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definitions & notes only words
  1. overwinter
    spend the winter
    5 Lincoln Brower wrote of his feeling on a warm March morning as he watched tens of thousands of these butterflies explode from their resting places on the trees at an overwintering site in Mexico: "Flying 10 against the azure sky and past the green boughs of the oyamels, this myriad of dancing embers reinforced my earlier conclusion that this spectacle is a treasure comparable to the finest works of art that 15 our world culture has produced over the past 4000 years."
  2. Lazzaro Spallanzani
    Italian physiologist who disproved the theory of spontaneous generation (1729-1799)
    I first confirmed the experiments of the Italian abbe, 25 Lazzaro Spallanzani, known also for his studies in gastric digestion.
  3. clone
    a genetically identical organism derived from a single cell
    Cloning” is the creation of a new individual from the
    unique DNA (or genetic information) of another.
  4. genotype
    the genetic makeup of a particular organism
    The cloned person may experience concerns about his
    or her distinctive identity, not only because the person will
    be in genotype (genetic makeup) and appearance identical to
    (5) another human being, but, in this case, because he or she
    may also be twin to the person who is the “father” or
    “mother”-if one can still call them that.
  5. lymphocyte
    an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection
    Another theory suggests that tonsils and the appendix might manufacture the antibody-producing white 10 blood cells called B lymphocytes; however, B lymphocytes could also be produced by bone marrow.
  6. light-year
    the distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1 year
    From a few light-years away, it announced, the Sun appears as a bright star, and the planets are not visible.
  7. orangutan
    large long-armed ape of Borneo and Sumatra having arboreal habits
    But Anne Line Russon, a psychologist, says she has found only about 20 5 recorded cases of possible pretending in free-ranging orangutans, culled from thousands of hours of observation.
  8. spontaneous generation
    a hypothetical organic phenomenon by which living organisms are created from nonliving matter
    By spontaneous generation,* as some believe?
  9. urbanize
    make more industrial or city-like
    The author's primary purpose in the Passage is to
    (A) introduce the narrative figure of the traveler
    (B) convey the excitement felt by the earliest explorers
    (C) encourage an appreciation of the Great Plains
    (D) establish the vanished beauty of western rivers
    (E) confirm the mysterious nature of the Great Plains

    8.For the author, a "biological edge" (line 13) represents a
    (A) place where communities mingle
    (B) barrier that separates different groups
    (C) contrast to an urbanized envir...
  10. tangency
    the state of being tangent
    These places have interesting frictions and incongruities,
    and often, if you stand at the point of tangency, you can
    see both sides better than if you were in the middle of either
    (40) one.
  11. monarch butterfly
    large migratory American butterfly having deep orange wings with black and white markings; the larvae feed on milkweed
    The migration and the winter gathering of monarch butterflies are among the most spectacular of all natural Line phenomena, unique in the insect world.
  12. herbivore
    any animal that feeds chiefly on grass and other plants
    It may have had the same purpose it has in present day 5 herbivores, where it harbors colonies of bacteria that help in the digestion of cellulose.
  13. chimp
    intelligent somewhat arboreal ape of equatorial African forests
    Scientists generally believe the reasoning abilities of chimps to be considerably greater 25 than that of dogs.
  14. Spallanzani
    Italian physiologist who disproved the theory of spontaneous generation (1729-1799)
    I first confirmed the experiments of the Italian abbe, 25 Lazzaro Spallanzani, known also for his studies in gastric digestion.
  15. biological process
    a process occurring in living organisms
    The author of the passage uses quotation marks in line13 in order to indicate that
    (A) this theory is the one with which the author most nearly agrees
    (B) this theory is less scientifically valid than the other theories in the passage
    (C) a common word is being used to describe a unique biological process
    (D) a word is being used in a humorous way
    (E) a direct quotation from another source is being used

    10.
  16. cassette tape
    a cassette that contains magnetic tape
    Under my desk I keep a large carton of cassette tapes.
  17. ice field
    a large flat mass of ice floating at sea
    What did amaze me about the potato-size rock that fell from Mars was that it had traveled millions of miles across space to land here, blasted from world to world by a planetary collision of the sort that purportedly killed off our dinosaurs, and had lain waiting 10 for millennia upon an Antarctic ice field, until an observant young woman traveling in an expedition party picked it up, because she figured that it had come from another world.
  18. sewer rat
    brown rat commonly found in sewers
    The Blackfeet, the lords of 35 the Great Plains and the prairie's most serious students, would no sooner have dined on catfish than we would on a dish of fricasseed sewer rat.
  19. meteorite
    a stony or metallic object from space that hits the earth
    For meteorites are more than just stars of science-fiction movies.
  20. chive
    perennial having hollow cylindrical leaves used for seasoning
    Nobody could stand to do it because the panels mirror your own face as well as the Line view behind your back: acres of chive grass edging the 5 sparkly beach, a movie-screen sky, and an ocean that wants you more than anything.
  21. Labrador retriever
    breed originally from Labrador having a short black or golden-brown coat
    Creature comforts are important to animals: "Grub first, then ethics" 10 is a motto that would describe many a wise Labrador retriever, and I have a bull terrier named Annie whose continual quest for the perfect pillow inspires her to awesome feats.
  22. marsh hawk
    common harrier of North America and Europe
    The
    75 hay wagon ahead cannot be gotten around; you are forced to reduce your own speed to the local standard, and so you see the marsh hawk circling above a pothole.
  23. natural immunity
    immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    Children have a natural immunity, most of them, and it shouldn't be tampered with.
  24. sterilize
    make free from bacteria
    I opened flasks of sterilized broth in the cellar of the Paris observatory, where the air was still.
  25. convolute
    rolled longitudinally upon itself
    The authors of both passages would most likely agree that recycling rules are
    (A) convoluted
    (B) commendable
    (C) unethical
    (D) antiquated
    (E) unenforceable

