or impress
line of gab, patter, spiel
plausible glib talk (especially useful to a salesperson)
articulation, voice
expressing in coherent verbal form
intercourse, social intercourse
communication between individuals
extended treatment of particulars
a lengthy discussion (spoken or written) on a particular topic
a discussion of a topic (as in a meeting)
discussion; (`talk about' is a less formal alternative for `discussion of')
cold turkey
a blunt expression of views
congratulation, felicitation
(usually plural) an expression of pleasure at the success or good fortune of another
elaboration, enlargement, expansion
a discussion that provides additional information
bar exam, bar examination
an examination conducted at regular intervals to determine whether a candidate is qualified to practice law in a given jurisdiction
comp, comprehensive, comprehensive examination
an intensive examination testing a student's proficiency in some special field of knowledge
entrance exam, entrance examination
examination to determine a candidate's preparation for a course of studies
final, final exam, final examination
an examination administered at the end of an academic term
litmus test
a test that relies on a single indicator
midterm, midterm exam, midterm examination
an examination administered in the middle of an academic term
oral, oral exam, oral examination, viva, viva voce
an examination conducted by spoken communication
prelim, preliminary exam, preliminary examination
an examination taken by graduate students to determine their fitness to continue
an examination consisting of a few short questions
exam paper, examination paper, question sheet, test paper
a written examination
final honors degree examinations at Cambridge University
persuasion by the use of direct personal pressure
bell ringing, canvassing, electioneering
persuasion of voters in a political campaign
exhortation, incitement
the act of exhorting; an earnest attempt at persuasion
the practice of proselytizing
persuasion by means of empty slogans
prompting, suggestion
persuasion formulated as a suggestion
artillery, weapon
a means of persuading or arguing
a transmission from Earth to a spacecraft or the path of such a transmission
a transmission that will trigger an answering transmission from a transponder
Type of:
act, deed, human action, human activity
something that people do or cause to happen

n something that is communicated by or to or between people or groups

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Linear A
an undeciphered writing system used in Crete in the 17th century B.C.
Granth Sahib
the principal sacred text of Sikhism contains hymns and poetry as well as the teachings of the first five gurus
a collection of Zoroastrian texts gathered during the 4th or 6th centuries
(Hinduism) the sacred `song of God' composed about 200 BC and incorporated into the Mahabharata (a Sanskrit epic); contains a discussion between Krishna and the Indian hero Arjuna on human nature and the purpose of life
(Hinduism) a sacred epic Sanskrit poem of India dealing in many episodes with the struggle between two rival families
the first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit
the whole body of the Jewish sacred writings and tradition including the oral tradition
Hebrew Scripture
the Jewish scriptures which consist of three divisions--the Torah and the Prophets and the Writings
the second of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures
the third of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures
Book of Mormon
a sacred text revealed to Joseph Smith in 1830 by an ancient prophet Mormon; supposedly a record of ancient peoples of America translated by Joseph Smith
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
the second part of the Talmud consisting primarily of commentary on the Mishna
the first part of the Talmud; a collection of early oral interpretations of the scriptures that was compiled about AD 200
(Sanskrit) an ancient medical treatise summarizing the Hindu art of healing and prolonging life; sometimes regarded as a 5th Veda
a later sacred text of Hinduism of a mystical nature dealing with metaphysical questions
one of the 150 lyrical poems and prayers that comprise the Book of Psalms in the Old Testament; said to have been written by David
First Amendment
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States guaranteeing the right of free expression; includes freedom of assembly and freedom of the press and freedom of religion and freedom of speech
Fifth Amendment
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States that imposes restrictions on the government's prosecution of persons accused of crimes; mandates due process of law and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy; requires just compensation if private property is taken for public use
Fourteenth Amendment
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1868; extends the guarantees of the Bill of Rights to the states as well as to the federal government
Eighteenth Amendment
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1920; prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages; repealed in 1932
Nineteenth Amendment
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1920; guarantees that no state can deny the right to vote on the basis of sex
