biological process

Definitions of biological process
1

n a process occurring in living organisms

Synonyms:
organic process
Types:
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adaptation, adaption, adjustment
the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)
agglutination
a clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies (agglutinins)
ageing, aging, senescence
the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age
anovulation
the absence of ovulation due to immaturity or post-maturity or pregnancy or oral contraceptive pills or dysfunction of the ovary
antisepsis, asepsis
the process of inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms
absorption, assimilation
the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion
autoregulation
(physiology) processes that maintain a generally constant physiological state in a cell or organism
bacteriostasis
inhibition of the growth of bacteria
bloom, blooming
the organic process of bearing flowers
activity, bodily function, bodily process, body process
an organic process that takes place in the body
carbon cycle
the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
catabolism, destructive metabolism, dissimilation, katabolism
breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
cell division, cellular division
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
crossing over, crossover
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
defoliation
the loss of foliage
deossification
the loss of the mineral content of bone tissue
digestion
the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body
eburnation
a change that occurs in degenerative joint disease in which bone is converted into a dense smooth substance resembling ivory
ecchymosis
the escape of blood from ruptured blood vessels into the surrounding tissue to form a purple or black-and-blue spot on the skin
effacement
shortening of the uterine cervix and thinning of its walls as it is dilated during labor
erythropoiesis
the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in the bone marrow
eutrophication
excessive nutrients in a lake or other body of water, usually caused by runoff of nutrients (animal waste, fertilizers, sewage) from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life; the decomposition of the plants depletes the supply of oxygen, leading to the death of animal life
evolution, organic evolution, phylogenesis, phylogeny
(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
expression
(genetics) the process of expressing a gene
extravasation
the process of exuding or passing out of a vessel into surrounding tissues; said of blood or lymph or urine
gastrulation
the process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells
glycogenesis
the formation in animals of glycogen from glucose
development, growing, growth, maturation, ontogenesis, ontogeny
(biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level
haematogenesis, haematopoiesis, haemogenesis, haemopoiesis, hematogenesis, hematopoiesis, hemogenesis, hemopoiesis, sanguification
the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
heredity
the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
humification
the process of the formation of humus from plant remains
epistasis, hypostasis
the suppression of a gene by the effect of an unrelated gene
implantation, nidation
(embryology) the organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus of placental mammals
inhibition
(physiology) the process whereby nerves can retard or prevent the functioning of an organ or part
infolding, introversion, intussusception, invagination
the folding in of an outer layer so as to form a pocket in the surface
involution
reduction in size of an organ or part (as in the return of the uterus to normal size after childbirth)
cytokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
karyokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the nucleus of a cell during mitosis or meiosis
keratinisation, keratinization
organic process by which keratin is deposited in cells and the cells become horny (as in nails and hair)
Krebs citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle, citric acid cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle
in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy
lymphopoiesis
the formation of lymphocytes in the bone marrow and lymph nodes and thymus and spleen
lysogenisation, lysogenization
the process by which a bacterium acquires a phage that becomes integrated into its genome
maturation, maturement, ripening
coming to full development; becoming mature
metabolic process, metabolism
the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
metabolism, metamorphosis
the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
nitrogen cycle
the circulation of nitrogen; nitrates from the soil are absorbed by plants which are eaten by animals that die and decay returning the nitrogen back to the soil
nitrogen fixation
the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria
nondevelopment
failure of normal development to occur
nutrition
(physiology) the organic process of nourishing or being nourished; the processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance
organification
the process of organ formation
ossification
the developmental process of bone formation
ovulation
the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)
oxidative phosphorylation
an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP
birth, birthing, giving birth, parturition
the process of giving birth
pathologic process, pathological process
an organic process occurring as a consequence of disease
perennation
the process of living through a number of years (as a perennial plant)
preservation
a process that saves organic substances from decay
quellung, quellung reaction
the swelling of the capsule surrounding a microorganism after reaction with an antibody; the basis of certain tests for identifying microorganisms
quickening
the process of showing signs of life
regeneration
(biology) growth anew of lost tissue or destroyed parts or organs
regulation
(embryology) the ability of an early embryo to continue normal development after its structure has been somehow damaged or altered
replication
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
reproduction
the process of generating offspring
reabsorption, resorption
the organic process in which the substance of some differentiated structure that has been produced by the body undergoes lysis and assimilation