    13.
  26. goldilocks
    early-flowering perennial of southern and southeastern Europe with flower heads resembling those of goldenrod
    Yet, even though we have no picture of what they look like, enough information has been deduced about 55 their atmospheric conditions to grant the nickname Goldilocks to a planet attending the star 70 Virginis, an appellation suggesting that the cloud-top temperature is "just right," as the storybook Goldilocks would say, for the presence of liquid water.
  27. extraterrestrial
    originating, located, or occurring outside Earth
    On the morning of June 13, 1998, a 4.6-billion-year-old extraterrestrial object streaked into Earth's atmosphere and blew to pieces in the sky somewhere in the neighborhood Line of Nelda Wallace's backyard.
  28. golden retriever
    an English breed having a long silky golden coat
    The emblems of this are the golden retriever rolling in the grass, the horse with his nose deep in the oats, kitty by the fire.
  29. centric
    having or situated at or near a center
    The fact is, crossing the Atlantic was probably not as big a deal as Columbus- centric historians thought.
  30. Louis Pasteur
    French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
    Here he speaks as Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).
  31. circuitry
    electronic equipment consisting of a system of circuits
    But learning is impossible without innately organized circuitry to do the 105 learning, and these errors give us hints of how it works.
  32. biologist
    a scientist who studies living organisms
    (C) A biologist studies large areas of forest but fails to examine in depth the nesting site of a specific bird species.
  33. natural resource
    material in the environment that can be used by people
    So desperate is the situation that the Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has recognized the monarch migration as an endangered biological phenomenon and 30 has designated it the first priority in their effort to conserve the butterflies of the world.
  34. microbe
    a minute life form ; the term is not in technical use
    In this part of the lecture, Pasteur has just described his discovery of the effect of heating certain microbes that infect bottled beverages (the process later named pasteurization).
  35. blood cell
    either of two types of cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and sometimes including platelets
    Another theory suggests that tonsils and the appendix might manufacture the antibody-producing white 10 blood cells called B lymphocytes; however, B lymphocytes could also be produced by bone marrow.
  36. chimpanzee
    intelligent somewhat arboreal ape of equatorial African forests
    Which theoretical statement about pretending behavior in apes would be supported most fully by the "many researchers" mentioned in line 9 ?
    (A) Having the ability to pretend has enabled apes, such as chimpanzees, to be trained as performers.
  37. scientist
    a person with advanced knowledge of empirical fields
    This Passage 1s adapted from a series in which a college professor dramatizes the lectures of famous scientists from the past.
  38. genetic
    relating to the study of heredity and variation in organisms
    By “fingerprints of learning” (lines 96-97) the author primarily means
    (A) demonstration of sustained effort
    (B) indication of parental influence
    (C) results of faulty thinking
    (D) evidence of acquired information
    (E) illustration of genetic ability

    15.
  39. interconnection
    a state of being connected reciprocally
    When divisions are made according to country, the interconnections among events occurring in two or more countries may go unnoticed or remain unexplored.
  40. recyclable
    capable of being used again
    Collecting a ton of
    recyclable items is three times more expensive than collecting
    a ton of garbage because crews pick up less material
    at each stop.
  41. recycle
    use again after processing
    Who hasn’t experienced the
    annoyance of trying to satisfy complicated rules about what
    can and cannot be recycled?
  42. tonsil
    either of two masses of lymphatic tissue one on each side of the oral pharynx
    Another theory suggests that tonsils and the appendix might manufacture the antibody-producing white 10 blood cells called B lymphocytes; however, B lymphocytes could also be produced by bone marrow.
  43. solar system
    the sun with the celestial bodies that revolve around it
    I cannot resist comparing this new intimacy with our solar system to the shoebox diorama of the planets I designed for 30 my grade-school science fair.
  44. bull terrier
    a powerful short-haired terrier originated in England by crossing the bulldog with terriers
    Creature comforts are important to animals: "Grub first, then ethics" 10 is a motto that would describe many a wise Labrador retriever, and I have a bull terrier named Annie whose continual quest for the perfect pillow inspires her to awesome feats.
  45. pager
    an electronic device that generates a series of beeps when the person carrying it is being paged
    They are filled
    (5) with the voices of American doctors, interrupted occasionally
    by the clink of a coffee cup or beep of a pager.
  46. pothole
    a pit or cavity in a road produced by wear or weathering
    The
    75 hay wagon ahead cannot be gotten around; you are forced to reduce your own speed to the local standard, and so you see the marsh hawk circling above a pothole.
  47. meadowlark
    North American songbirds having a yellow breast
    A stray cow might cross in front of you and you will be obliged to stop to let it pass, and so you will chance to hear the song of the meadowlark on the fence post.
  48. replicate
    reproduce or make an exact copy of
    In context, the reference to the Academy of Sciences (line 35) serves to suggest why
    (A) Pasteur was so determined to make a significant contribution to scientific knowledge
    (B) Pasteur felt compelled to replicate Spallanzani’s experiments
    (C) spontaneous generation had already begun to be discredited when Pasteur began his experimentation
    (D) Pasteur believed he needed to design experiments that were more persuasive
    (E) spontaneous generation was viewed by Pasteur’s colleagues as a t...
  49. localize
    concentrate on a particular place or spot
    The third theory is that the appendix may “attract” body infections in order to localize the 15 infection in one spot that is not critical to body functioning.
  50. hazelnut
    any of several shrubs or small trees of the genus Corylus bearing edible nuts enclosed in a leafy husk
    In between school days, we gathered hazelnuts, fished, had long deer-hunting weekends, went to powwows, beaded on looms, and made quilts.
  51. kick-start
    start (a motorcycle) by means of a kick starter
    But the 50 noir cycle, although kick-started by the success of those high-budget productions, actually had its roots in the B movie, in particular, in the B crime movie.
  52. snapshot
    an informal photograph
    Emulating other 35 Impressionists, Cassatt composed the picture as a kind of photographic snapshot, or slice of life, but she employed the Impressionist emphasis on the act of seeing to assert the principle of 40 sexual equality with men.
  53. triplet
    one of three siblings born at the same time
    “You should treat all clones
    like you would treat all monozygous [identical] twins or
    triplets,” concludes Dr. H. Tristam Engelhardt, a professor
    of medicine at Baylor and a philosopher at Rice University.
  54. interaction
    mutual or reciprocal dealings or influence
    But many researchers believe 10 that interaction with humans —and the encouragement to pretend that comes with it—may play a major role in why domesticated apes playact more.
  55. humans
    all of the living human inhabitants of the earth
    Apes raised by humans seem to pretend more frequently than do apes in the wild.
  56. planetarium
    an apparatus or model for representing the solar systems
    The narrator suggests that the "echo-chamber effects, the music, the solemnity" (lines 59-60) are evidence that
    (A) most adults have feelings of great appreciation of the universe
    (B) most adults would rather not attend planetarium shows
    (C) contemporary scientists have an inflated view of the importance of their work
    (D) the show's promoters do not fully appreciate the true nature of the universe
    (E) the show's promoters understand that children are entranced by special effects