(Christianity) the announcement to the Virgin Mary by the angel Gabriel of the incarnation of Christ
British Crown
the symbol of the power of the British monarchy
Canterbury Tales
an uncompleted series of tales written after 1387 by Geoffrey Chaucer
Arabian Nights' Entertainment
a collection of folktales in Arabic dating from the 10th century
Book of Genesis
the first book of the Old Testament: tells of Creation; Adam and Eve; the Fall of Man; Cain and Abel; Noah and the flood; God's covenant with Abraham; Abraham and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; Joseph and his brothers
Book of Exodus
the second book of the Old Testament: tells of the departure of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt led by Moses; God gave them the Ten Commandments and the rest of Mosaic law on Mount Sinai during the Exodus
Book of Leviticus
the third book of the Old Testament; contains Levitical law and ritual precedents
Book of Numbers
the fourth book of the Old Testament; contains a record of the number of Israelites who followed Moses out of Egypt
Book of Deuteronomy
the fifth book of the Old Testament; contains a second statement of Mosaic law
Book of Joshua
a book in the Old Testament describing how Joshua led the Israelites into Canaan (the Promised Land) after the death of Moses
Book of Judges
a book of the Old Testament that tells the history of Israel under the leaders known as judges
Book of Ruth
a book of the Old Testament that tells the story of Ruth who was not an Israelite but who married an Israelite and who stayed with her mother-in-law Naomi after her husband died
1 Samuel
the first of two books in the Old Testament that tell of Saul and David
II Samuel
the second of two books of the Old Testament that tell of Saul and David
1 Kings
the first of two Old Testament books telling the histories of the kings of Judah and Israel
II Kings
the second of two Old Testament books telling the histories of the kings of Judah and Israel
1 Chronicles
the first of two Old Testament books telling the history of Judah and Israel until the return from the Babylonian Captivity in 536 BC
II Chronicles
the second of two Old Testament books telling the history of Judah and Israel until the return from the Babylonian Captivity in 536 BC
Book of Ezra
an Old Testament book telling of a rabbi's efforts in the 5th century BC to reconstitute Jewish law and worship in Jerusalem after the Babylonian Captivity
Book of Nehemiah
an Old Testament book telling how a Jewish official at the court of Artaxerxes I in 444 BC became a leader in rebuilding Jerusalem after the Babylonian Captivity
Book of Esther
an Old Testament book telling of a beautiful Jewess who became queen of Persia and saved her people from massacre
Book of Job
a book in the Old Testament containing Job's pleas to God about his afflictions and God's reply
Book of Psalms
an Old Testament book consisting of a collection of 150 Psalms
Book of Proverbs
an Old Testament book consisting of proverbs from various Israeli sages (including Solomon)
Book of Ecclesiastes
an Old Testament book consisting of reflections on the vanity of human life; is traditionally attributed to Solomon but probably was written about 250 BC
Canticle of Canticles
an Old Testament book consisting of a collection of love poems traditionally attributed to Solomon but actually written much later
Book of Isaiah
an Old Testament book consisting of Isaiah's prophecies
Book of Jeremiah
a book in the Old Testament containing the oracles of the prophet Jeremiah
Book of Lamentations
an Old Testament book lamenting the desolation of Judah after the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC; traditionally attributed to the prophet Jeremiah
Book of Ezekiel
an Old Testament book containing Ezekiel's prophecies of the downfall of Jerusalem and Judah and their subsequent restoration
Book of the Prophet Daniel
an Old Testament book that tells of the apocalyptic visions and the experiences of Daniel in the court of Nebuchadnezzar
Book of Hosea
an Old Testament book telling Hosea's prophecies
Book of Joel
an Old Testament book telling Joel's prophecies
Book of Amos
an Old Testament book telling Amos's prophecies
Book of Obadiah
an Old Testament book telling Obadiah's prophecies; the shortest book in the Christian Bible
Book of Jonah
a book in the Old Testament that tells the story of Jonah and the whale
Book of Micah
an Old Testament book telling the prophecies of Micah foretelling the destruction of Jerusalem
Book of Nahum
an Old Testament book telling Nahum's prophecy of the fall of Nineveh
Book of Habakkuk
an Old Testament book telling Habakkuk's prophecies
Book of Zephaniah
an Old Testament book telling the prophecies of Zephaniah which are concerned mainly with the approaching judgment by God upon the sinners of Judah
Book of Haggai
an Old Testament book telling the prophecies of Haggai which are concerned mainly with rebuilding the temples after the Babylonian Captivity
Book of Zachariah
an Old Testament book telling the prophecies of Zechariah which are concerned mainly with the renewal of Israel after the Babylonian Captivity
Book of Malachi
an Old Testament book containing the prophecies of Malachi
Gospel According to Matthew
one of the Gospels in the New Testament; includes the Sermon on the Mount
Gospel According to Mark
the shortest of the four Gospels in the New Testament