ageing, aging, ripening
acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
secernment, secretion
the organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance
segregation
(genetics) the separation of paired alleles during meiosis so that members of each pair of alleles appear in different gametes
shedding, sloughing
the process whereby something is shed
summation
(physiology) the process whereby multiple stimuli can produce a response (in a muscle or nerve or other part) that one stimulus alone does not produce
symphysis
a growing together of parts or structures
synapsis
the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis
synezesis, synizesis
the contraction of chromatin towards one side of the nucleus during the prophase of meiosis
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA; the process whereby a base sequence of messenger RNA is synthesized on a template of complementary DNA
transduction
(genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage
translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
folding, protein folding
the process whereby a protein molecule assumes its intricate three-dimensional shape
translocation
(genetics) an exchange of chromosome parts
translocation
the transport of dissolved material within a plant
transpiration
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
tumefaction
the process of tumefying; the organic process whereby tissue becomes swollen by the accumulation of fluid within it
ulceration
the process of ulcer formation; the process of becoming ulcerated
vascularisation, vascularization
the organic process whereby body tissue becomes vascular and develops capillaries
blistering, vesication, vesiculation
the formation of vesicles in or beneath the skin
fixation, fixing
(histology) the preservation and hardening of a tissue sample to retain as nearly as possible the same relations they had in the living body
embalmment
preservation (of a dead body) by treating with balsams and drugs and other chemicals
control
(physiology) regulation or maintenance of a function or action or reflex etc
cellular respiration, internal respiration, respiration
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic molecules; processes that take place in the cells and tissues during which energy is released and carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed by the blood to be transported to the lungs
breathing, external respiration, respiration, ventilation
the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation
respiration
a single complete act of breathing in and out
breath
the process of taking in and expelling air during breathing
consumption, ingestion, intake, uptake
the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
sex, sex activity, sexual activity, sexual practice
activities associated with sexual intercourse
insemination
the introduction of semen into the genital tract of a female
sleeping
the suspension of consciousness and decrease in metabolic rate
reaction, response
a bodily process occurring due to the effect of some antecedent stimulus or agent
crying, tears, weeping
the process of shedding tears (usually accompanied by sobs or other inarticulate sounds)
culture
(biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar)
ablactation
the cessation of lactation
abscission
shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant
acclimation, acclimatisation, acclimatization
adaptation to a new climate (a new temperature or altitude or environment)
agenesia, agenesis
imperfect development; nondevelopment of a part
amelogenesis
the developmental process of forming tooth enamel
amitosis
the direct method of cell division characterized by simple division of the nucleus without formation of chromosomes
anabolism, constructive metabolism
the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances (e.g., living tissue) from simpler ones together with the storage of energy
anamorphism, anamorphosis
the evolution of one type of organism from another by a long series of gradual changes
anastalsis
muscular action of the alimentary tract in a direction opposite to peristalsis
angiogenesis
the formation of new blood vessels
anthropogenesis, anthropogeny
the evolution or genesis of the human race
apposition
(biology) growth in the thickness of a cell wall by the deposit of successive layers of material
agamogenesis, asexual reproduction
reproduction without the fusion of gametes
auxesis
growth from increase in cell size without cell division
basal metabolism
the amount of energy required to maintain the body of an individual in a resting state
anthesis, blossoming, efflorescence, florescence, flowering, inflorescence
the time and process of budding and unfolding of blossoms
brooding, incubation
sitting on eggs so as to hatch them by the warmth of the body
calving
giving birth to a calf
catabiosis
normal aging of cells
caenogenesis, cainogenesis, cenogenesis, kainogenesis, kenogenesis
introduction during embryonic development of characters or structure not present in the earlier evolutionary history of the strain or species (such as the addition of the placenta in mammalian evolution)
accouchement, childbearing, childbirth, vaginal birth
the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
cleavage, segmentation
(embryology) the repeated division of a fertilised ovum
cohesion
(botany) the process in some plants of parts growing together that are usually separate (such as petals)
cultivation
the process of fostering the growth of something
cytogenesis, cytogeny
the origin and development and variation of cells
dedifferentiation
the loss of specialization in form or function
discharge, emission, expelling
any of several bodily processes by which substances go out of the body
domestication
adaptation to intimate association with human beings
emergent evolution
the appearance of entirely new properties at certain critical stages in the course of evolution
expectoration
the process of coughing up and spitting out
farrow, farrowing
the production of a litter of pigs
fat metabolism
a metabolic process that breaks down ingested fats into fatty acids and glycerol and then into simpler compounds that can be used by cells of the body
feminisation, feminization
the process of becoming feminized; the development of female characteristics (loss of facial hair or breast enlargement) in a male because of hormonal disorders or castration