    Que...
  57. space-time
    the four-dimensional coordinate system (3 dimensions of space and 1 of time) in which physical events are located
    15 To Newton, it was a mystery why all particles fell at the same rate and followed identical orbits, but Einstein showed that
    these phenomena were a natural consequence of all bodies taking the same 20 "straightest" path in a space-time curved by mass and energy.
  58. biological
    pertaining to life and living things
    It is a biological edge.
  59. research project
    research into questions posed by scientific theories and hypotheses
    Russon's hypothesis would be most fully tested by which possible research project?
  60. scientific theory
    a theory that explains scientific observations
    16.In lines 5-12, the author suggests that the expeditionist's discovery of the meteorite was surprising primarily because it
    (A) defied scientists' doubts that such an object could reach Earth
    (B) occurred after her party had given up any hope of success
    (C) resulted from a seemingly unlikely sequence of events
    (D) provided evidence to contradict a long-standing scientific theory
    (E) led to an unprecedented degree of scrutiny

    17.In line 15, "designated" most nearly means
    (A) drawn
    (...
  61. scientific knowledge
    knowledge accumulated by systematic study and organized by general principles
    With few excep¬tions, past discourses on spontaneous generation have been 10 metaphysical exercises conducted with great passion, but without adding to our scientific knowledge.
  62. retriever
    a dog with heavy water-resistant coat that can be trained to retrieve game
    The emblems of this are the golden retriever rolling in the grass, the horse with his nose deep in the oats, kitty by the fire.
  63. myopia
    eyesight abnormality in which distant objects appear blurred
    It occurs to me that perhaps what we have here is one of those debates in which the opposing sides, unbeknownst to themselves, share a myopia that will turn out to be the most interesting and important feature of the whole discussion, a debate, for instance, like that of the Founding Fathers over the nature of the franchise.
  64. human being
    any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae characterized by superior intelligence, articulate speech, and erect carriage
    Chaplin's famous Tramp is a human being down and out on his luck but full of passion for life and hope that things will get better.
  65. complicate
    make less simple
    Given Chaplin's statement in lines 22-25 ("I ... laugh"), he would most likely view Passage 1's portrayal of the "famous Tramp" (line 5) as
    (A) misleading readers about his creative intention
    (B) disregarding his effort to render social commentary through humor
    (C) implying that the Tramp was derived from a comic strip
    (D) asserting that the Tramp was the only character he portrayed
    (E) assuming that few could embrace his ideas

    7.Compared to the description of Chaplin's Tramp in Passage 1, ...
  66. bacteria
    single-celled organisms that can cause disease
    I argued in vain—even before our 35 Academy of Sciences—that the putrefaction was caused by admission of bacteria.
  67. claustrophobic
    abnormally afraid of closed-in places
    Their primary action took place at night on rainswept city streets, in narrow ash-can 20 alleys, in claustrophobic diners, and in dingy, shadowy hotel rooms with neon signs flashing outside the windows, rooms in which, as hard-boiled author Nelson Algren once put it, "every bed you rent 25 makes you an accessory to somebody else's shady past."
  68. Einstein
    physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity; Einstein also proposed that light consists of discrete quantized bundles of energy (later called photons) (1879-1955)
    It is commonly claimed that Einstein "overthrew" Newtonian physics, but this claim is misleading.
  69. segregate
    divide from the main body or mass and collect
    Children have countless experiences communicating with people of both sexes: they do not learn to communicate in gender- segregated worlds.
  70. space travel
    a voyage outside the Earth's atmosphere
    The words "dodging and shrinking" (line 34) primarily suggest that the narrator was
    (A) somewhat bothered by the children in the audience
    (B) initially overwhelmed by the information being presented
    (C) unable to admit to some troubling feelings about astronomy
    (D) refusing to acknowledge the implications of space travel
    (E) unwilling to believe the studies being discussed

    21.
  71. imago
    an adult insect produced after metamorphosis
    The Passage is narrated from the point of view of
    (A) an employee of the Cote d’Azur hotel
    (B) an observer who is uninvolved in the action
    (C) Mrs. Van Hopper
    (D) a participant who is remembering the scene at a later time
    (E) a tourist who has just met Mrs. Van Hopper

    11.The "disease" mentioned in line 7 is best described as
    (A) total embarrassment at another person's behavior
    (B) a refusal to speak to anyone who is not wealthy
    (C) an intense need to avoid public notice
    (D) a violent tenden...
  72. planet
    a celestial body that revolves around the sun
    I cannot resist comparing this new intimacy with our solar system to the shoebox diorama of the planets I designed for 30 my grade-school science fair.
  73. Mars
    Roman god of war and agriculture
    What did amaze me about the potato-size rock that fell from Mars was that it had traveled millions of miles across space to land here, blasted from world to world by a planetary collision of the sort that purportedly killed off our dinosaurs, and had lain waiting 10 for millennia upon an Antarctic ice field, until an observant young woman traveling in an expedition party picked it up, because she figured that it had come from another world.
  74. light bulb
    electric lamp consisting of a transparent or translucent glass housing containing a wire filament (usually tungsten) that emits light when heated by electricity
    My mother argued that I had followed directions by doing the experiment by myself, which was more than you could say for third graders who'd brought dry-cell batteries that lit light bulbs and papier-mâché 45 volcanoes that belched colored lava.
  75. theory
    a belief that can guide behavior
    In defense of nonapplied science I have repeatedly told my students that without theory, practice is but routine.
  76. Martian
    of or relating to the planet Mars
    The rock that sprang to Martian "life" late last summer did not shock me by offering up apparent fossils of an extinct alien form of life.
  77. antibody
    a protein that produces an immune response
    Another theory suggests that tonsils and the appendix might manufacture the antibody-producing white 10 blood cells called B lymphocytes; however, B lymphocytes could also be produced by bone marrow.
  78. catfish
    any of numerous mostly freshwater bottom-living fishes of Eurasia and North America with barbels like whiskers around the mouth
    The Blackfeet, the lords of 35 the Great Plains and the prairie's most serious students, would no sooner have dined on catfish than we would on a dish of fricasseed sewer rat.
  79. quagmire
    a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot
    Many a scientist has floundered and perished in the quagmire of spontaneous generation."
  80. Newtonian
    of or relating to or inspired by Sir Isaac Newton or his science
    It is commonly claimed that Einstein "overthrew" Newtonian physics, but this claim is misleading.
  81. mockingbird
    long-tailed grey-and-white songbird of the southern United States able to mimic songs of other birds
    Or they may write only one 15 book, which ends up being a masterpiece, as Harper Lee did with To Kill a Mockingbird.
  82. dinosaur
    an extinct terrestrial reptile of the Mesozoic era
    What did amaze me about the potato-size rock that fell from Mars was that it had traveled millions of miles across space to land here, blasted from world to world by a planetary collision of the sort that purportedly killed off our dinosaurs, and had lain waiting 10 for millennia upon an Antarctic ice field, until an observant young woman traveling in an expedition party picked it up, because she figured that it had come from another world.
  83. galaxy
    a collection of star systems
    Similarly, our solar system, once considered unique, now stands as merely the first known example of a 45 planetary system in our galaxy.
  84. putrefaction
    the process of decay caused by bacterial or fungal action
    I argued in vain—even before our 35 Academy of Sciences—that the putrefaction was caused by admission of bacteria.
  85. ecological
    characterized by the interdependence of living organisms
    35 In August of 1986, the Mexican government issued a proclamation designating these sites as ecological preserves.
  86. antisocial
    shunning contact with others
    In many American suburbs such as the one where I grew20 up, a fence or a hedge along the street meant one thing: the family who lived behind it was antisocial, perhaps even had something to hide.
  87. analyze
    break down into components or essential features
    (B) Passage 1 explores how Chaplin expanded the Tramp's character; Passage 2 analyzes the Tramp's impact on audiences.
  88. food chain
    community of organisms where each member is eaten by another
    And so on, up and down the food chain.
  89. bone marrow
    the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones
    Another theory suggests that tonsils and the appendix might manufacture the antibody-producing white 10 blood cells called B lymphocytes; however, B lymphocytes could also be produced by bone marrow.
  90. rotate
    turn on or around an axis or a center
    Moonless Mercury rotating three times while circling the Sun twice; an odd arrangement, not as satisfying as what they used to tell us -that it rotated once as it circled the Sun.
  91. astronomer
    a physicist who studies celestial bodies and the universe
    Experts Line had stubbornly and rigorously analyzed readers' modest 5 capacity to dedicate their attention to the printed page and had established once and for all, apparently with the mathematical precision of astronomers, the order of readers' natural preferences.
  92. calorie
    unit of heat raising 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade
    Even a dry butterfly loses precious calories as its body heat radiates out to the cold night sky through holes in the canopy.
  93. documentation
    confirmation that some fact or statement is true
    The author of Passage 2 asserts that the Nees’ book is inferior to Strangers from a Different Shore in terms of its
    (A) purpose
    (B) readability
    (C) documentation
    (D) accuracy
    (E) range