Gospel According to Luke
one of the four Gospels in the New Testament; contains details of Jesus's birth and early life
Gospel According to John
the last of the four Gospels in the New Testament
Acts of the Apostles
a New Testament book describing the development of the early church from Christ's Ascension to Paul's sojourn at Rome
Revelation of Saint John the Divine
the last book of the New Testament; contains visionary descriptions of heaven and of conflicts between good and evil and of the end of the world; attributed to Saint John the Apostle
the Latin edition of the Bible translated from Hebrew and Greek mainly by St. Jerome at the end of the 4th century; as revised in 1592 it was adopted as the official text for the Roman Catholic Church
Douay-Rheims Version
an English translation of the Vulgate by Roman Catholic scholars
Authorized Version
an English translation of the Bible published in 1611
Revised Version
a British revision of the Authorized Version
New English Bible
a modern English version of the Bible and Apocrypha
American Standard Version
a revised version of the King James Version
Revised Standard Version
a revision of the American Standard Version
a prayer said 3 times a day by Roman Catholics in memory of the Annunciation
Ave Maria
a salutation to the Virgin Mary now used in prayers to her
Canticle of Simeon
the prayer of Simeon (Luke 2:29-32)
Evening Prayer
(Anglican Church) a daily evening service with prayers prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer
Kol Nidre
the opening prayer on the eve of Yom Kippur
Book of Common Prayer
the Anglican service book of the Church of England; has had several revisions since the Reformation and is widely admired for the dignity and beauty of its language
a prayer consisting of a series of invocations by the priest with responses from the congregation
Lord's Prayer
the prayer that Christ gave his disciples in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 6:9-13)
Additions to Esther
an Apocryphal book consisting of text added to the Book of Esther
Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Children
an Apocryphal book consisting of text added to the Book of Daniel
Book of Susanna
an Apocryphal book consisting of text added to the Book of Daniel
Bel and the Dragon
an Apocryphal book consisting of text added to the Book of Daniel
Book of Baruch
an Apocryphal book ascribed to Baruch
Epistle of Jeremiah
an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry
Book of Tobit
an Apocryphal book that was a popular novel for several centuries
Book of Judith
an Apocryphal book telling how Judith saved her people
1 Esdras
an Apocryphal book consisting of a compilation from I Chronicles and II Chronicles and Ezra and Nehemiah
II Esdras
an Apocryphal book of angelic revelations
Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach
an Apocryphal book mainly of maxims (resembling Proverbs in that respect)
Wisdom of Solomon
an Apocryphal book consisting mainly of a meditation on wisdom; although ascribed to Solomon it was probably written in the first century BC
1 Maccabees
an Apocryphal book describing the life of Judas Maccabaeus
II Maccabees
an Apocryphal book describing the life of Judas Maccabaeus
the first or opening sura of the Quran which is the central prayer of Islam and is used on all special occasions as well as during the five daily prayers
the collection of ancient rabbinic writings on Jewish law and tradition (the Mishna and the Gemara) that constitute the basis of religious authority in Orthodox Judaism
one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne
one of four collections of sacred texts
prose works attached to the Samhitas instructing the bahmins to perform the very elaborate sacrificial rituals
a treatise resembling a Brahmana but to be read or expounded by anchorites in the quiet of the forest
Vedic texts from the fifth and fourth centuries BC dealing with phonetics and ritual injunctions and linguistics and grammar and etymology and lexicography and prosody and astronomy and astrology
Domesday Book
record of a British census and land survey in 1085-1086 ordered by William the Conqueror
Combined DNA Index System
the DNA file maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states; it provided a legal symbol of their union by giving the central government no coercive power over the states or their citizens
(Hinduism) an ancient Sanskrit text giving rules for sensuous and sensual pleasure and love and marriage in accordance with Hindu law
Communist Manifesto
a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views
Parkinson's law
C. Northcote Parkinson's cynical observation that the number of subordinates in an organization will increase linearly regardless of the amount of work to be done
Parkinson's law
C. Northcote Parkinson's cynical observation that work will expand so as to fill the time available for its completion
an oratorio composed by Handel in 1742
Hippocratic oath
an oath taken by physicians to observe medical ethics deriving from Hippocrates
Robert's Rules of Order
a book of rules for presiding over a meeting; written by Henry M. Martin in 1876 and subsequently updated through many editions
ASCII character set
(computer science) 128 characters that make up the ASCII coding scheme
Linear B
a syllabic script used in Greece in the 13th century B.C.