festering, maturation, suppuration
(medicine) the formation of morbific matter in an abscess or a vesicle and the discharge of pus
foliation, leafing
(botany) the process of forming leaves
fructification
the bearing of fruit
galactosis
the secretion of milk
gametogenesis
the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis
gastric digestion
the process of breaking down proteins by the action of the gastric juice in the stomach
germination, sprouting
the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
glycolysis
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and releases energy for the body in the form of ATP
habit
the general form or mode of growth (especially of a plant or crystal)
hatch, hatching
the production of young from an egg
healing
the natural process by which the body repairs itself
haemagglutination, hemagglutination
agglutination of red blood cells
hemimetabolism, hemimetaboly, hemimetamorphosis
incomplete or partial metamorphosis in insects
heterometabolism, heterometaboly
development of insects with incomplete metamorphosis in which no pupal stage precedes maturity
holometabolism, holometaboly
complete metamorphosis in insects
hypersecretion
excessive secretion
hypostasis
the accumulation of blood in an organ
infection
(medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease
infructescence
the fruiting stage of the inflorescence
intussusception
(biology) growth in the surface area of a cell by the deposit of new particles between existing particles in the cell wall
isoagglutination
agglutination of an agglutinogen of one individual by a serum from another individual of the same species
juvenescence
the process of growing into a youth
lachrymation, lacrimation, tearing, watering
shedding tears
lactation
the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands
egg laying, laying
the production of eggs (especially in birds)
life cycle
the course of developmental changes in an organism from fertilized zygote to maturity when another zygote can be produced
macroevolution
evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups
malabsorption
abnormal absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
masculinisation, masculinization, virilisation, virilization
the abnormal development of male sexual characteristics in a female (usually as the result of hormone therapies or adrenal malfunction)
meiosis, miosis, reduction division
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; the nucleus divides into four nuclei each containing half the chromosome number (leading to gametes in animals and spores in plants)
mellowing
the process of becoming mellow
metastasis
the spreading of a disease (especially cancer) to another part of the body
microevolution
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
ecdysis, molt, molting, moult, moulting
periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles
morphallaxis
regeneration on a reduced scale of a body part; observed especially in invertebrates such as certain lobsters
morphogenesis
differentiation and growth of the structure of an organism (or a part of an organism)
myelinisation, myelinization
the development of a myelin sheath around a nerve fiber
neoplasia
the pathological process that results in the formation and growth of a tumor
neurogenesis
the development of nerve tissues
opsonisation, opsonization
process whereby opsonins make an invading microorganism more susceptible to phagocytosis
overactivity
excessive activity
palingenesis, recapitulation
emergence during embryonic development of various characters or structures that appeared during the evolutionary history of the strain or species
pathogenesis
the origination and development of a disease
peristalsis, vermiculation
the process of wavelike muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
diaphoresis, hidrosis, perspiration, sudation, sweating
the process of the sweat glands of the skin secreting a salty fluid
phagocytosis
process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris; an important defense against infection
pinocytosis
process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid
placentation
the formation of the placenta in the uterus
plastination
a process involving fixation and dehydration and forced impregnation and hardening of biological tissues; water and lipids are replaced by curable polymers (silicone or epoxy or polyester) that are subsequently hardened
proliferation
growth by the rapid multiplication of parts
psilosis
falling out of hair
psychogenesis
a general term for the origin and development of almost any aspect of the mind
psychogenesis
the development in the life of an individual of some disorder that is caused by psychological rather than physiological factors
psychomotor development
progressive acquisition of skills involving both mental and motor activities
psychosexual development
(psychoanalysis) the process during which personality and sexual behavior mature through a series of stages: first oral stage and then anal stage and then phallic stage and then latency stage and finally genital stage
infrigidation, refrigeration
the process of cooling or freezing (e.g., food) for preservative purposes
rooting
the process of putting forth roots and beginning to grow
salivation
the secretion of saliva
amphimixis, sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
differentiation, specialisation, specialization
(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
speciation
the evolution of a biological species
suppression
the failure to develop some part or organ
tanning
process in which skin pigmentation darkens as a result of exposure to ultraviolet light
dentition, odontiasis, teething
the eruption through the gums of baby teeth
teratogenesis
the development of defects in an embryo
transpiration
the process of giving off or exhaling water vapor through the skin or mucous membranes
vegetation
the process of growth in plants
childbed, confinement, labor, labour, lying-in, parturiency, travail
concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child
blood extravasation
the leakage of blood from a vessel into tissues surrounding it; can occur in injuries or burns or allergic reactions
urocele
extravasation of urine into the scrotal sac
Type of:
physical process, process
a sustained phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of states

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