    15.
  94. differentiate
    acquire a distinct character
    In context, “distinguish” (line 28) most nearly means
    (A) mark
    (B) differentiate
    (C) analyze
    (D) judge
    (E) discover

    11.
  95. apposition
    the act of placing close together or side by side
    This is especially true when the apposition is cultural.
  96. spate
    a sudden forceful flow
    These high-budget studio productions most 45 commonly come to the public's mind when
    the word noir is mentioned because they are cited most often in the spate of contemporary books
    that have recently been published on the subject.
  97. underline
    draw a line or lines underneath to call attention to
    Neither his theory of evolution nor any 5 general understanding of biology demanded that he preferentially underline our similarity to dogs over other species.
  98. emergence
    the act of coming out into view
    13.The author's discussion of Mozart in lines 25-28 primarily emphasizes the
    (A) role of social circumstances in the emergence of a musical genius
    (B) fact that young children are sometimes pushed to excel
    (C) observation that genius was more common in the past than it is today
    (D) belief that the harpsichord was the ideal musical instrument for Mozart's early talent
    (E) pleasure that artists derive from achievement

    14.
  99. evolve
    undergo development
    "There's been a lot said about how I evolved the little tramp character who made my name," said Chaplin.
  100. Pluto
    the god of the underworld in ancient mythology
    She'd want rings around Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, too, not to mention a moon for Pluto.
  101. buffer
    protect from impact
    40 Logging and agricultural development were to be prohibited in their core areas, a total area of only 17 square miles, and only limited logging was to be permitted in buffer zones surrounding the cores, a total 45 of another 43 miles.
  102. gene
    part of DNA controlling physical characteristics and growth
    If 65 the clock is partly under the control of genes, then identical twins should develop language in tighter synchrony than fraternal twins, who share only half their genes.
  103. cassette
    a flat case holding magnetic tape for playing sound or video
    Under my desk I keep a large carton of cassette tapes.
  104. white elephant
    a valuable possession whose upkeep is excessively expensive
    The old piers of Manhattan and Brooklyn languished-rotting, deserted white elephants.
  105. veterinarian
    a doctor who provides health care to animals
    The "experts" (line 53) would most likely argue that which of the following is guilty of the "sin" mentioned in line 58 ?
    (A) A veterinarian who is unwilling to treat a sick animal
    (B) A cat owner who believes his cat misses its siblings
    (C) A dog owner who is unwilling to punish her dog for misbehaving
    (D) A zoologist who places the interests of people before those of animals
    (E) A horse trainer who fails to recognize that his horse is hungry

    15.
  106. solar
    relating to the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun
    I cannot resist comparing this new intimacy with our solar system to the shoebox diorama of the planets I designed for 30 my grade-school science fair.
  107. planetary
    of or relating to a celestial body that orbits around a star
    What did amaze me about the potato-size rock that fell from Mars was that it had traveled millions of miles across space to land here, blasted from world to world by a planetary collision of the sort that purportedly killed off our dinosaurs, and had lain waiting 10 for millennia upon an Antarctic ice field, until an observant young woman traveling in an expedition party picked it up, because she figured that it had come from another world.
  108. fraternal
    like or characteristic of or befitting a brother
    If 65 the clock is partly under the control of genes, then identical twins should develop language in tighter synchrony than fraternal twins, who share only half their genes.
  109. microscopic
    so small as to be invisible without a magnifying device
    Families crammed their activities 30 into microscopic back-yards, the one place where the usefulness of fences and hedges seemed to outweigh their undemocratic connotations.
  110. convoluted
    highly complex or intricate
    The authors of both passages would most likely agree that recycling rules are
    (A) convoluted
    (B) commendable
    (C) unethical
    (D) antiquated
    (E) unenforceable

    13.
  111. scientifically
    with respect to science; in a scientific way
    In lines 36-41 ("Little girls ... relationships"), the author of Passage 1 assumes that for girls, a primary function of communication is to
    (A) foster a sense of intimacy between speaker and listener
    (B) establish a set of conversational rules shared by speaker and listener
    (C) convey information previously unknown by the listener
    (D) promote nostalgic feelings about past friendships
    (E) create an objective atmosphere for personal discussions