an epic in Latin by Virgil; tells the adventures of Aeneas after the Trojan War; provides an illustrious historical background for the Roman Empire
Divina Commedia
a narrative epic poem written by Dante
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
an epic poem written in Middle High German and based on the legends of Siegfried and Teutonic kings
Dead Sea scrolls
(Old Testament) a collection of written scrolls (containing nearly all of the Old Testament) found in a cave near the Dead Sea in the late 1940s
Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans
a New Testament book containing an exposition of the doctrines of Saint Paul; written in AD 58
First Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians
a New Testament book containing the first epistle from Saint Paul to the church at Corinth
Second Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians
a New Testament book containing the second epistle from Saint Paul to the church at Corinth
Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Galatians
a New Testament book containing the epistle from Saint Paul to the Galatians
Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Ephesians
a New Testament book containing the epistle from Saint Paul to the Ephesians which explains the divine plan for the world and the consummation of this in Christ
Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Philippians
a New Testament book containing an epistle from Saint Paul to the church at Philippi in Macedonia
Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Colossians
a New Testament book containing an epistle from Saint Paul to the Colossians in ancient Phrygia
First Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Thessalonians
a New Testament book containing Saint Paul's first epistle to the Thessalonians
Second Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Thessalonians
a New Testament book containing Saint Paul's second epistle to the Thessalonians
First Epistle of Paul the Apostle to Timothy
a New Testament book containing Saint Paul's first epistle to Timothy; contains advice on pastoral matters
Second Epistle of Paul the Apostle to Timothy
a New Testament book containing Saint Paul's second epistle to Timothy; contains advice on pastoral matters
Epistle of Paul the Apostle to Titus
a New Testament book containing Saint Paul's epistle to Titus; contains advice on pastoral matters
Epistle of Paul the Apostle to Philemon
a New Testament book containing an epistle from Saint Paul to Philemon asking Philemon to forgive the slave for escaping
Epistle to the Hebrews
a New Testament book traditionally included among the epistle of Saint Paul but now generally considered not to have been written by him
Epistle of James
a New Testament book attributed to Saint James the Apostle
First Epistle of Peter
the first New Testament book traditionally attributed to Saint Peter the Apostle
Second Epistle of Peter
the second New Testament book traditionally attributed to Saint Peter the Apostle
First Epistle of John
the first New Testament epistle traditionally attributed to Saint John the Apostle
Second Epistel of John
the second New Testament epistle traditionally attributed to Saint John the Apostle
Third Epistel of John
the third New Testament epistle traditionally attributed to Saint John the Apostle
Epistle of Jude
a New Testament book attributed to Saint Jude
a short selection from the Prophets read on every Sabbath in a Jewish synagogue following a reading from the Torah
The Great Charter
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System
relational database of the United States National Library of Medicine for the storage and retrieval of bibliographical information concerning the biomedical literature
Princeton WordNet
a machine-readable lexical database organized by meanings; developed at Princeton University
Dow-Jones Industrial Average
an indicator of stock market prices; based on the share values of 30 blue-chip stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange
Standard and Poor's Index
a broadly based stock market index
Parallel Lives
a collection of biographies of famous pairs of Greeks and Romans written by Plutarch; used by Shakespeare in writing some of his plays
Lateran Treaty
the agreement signed in the Lateran Palace in 1929 by Italy and the Holy See which recognized the Vatican City as a sovereign and independent papal state
North Atlantic Treaty
the treaty signed in 1949 by 12 countries that established NATO
the first treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
the second treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(Judaism) a chant of praise (Psalms 113 through 118) used at Passover and Shabuoth and Sukkoth and Hanukkah and Rosh Hodesh
Hare Krishna
a chant to the Hindu god Krishna
Dies Irae
the first words of a medieval Latin hymn describing the Last Judgment (literally `day of wrath')
a revolutionary socialist anthem
Te Deum
an ancient liturgical hymn
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons
Pilgrim's Progress
an allegory written by John Bunyan in 1678
the oldest Greek version of the Old Testament; said to have been translated from the Hebrew by Jewish scholars at the request of Ptolemy II
Constitution of the United States
the constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states
Peace of Westphalia
the peace treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648
Chemical Weapons Convention
a global treaty banning the production or acquisition or stockpiling or transfer or use of chemical weapons
Geneva Convention
an agreement first drawn up in Geneva in 1864 and later revised concerning the treatment of captured and wounded military personnel and civilians in wartime
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
(Luke) the canticle of the Virgin Mary (from Luke 1:46 beginning `Magnificat anima mea Dominum')
the French national anthem
The Star-Spangled Banner
a poem written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812 was set to music and adopted by Congress in 1931 as the national anthem of the United States
Missouri Compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
Microsoft disk operating system
an operating system developed by Bill Gates for personal computers
an open-source version of the UNIX operating system
a free, widely-used Web Map Server
a widely used search engine that uses text-matching techniques to find web pages that are important and relevant to a user's search
a widely used search engine for the web that finds information, news, images, products, finance
Ask Jeeves
a widely used search engine accepting plain English questions or phrases or terms
Internet Explorer
a commercial browser
a freeware browser for Linux
a text browser
a freeware browser
a commercial browser
a commercial browser
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the communication of something to the public; making information generally known
a communication (usually brief) that is written or spoken or signaled
contagion, infection
the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people
language, linguistic communication
a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols
black and white, written communication, written language
communication by means of written symbols (either printed or handwritten)
content, message, subject matter, substance
what a communication that is about something is about
communication that is suitable for or intended to be instructive
sign, signal, signaling
any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message
a public display of a message
indicant, indication
something that serves to indicate or suggest
visual communication
communication that relies on vision
exhibiting openly in public view
expressive style, style
a way of expressing something (in language or art or music etc.) that is characteristic of a particular person or group of people or period
paralanguage, paralinguistic communication
the use of manner of speaking to communicate particular meanings
auditory communication
communication that relies on hearing
phonation, vocalisation, vocalism, vocalization, voice, vox
the sound made by the vibration of vocal folds modified by the resonance of the vocal tract
anomalous communication, psychic communication, psychical communication
communication by paranormal means
something suggestive of speech in being a medium of expression
a written account of ownership or obligation
something done as an indication of intention
a signal that encodes something (e.g., picture or sound) that has been recorded
message that is transmitted by radio or television
cipher, cypher
a message written in a secret code
a message transmitted by means of the sun's rays
the bags of letters and packages that are transported by the postal service
phone message, telephone message
a message transmitted by telephone
a message transmitted by wireless telegraphy
picture, video
the visible part of a television transmission
(computer science) the appearance of text and graphics on a video display
audio, sound
the audible part of a transmitted signal
the customary manner in which a language (or a form of a language) is spoken or written
dead language
a language that is no longer learned as a native language
language that is spoken or written
source language
a language that is to be translated into another language
object language, target language
the language into which a text written in another language is to be translated
transcription, written text
something written, especially copied from one medium to another, as a typewritten version of dictation
letters or symbols that are written or imprinted on a surface to represent the sounds or words of a language
piece of writing, writing, written material
the work of a writer; anything expressed in letters of the alphabet (especially when considered from the point of view of style and effect)
(usually plural) the collected work of an author
written instructions from a physician or dentist to a druggist concerning the form and dosage of a drug to be issued to a given patient
written instructions for an optician on the lenses for a given person
an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances; an extended metaphor
the central message of a communication
dedication, inscription
a short message (as in a book or musical work or on a photograph) dedicating it to someone or something
number, phone number, telephone number
the number is used in calling a particular telephone
(dated slang) a remarkable or excellent thing or person
a message that helps you remember something
petition, postulation, request
a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority
a written statement of facts submitted in conjunction with a petition to an authority
reading, reading material
written material intended to be read
latent content
(psychoanalysis) hidden meaning of a fantasy or dream
subject, theme, topic
the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
aside, digression, divagation, excursus, parenthesis
a message that departs from the main subject
import, meaning, significance, signification
the message that is intended or expressed or signified
bunk, hokum, meaninglessness, nonsense, nonsensicality
a message that seems to convey no meaning
drivel, garbage