    18.The author of Passage 2 would most likely ...
  112. coma
    a state of deep and often prolonged unconsciousness
    It is because, while we have been arguing so fiercely about which books make the best medicine, the patient has been slipping deeper and deeper into a coma.
  113. wildlife
    all living things in an area that aren't tamed
    Colorado"), the author implies that viewing the plains from the prospect of a river might lead one to conclude that the plains are
    (A) less arid than they actually are
    (B) less populous than they actually are
    (C) rising more rapidly toward the mountains than they actually do
    (D) not fertile enough to sustain the growth of trees
    (E) not as arid as the desert

    11.The author mentions the Blackfeet (lines 34-40) primarily because
    (A) they appreciated the plains
    (B) they were experts in using th...
  114. hands-on
    involving active participation
    16.In lines 5-12, the author suggests that the expeditionist's discovery of the meteorite was surprising primarily because it
    (A) defied scientists' doubts that such an object could reach Earth
    (B) occurred after her party had given up any hope of success
    (C) resulted from a seemingly unlikely sequence of events
    (D) provided evidence to contradict a long-standing scientific theory
    (E) led to an unprecedented degree of scrutiny

    17.In line 15, "designated" most nearly means
    (A) drawn
    (B) call...
  115. penicillin
    antibiotic used in the treatment of infections and diseases
    (D) Penicillin, like many other discoveries, was stumbled on by accident.
  116. human beings
    all of the living human inhabitants of the earth
    He is complex and many-sided, thereby touching most human beings at one or more points in our character and makeup.
  117. sputter
    spit up in an explosive manner
    Now, what are we to make of this sputtering debate, in which charges of imperialism are met by equally passionate accusations of vandalism, in which each side hates the other, and yet each seems to have its share of reason?
  118. scalpel
    a thin straight surgical knife
    There Samuel sat each day, 20 painfully tallying his data, his pencil poised like a scalpel in his hand, frowning at the gruesome but inevitable task ahead of him.
  119. divergent
    tending to move apart in different directions
    With greatly divergent experiences,
    their brains would be wired differently.
  120. inhibit
    limit the range or extent of
    Rivers carry water, for instance, but the region of the Great Plains is by its nature arid-not so arid as the deserts, although for a long time the Great Plains were regarded as a desert, but arid enough to inhibit the growth of trees, 30 except along rivers.
  121. nurture
    provide with nourishment
    90 Children's speech errors, which make such engaging anecdotes in poetry, novels, television features and Web sites for parents, may help us untangle one of the thickest knots in science, nature and 95 nurture.
  122. splice
    join the ends of
    Now, when I play the tapes late at night, I imagine
    (50) what they would sound like if I could splice them together,
    so the voices of the Hmong and those of the American
    doctors could be heard on a single tape, speaking a
    common language.
  123. overt
    open and observable; not secret or hidden
    His overt melancholy aggravated his boss, for it made Samuel hard to approach.
  124. psychoanalysis
    a method for exploring mental phenomena and disorders
    95 Equally, don't forget that from the forties onward, Los Angeles was much beset by psychoanalysis, and the growing intellectual interest in guilt, depression, and nightmare.
  125. fissure
    a long narrow depression in a surface
    The bold precision of this assessment is for me the most 25 stunning surprise dealt by the rock from Mars-even more mind-boggling than the suggestive traces of something that might once have lived and died in its microscopic fissures.
  126. collie
    a silky-coated sheepdog with a long ruff and long narrow head developed in Scotland
    Yet as a dog trainer, I find myself siding more with the Meeks than I do with the learning theorists: nobody could believe dispassionately in the totality of positive and negative 65 reinforcement after seeing the pure intelligence shining in the face of a border collie intent upon helping a shepherd herd sheep.
  127. theory of evolution
    (biology) a scientific theory of the origin of species of plants and animals
    Neither his theory of evolution nor any 5 general understanding of biology demanded that he preferentially underline our similarity to dogs over other species.
  128. searcher
    someone making a search or inquiry
    Scientists covet them, private dealers scoop them up for resale at 10 spiraling prices, and professional searchers travel the world to hunt them down.
  129. cachet
    an indication of approved or superior status
    It might even add to a writer's cachet not to be on the list, to be in one way or another too heady, too daring, too exciting to be ground up into institutional fodder for teenagers.
  130. ecology
    the environment as it relates to living organisms
    Colorado"), the author implies that viewing the plains from the prospect of a river might lead one to conclude that the plains are
    (A) less arid than they actually are
    (B) less populous than they actually are
    (C) rising more rapidly toward the mountains than they actually do
    (D) not fertile enough to sustain the growth of trees
    (E) not as arid as the desert

    11.The author mentions the Blackfeet (lines 34-40) primarily because
    (A) they appreciated the plains
    (B) they were experts in using th...
  131. nutrient
    any substance that can be metabolized to give energy
    In the context of the passage as a whole, the "vital force" (line 60) is best described as
    (A) what Pasteur called the basic unit of life
    (B) a term that was outdated in Pasteur's time
    (C) nutrients necessary for sustaining life
    (D) that which has the power to destroy life
    (E) what opponents of Pasteur believed to be a source of life

    24.
  132. eyeglasses
    optical instrument consisting of a frame that holds a pair of lenses for correcting defective vision
    Eyeglasses on the end of a short handle.
  133. Jupiter
    supreme god of Romans; counterpart of Greek Zeus
    This crude assortment of materials allowed a reasonable representation of what was known 40 years
    35 ago about the nine planets: Mars was red and had two moons; Jupiter dwarfed the other planets (I should have used a basketball but it wouldn't fit in the box); Saturn had rings.
  134. emulate
    strive to equal or match, especially by imitating
    * A Latin phrase that means "confined garden"

    19.In line 1, "embraced" most nearly means
    (A) caressed
    (B) adopted
    (C) enfolded
    (D) included
    (E) encircled