a worthless message
telegram, wire
a message transmitted by telegraph
communication by the exchange of letters
acknowledgement, acknowledgment
a statement acknowledging something or someone
a message refusing to accept something that is offered
info, information
a message received and understood
an indication that makes something evident
shadow, tincture, trace, vestige
an indication that something has been present
counsel, counseling, counselling, direction, guidance
something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
code, codification
a set of rules or principles or laws (especially written ones)
the text appearing in a book, newspaper, or other printed publication
commitment, dedication
a message that makes a pledge
approval, commendation
a message expressing a favorable opinion
the expression of disapproval
(often used with `pay') a formal expression of esteem
discourtesy, disrespect
an expression of lack of respect
insertion, interpolation
a message (spoken or written) that is introduced or inserted
a message that is stated or declared; a communication (oral or written) setting forth particulars or facts etc
a nonverbal message
humor, humour, wit, witticism, wittiness
a message whose ingenuity or verbal skill or incongruity has the power to evoke laughter
opinion, view
a message expressing a belief about something; the expression of a belief that is held with confidence but not substantiated by positive knowledge or proof
direction, instruction
a message describing how something is to be done
start, starting signal
a signal to begin (as in a race)
storm signal
a signal announcing the approach of a storm (particularly a storm of marked violence)
beam, radio beam
a signal transmitted along a narrow path; guides airplane pilots in darkness or bad weather
system of signalling by hand signs used by bookmakers at racetracks
time signal
a signal (especially electronic or by radio) indicating the precisely correct time
bill, card, notice, placard, poster, posting
a sign posted in a public place as an advertisement
street sign
a sign visible from the street
guidepost, signpost
a post bearing a sign that gives directions or shows the way
a corner of a page turned down to mark your place
animal communication
communication between animals (of the same species)
anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X's existence
signalisation, signalization
a conspicuous indication
pointing out
indication by demonstration
a manifest indication of the existence or presence or nature of some person or thing
mark, print
a visible indication made on a surface
a vague indication
forerunner, harbinger, herald, precursor, predecessor
something that precedes and indicates the approach of something or someone
clue, hint
a slight indication
an indication of some hidden activity
alarm, alarum, alert, warning signal
an automatic signal (usually a sound) warning of danger
distress call, distress signal
an internationally recognized signal sent out by a ship or plane indicating that help is needed
all clear
a signal (usually a siren) that danger is over
bugle call
a signal broadcast by the sound of a bugle
a signal (usually a bell) announcing the start of curfew restrictions
(military) a signal to begin a withdrawal from a dangerous position
(military) the beating of a drum as a signal for lowering the flag at sundown
radiotelegraphic signal, telegraphic signal
a signal transmitted by telegraphy
whistle, whistling
the act of signalling (e.g., summoning) by whistling or blowing a whistle
high sign
a silent signal of warning or recognition
an arbitrary sign (written or printed) that has acquired a conventional significance
singing voice
the musical quality of the voice while singing
visual signal
a signal that involves visual communication
sign language, signing
language expressed by visible hand gestures
gesture, motion
the use of movements (especially of the hands) to communicate familiar or prearranged signals
body language
communication via the movements or attitudes of the body
demo, demonstration
a visual presentation showing how something works
eye contact
a meeting of the eyes between two people that expresses meaningful nonverbal communication
the projection of an image from a film onto a screen
acting out
(psychiatry) the display of previously inhibited emotions (often in actions rather than words); considered to be healthy and therapeutic
an impressive display
screening, showing, viewing
the display of a motion picture
anything that is seen
fanfare, flash, ostentation
a gaudy outward display
the act of displaying something ostentatiously
the act of making something publicly available; presenting news or other information by broadcasting or printing it
artificial language
a language that is deliberately created for a specific purpose
a language that can be used to describe languages
native language
the language that a person has spoken from earliest childhood
indigenous language
a language that originated in a specified place and was not brought to that place from elsewhere
superstrate, superstratum
the language of a later invading people that is imposed on an indigenous population and contributes features to their language
natural language, tongue
a human written or spoken language used by a community; opposed to e.g. a computer language
interlanguage, koine, lingua franca
a common language used by speakers of different languages
art, artwork, graphics, nontextual matter
photographs or other visual representations in a printed publication
graphic design
visual communication by a skillful combination of text and pictures in advertisements, magazines, books, etc.
a visual display of information
graph, graphical record
a visual representation of the relations between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axes
linguistic string, string of words, word string
a linear sequence of words as spoken or written
an artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner
the use of closed-class words instead of inflections: e.g., `the father of the bride' instead of `the bride's father'
triteness or triviality of style
black humor, black humour
the juxtaposition of morbid and farcical elements (in writing or drama) to give a disturbing effect
something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect
eloquence, fluency, smoothness
powerful and effective language
any artificially elegant style of language
a want of animation or brilliance
expression, formulation
the style of expressing yourself
grandiloquence, grandiosity, magniloquence, ornateness, rhetoric
high-flown style; excessive use of verbal ornamentation
using the abbreviated style of headline writers
specialized technical terminology characteristic of a particular subject
the style in which newspapers are written
a style that uses the abstruse technical vocabulary of the law
delivery, manner of speaking, speech
your characteristic style or manner of expressing yourself orally
genre, music genre, musical genre, musical style
an expressive style of music
the style of writing characteristic of some government officials: formal and obscure
a style that has the power to evoke feelings
matter of fact, commonplace, or dull expression
using language effectively to please or persuade
coarseness, saltiness
language or humor that is down-to-earth
the expression of one's individuality (usually through creative activities)
barrage, bombardment, onslaught, outpouring
the rapid and continuous delivery of linguistic communication (spoken or written)
using long words
a neatly short and concise expressive style
turn of expression, turn of phrase
a distinctive spoken or written expression
a distinctive style or manner
verboseness, verbosity
an expressive style that uses excessive or empty words
genre, literary genre, writing style
a style of expressing yourself in writing
any communication resembling poetry in beauty or the evocation of feeling
language, oral communication, speech, speech communication, spoken communication, spoken language, voice communication
(language) communication by word of mouth
utterance, vocalization
the use of uttered sounds for auditory communication
something proposed (such as a plan or assumption)
offer, offering
something offered (as a proposal or bid)
entry, submission
something (manuscripts or architectural plans and models or estimates or works of art of all genres etc.) submitted for the judgment of others (as in a competition)
narration, narrative, story, tale
a message that tells the particulars of an act or occurrence or course of events; presented in writing or drama or cinema or as a radio or television program
packaging, promotion, promotional material, publicity
a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution
subject matter that is calculated to excite and please vulgar tastes
a sensational message (in a film or play or novel)
telepathy, thought transference
apparent communication from one mind to another without using sensory perceptions
apparent knowledge of distant events without using sensory perceptions
parapsychology, psychic phenomena, psychic phenomenon
phenomena that appear to contradict physical laws and suggest the possibility of causation by mental processes
a signal for attracting attention
electronic signal
a signal generated by electronic means
radio beacon
a characteristic signal emitted by a transmitter used for navigation
input, input signal
signal going into an electronic system
output, output signal
signal that comes out of an electronic system
(computer science) a message or message fragment
language characterized by excessive use of slang or cant
sprechgesang, sprechstimme
a style of dramatic vocalization between singing and speaking
voice over
the voice on an unseen commentator in a film of television program
letter of credit
a document issued by a bank that guarantees the payment of a customer's draft; substitutes the bank's credit for the customer's credit
certificate of indebtedness, debt instrument, obligation
a written promise to repay a debt
a document or receipt certifying release from an obligation or debt
a document that can serve as legal evidence of a transaction
Type of:
abstract entity, abstraction
a general concept formed by extracting common features from specific examples

n a connection allowing access between persons or places

“how many lines of communication can there be among four people?”
“a secret passageway provided communication between the two rooms”
Type of:
connectedness, connection, connexion
a relation between things or events (as in the case of one causing the other or sharing features with it)

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