    20.In lines 10-12, Frank J. Scott's observation implies that nature
    (A) is graceful and beautiful only in areas uninhabited by humans
    (B) should be available for all to enjoy without hindrance
    (C) must be incorporated into the design of American suburbs
    (D) exerts a more powerful effect on the British than on Americans
    (E) is less evident...
  135. shoreline
    a boundary line between land and water
    I like shorelines, weather fronts, international borders.
  136. paranoia
    a mental disorder characterized by delusions of persecution
    The well-lit, singing and tap-dancing, happy-ending world of the 1930's had in ten short years become a hostile, orderless place in which alienation, obsession, and paranoia ruled.
  137. gravitational
    of or relating to or caused by gravitation
    As yet, not one of these large planets -some of which
    50 are many times the mass of Jupiter-has actually been seen through a telescope; we know about them indirectly through the gravitational effects they exert on their parent stars.
  138. mucus
    protective secretion of membranes lining internal organs
    The mucus-covered creatures of the muddy river bottoms, the Blackfeet thought, were simply not the best the plains had to offer; far from being
    40 palatable, catfish were repulsive, disgusting.
  139. sinus
    an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface
    Researchers think they have pinpointed its former resting place to just two possible sites-a region called Sinus Sabaeus, fourteen degrees south of the Martian equator, or a crater east of the Hesperia Planitia region.
  140. ecosystem
    organisms interacting with their physical environment
    (B) Which ecosystems of the Great Plains are most exciting for visitors?
  141. atmospheric
    relating to or located in the mass of air surrounding Earth
    Yet, even though we have no picture of what they look like, enough information has been deduced about 55 their atmospheric conditions to grant the nickname Goldilocks to a planet attending the star 70 Virginis, an appellation suggesting that the cloud-top temperature is "just right," as the storybook Goldilocks would say, for the presence of liquid water.
  142. human
    a person; a hominid with a large brain and articulate speech
    Though it deals with the most desperate effects of rage, jealousy, and Line revenge, it rarely touches the heights and depths of 5 human passion.
  143. empathy
    understanding and entering into another's feelings
    The “sensations” (line 7) might best be described as feelings of
    (A) anger and bitterness
    (B) reverence and gratitude
    (C) dejection and isolation
    (D) nostalgia and serenity
    (E) empathy and concern

    16.
  144. neon
    a colorless odorless gaseous element that give a red glow in a vacuum tube; one of the six inert gasses; occurs in the air in small amounts
    Their primary action took place at night on rainswept city streets, in narrow ash-can 20 alleys, in claustrophobic diners, and in dingy, shadowy hotel rooms with neon signs flashing outside the windows, rooms in which, as hard-boiled author Nelson Algren once put it, "every bed you rent 25 makes you an accessory to somebody else's shady past."
  145. monstrosity
    a person or animal that is markedly unusual or deformed
    The phrase "horrible immensities" (line 54) primarily indicates
    (A) exaggerated information
    (B) unforeseen events
    (C) historical monstrosities
    (D) controversial debates
    (E) incomprehensible realities

    24.
  146. environment
    the totality of surrounding conditions
    The author's primary purpose in the Passage is to
    (A) introduce the narrative figure of the traveler
    (B) convey the excitement felt by the earliest explorers
    (C) encourage an appreciation of the Great Plains
    (D) establish the vanished beauty of western rivers
    (E) confirm the mysterious nature of the Great Plains

    8.For the author, a "biological edge" (line 13) represents a
    (A) place where communities mingle
    (B) barrier that separates different groups
    (C) contrast to an urbanized environme...
  147. Uranus
    god of the heavens
    She'd want rings around Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, too, not to mention a moon for Pluto.
  148. altruism
    the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others
    In line 61, the “difference” is between
    (A) selfishness and altruism
    (B) desire and practicality
    (C) intuitive knowledge and learned knowledge
    (D) love for family and love for friends
    (E) duty to the past and fear of the future

    16.By using Sophie's name (line 65) instead of "you," Joseph is attempting to
    (A) pose as a narrator of a story
    (B) approach a frightening topic gradually
    (C) make Sophie consider a new perspective
    (D) appear unconcerned about Sophie's attitude
    (E) pretend tha...
  149. counterbalance
    a weight that balances another weight
    In line 11, "competing" portrays the members of the author's family as
    (A) vying for the mother's attention
    (B) feeling eager to tell their own stories
    (C) taking issue with each other over household duties
    (D) selectively sharing information about their experiences
    (E) comparing educational accomplishments

    8.The third paragraph (lines 15-27) presents the author's third-grade teacher as being primarily
    (A) critical of the author's grandiose ambitions
    (B) disillusioned about her students' la...
  150. residue
    matter that remains after something has been removed
    Residues of this idea persist, of course; we still regard and write about nature 50 with high moral purpose (an approach that still produces a great deal of pious prose).
  151. genetics
    the study of heredity and variation in organisms
    In paragraph 6 (lines 90 to 102), the author suggests that children’s speech errors
    (A) are overused as examples in literature and art
    (B) have important scientific implications
    (C) can be easily unlearned
    (D) indicate problems with linguistic rules
    (E) are solely determined by genetics

    16.
  152. popcorn
    corn having small ears and kernels that burst when exposed to dry heat
    Words that jump out of New York Creole1 conversations, like the last kernel in a cooling popcorn machine.
  153. simulate
    reproduce someone's behavior or looks
    As for the adults who would deplore it, the ones who promoted this show, weren't they immune themselves to the extent that they could put in the echo-chamber effects, 60 the music, the solemnity, simulating the awe that they supposed they ought to feel?
  154. feedback
    the process in which output of a system is returned to input
    They must have a built-in tendency to block the rule when a competing form (like bled) is found in memory, because there is no way they could learn the blocking principle in the 120 absence of usable feedback from their parents.
  155. cellulose
    a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
    It may have had the same purpose it has in present day 5 herbivores, where it harbors colonies of bacteria that help in the digestion of cellulose.
  156. Darwin
    English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
    Passage 1
    It was no accident that nineteenth-century naturalist Charles Darwin strove to connect the mentality and emotionality of people with that of dogs, rather than, say, Line doves or horses.
  157. poacher
    someone who hunts or fishes illegally
    Nelda Wallace's town was about to be invaded by meteorite dealers, meteorite fans, meteorite poachers, and other alien life-forms.
  158. scientific research
    research into questions posed by scientific theories and hypotheses
    Based on lines 63-67 ("nobody ... sheep"), the author of Passage 2 would most likely appear to the author of Passage 1 as
    (A) a neutral observer of animal behavior
    (B) well informed concerning research into animal intelligence
    (C) having a deep fondness for border collies and therefore overestimating them
    (D) having little respect for traditional scientific research
    (E) having a narrow understanding of what constitutes intelligence

    17.
  159. radiate
    send out rays or waves
    Even a dry butterfly loses precious calories as its body heat radiates out to the cold night sky through holes in the canopy.
  160. gastric
    relating to or involving the stomach
    I first confirmed the experiments of the Italian abbe, 25 Lazzaro Spallanzani, known also for his studies in gastric digestion.
  161. infect
    contaminate with a disease
    In this part of the lecture, Pasteur has just described his discovery of the effect of heating certain microbes that infect bottled beverages (the process later named pasteurization).
  162. mediate
    act between parties with a view to reconciling differences
    Against
    (10) a background of babies crying, children playing, doors
    slamming, dishes clattering, a television yammering, and an
    air conditioner wheezing, I can hear the mother’s voice, by
    turns breathy, nasal, gargly, or humlike as it slides up and
    down the Hmong language’s eight tones; the father’s voice,
    (15) louder, slower, more vehement; and my interpreter’s voice,
    mediating in Hmong and English, low and deferential in
    each.
  163. Charles Darwin
    English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
    Passage 1
    It was no accident that nineteenth-century naturalist Charles Darwin strove to connect the mentality and emotionality of people with that of dogs, rather than, say, Line doves or horses.
  164. totality
    the state of being total and complete
    Yet as a dog trainer, I find myself siding more with the Meeks than I do with the learning theorists: nobody could believe dispassionately in the totality of positive and negative 65 reinforcement after seeing the pure intelligence shining in the face of a border collie intent upon helping a shepherd herd sheep.
  165. orbit
    the path of a celestial body in its revolution about another
    Since October of 1995, astronomers at ground-based observatories in Europe and the United States have announced that they've found evidence of at least seven alien planets orbiting other stars.
  166. symmetry
    balance among the parts of something
    Undaunted by my response, Herd demanded that I connect (thankfully without perfect symmetry) my biology and autobiography, my race and gender, my being a Black 40 woman, to my skill as a historian, and write for her and for the local chapter members of the National Council a history of Black women in Indiana.
  167. auditory
    of or relating to the process of hearing
    The Passage is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
    (A) visual imagery
    (B) auditory descriptions
    (C) contrast
    (D) an appeal to reason
    (E) hypothetical musings

    10.
  168. Milky Way
    the galaxy containing the solar system
    The Milky Way galaxy appeared, was moving closer; stars swam into brilliance and kept on going, disappearing beyond the edges of the sky-screen or behind my head.
  169. biology
    the science that studies living organisms
    Undaunted by my response, Herd demanded that I connect (thankfully without perfect symmetry) my biology and autobiography, my race and gender, my being a Black 40 woman, to my skill as a historian, and write for her and for the local chapter members of the National Council a history of Black women in Indiana.
  170. high-level
    at an elevated level in rank or importance
    The intensity of our 35 relationship with dogs causes us, quite naturally, to imbue them with high-level mental abilities, whether they have earned those extra intelligence points or not.
  171. trackless
    having no tracks
    The plains, 50 on the other hand, open out, unfold, beg the long and trackless view.
  172. evanescent
    short-lived; tending to vanish or disappear
    They dichotomize time into past and nonpast, and correlate half the timeline with the 115 evanescent word ending.
  173. loon
    large somewhat primitive fish-eating diving bird of the northern hemisphere having webbed feet placed far back; related to the grebes
    I’m thankful for those experiences of my Anishinaabe heritage, because now I know by heart not only the national anthem, but the ancient song of the loon.
  174. Saturn
    god of agriculture and vegetation
    This crude assortment of materials allowed a reasonable representation of what was known 40 years
    35 ago about the nine planets: Mars was red and had two moons; Jupiter dwarfed the other planets (I should have used a basketball but it wouldn't fit in the box); Saturn had rings.
  175. medical
    relating to the study or practice of medicine
    Sophie’s response in line 56 reveals that she
    (A) is anxious to impress others
    (B) is reluctant to confess her deepest fears
    (C) is single-minded in her dedication to a medical career
    (D) has apparently decided that she should hide her heritage from Joseph
    (E) has rarely questioned the decisions others have made for her

    15.
  176. intrusive
    tending to enter uninvited
    I had never even thought about Black women as historical 15 subjects with their own relations to a state’s history, and I thought her invitation and phone call extraordinarily intrusive.
  177. appendix
    a small sac attached to the large intestines of some animals
    What was most likely the original purpose of the human appendix?
  178. isolate
    place or set apart
    But who had lived at this isolated
    site and for what purpose?
  179. precursor
    something indicating the approach of something or someone
    In lines 36-37, the phrase "photographic snapshot" is probably meant to suggest that Cassatt
    (A) created the painting to resemble a photograph
    (B) used a style that was a precursor to photographic art
    (C) portrayed the woman in an everyday situation
    (D) made the woman appear as though she were posing for a photograph
    (E) depicted the woman as caught off guard by the man in the painting

    24.
  180. spacecraft
    a craft capable of traveling in outer space
    8.The author places the word "straightest" (line 20) in quotation marks most probably in order to
    (A) make the concept easier for readers to remember
    (B) indicate that the word is not being used literally
    (C) stress the differences between Newton's and Einstein's ideas
    (D) suggest that the word's meaning may change at some point in the future
    (E) show that Einstein is being quoted

    9.In the author's view, an advantage of "Einstein's theory" over "Newton's law" is that it deals with
    (A) the M...
  181. conserve
    keep in safety and protect from harm, loss, or destruction
    So desperate is the situation that the Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has recognized the monarch migration as an endangered biological phenomenon and 30 has designated it the first priority in their effort to conserve the butterflies of the world.
  182. cereal
    grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat
    At around eighteen months children start to utter two word microsentences like "See baby" and "More cereal."
  183. formula
    a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement
    Passage 2
    I think what was really gnawing at Dorothy Sayers in 15 her critique of the detective story was the realization that her kind of detective story was an arid formula unable to satisfy its own implications.
  184. observatory
    a building equipped to view astronomical phenomena
    I opened flasks of sterilized broth in the cellar of the Paris observatory, where the air was still.
  185. analysis
    abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts
    The reasoning process presented in lines 49-53 (“As ... stars”) is best described as
    (A) inference based on an untested theory
    (B) extrapolation from similar situations
    (C) analysis of a single case by multiple observers
    (D) hypothesis confirmed by direct observation
    (E) comparison of theory with physical evidence

    23.In lines 53-59 the author refers to the Goldilocks fairy tale ("Yet ... water") in order to make which point about a particular planet?
  186. frontal
    belonging to the front part
    As it turned out, the encounters were messy but rarely
    frontal.
  187. baffle
    be a mystery or bewildering to
    It can be inferred from lines 27-33 that “collisions” was NOT an apt description because the
    (A) clash between Hmong patients and medical staff was indirect and baffling
    (B) Hmong patients and the medical staff were not significantly affected by the encounters
    (C) medical staff was not responsible for the dissatisfaction of the Hmong patients
    (D) misunderstandings between the Hmong patients and the medical staff were easy to resolve
    (E) disagreement reached beyond particular individua...
  188. transcribe
    write out, as from speech or notes
    Though they have all been transcribed, I still like to listen
    to them from time to time.
  189. Moon
    the natural satellite of the Earth
    Newton's law still Line describes motions in the Solar System 5 with good precision and is adequate for programming the trajectories of space probes to the Moon and planets.
  190. linear
    involving a single dimension
    But after getting to know the Lees family and their
    daughter’s doctors and realizing how hard it was to blame
    anyone, I stopped analyzing the situation in such linear
    terms.
  191. science
    a branch of study or knowledge involving the observation, investigation, and discovery of general laws or truths that can be tested systematically
    In defense of nonapplied science I have repeatedly told my students that without theory, practice is but routine.
  192. primate
    any mammal of the group including monkeys, apes, and humans
    But 20 while all dog owners should rightly appreciate these and other endearing traits in their pets, nothing says that the cleverness of a highly intelligent primate such as a chimpanzee is part of the package.
  193. buoyancy
    the tendency to float in water or other liquid
    30 This was a simple buoyancy experiment where I weighed each object in the air and then in water, to prove they weighed less in water.
  194. canine
    a dog or related mammal
    In the preface to one of his many dog stories, S. P. Meek a bit shamefacedly remarked that in writing of dogs "I endeavored to hold these heroes down to the level of canine intelligence, and to make them, above all, believable.
  195. digestion
    the process by which the body breaks down food
    I first confirmed the experiments of the Italian abbe, 25 Lazzaro Spallanzani, known also for his studies in gastric digestion.
  196. intolerant
    unwilling to tolerate difference of opinion
    French word for “yes,” pronounced “we”

    10.Sophie "hated" (line 9) her school because
    (A) she resented how hard her mother had to work to send her there
    (B) she had little exposure to English
    (C) it was in a neighborhood that seemed foreign and unfriendly
    (D) the courses were too difficult
    (E) the teachers were intolerant of her language errors

    11.The comparison in line 15 emphasizes the
    (A) halting way in which Sophie thought she read
    (B) powerful impact of the words Sophie read alo...
  197. particle
    (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything
    15 To Newton, it was a mystery why all particles fell at the same rate and followed identical orbits, but Einstein showed that
    these phenomena were a natural consequence of all bodies taking the same 20 "straightest" path in a space-time curved by mass and energy.
  198. precision
    the quality of being exact
    Experts Line had stubbornly and rigorously analyzed readers' modest 5 capacity to dedicate their attention to the printed page and had established once and for all, apparently with the mathematical precision of astronomers, the order of readers' natural preferences.
  199. telegraphic
    of or relating to or transmitted by telegraph
    Some are simply telegraphic renditions of their 45 parents' speech, but many are original productions.
  200. geologist
    a specialist in the history of the Earth recorded in rocks
    16.In lines 5-12, the author suggests that the expeditionist's discovery of the meteorite was surprising primarily because it
    (A) defied scientists' doubts that such an object could reach Earth
    (B) occurred after her party had given up any hope of success
    (C) resulted from a seemingly unlikely sequence of events
    (D) provided evidence to contradict a long-standing scientific theory
    (E) led to an unprecedented degree of scrutiny

    17.In line 15, "designated" most nearly means
    (A) drawn
    (B) call...
  201. fluid
    continuous amorphous matter that tends to flow
    The fluid remained sterile so long as the flask was maintained in the vertical position.
  202. universe
    everything that exists anywhere
    I had long believed that the universe teems Line with life elsewhere, and that our failure to find it simply 5 results from a lack of exploration.
  203. friction
    the resistance when a body is moved in contact with another
    The sociolinguistic approach I take in my work is based on my belief that many frictions arise because, here in the United States, boys and girls grow up in what are essentially 30 different cultures, so that talk between women and men is actually cross-cultural communication.
  204. medical school
    a graduate school offering study leading to a medical degree
    In line 61, the “difference” is between
    (A) selfishness and altruism
    (B) desire and practicality
    (C) intuitive knowledge and learned knowledge
    (D) love for family and love for friends
    (E) duty to the past and fear of the future

    16.By using Sophie's name (line 65) instead of "you," Joseph is attempting to
    (A) pose as a narrator of a story
    (B) approach a frightening topic gradually
    (C) make Sophie consider a new perspective
    (D) appear unconcerned about Sophie's attitude
    (E) pretend that he is...
  205. evolutionary
    relating to the development of a species
    But politically and emotionally, the choice was inevitable for an English gentleman who had set himself the task of making the idea of evolutionary continuity 10 palatable.
  206. retrieve
    get or find back; recover the use of
    The Passage is narrated from the point of view of
    (A) an employee of the Cote d’Azur hotel
    (B) an observer who is uninvolved in the action
    (C) Mrs. Van Hopper
    (D) a participant who is remembering the scene at a later time
    (E) a tourist who has just met Mrs. Van Hopper

    11.The "disease" mentioned in line 7 is best described as
    (A) total embarrassment at another person's behavior
    (B) a refusal to speak to anyone who is not wealthy
    (C) an intense need to avoid public notice
    (D) a violent tenden...
  207. static
    not in physical motion
    (E) The author of Passage 1 considers intelligence to be developed over time, whereas the author of Passage 2 shows that it is largely static.
  208. liquid
    fluid matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
    In his conclusive experiment, Pasteur kept the flasks vertical (line 64) in order to
    (A) prevent fresh air from entering them
    (B) retain the boiling liquid inside the flasks
    (C) prevent the fluid from touching trapped bacteria
    (D) avoid disturbing the solution inside
    (E) replicate his previous experiments exactly

    Questions 6-7 are based on the following passage.
  209. stimulant
    any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action
    13.In lines 1 through 4 of Passage 1, the author suggests that "films now called film noir by critics"
    (A) were not classified as film noir when first made
    (B) were reminiscent of earlier European films
    (C) were uplifting in mood and theme
    (D) were intended to contrast with films of the 1930's
    (E) were disliked by many French film critics

    14.It can be inferred that the films listed in lines 9 through 12 were similar in each of the following ways EXCEPT:
    (A) visual appearance
    (B) emotional e...
  210. diffusion
    the act of dispersing something
    " Diffusion theory" is an umbrella idea encompassing various alternative theories of America's discovery by explorers from other parts of the world.
  211. reflex
    an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus
    The primary purpose of the Passage is to
    (A) celebrate life’s mundane but gratifying pleasures
    (B) convey the overwhelming confusion of everyday life
    (C) explore the biological implications of a person’s decisions
    (D) suggest the complexity of perceptual processes
    (E) present a scientific analysis of an automatic reflex

    Questions 13-24 are based on the following passage.
  212. evolution
    sequence of events involved in the development of a species
    (A) Passage 1 explains the evolution of a genre, while Passage 2 challenges the notion of a distinct genre.
  213. reproduction
    the act of making copies
    Passage 1
    Any wildlife biologist can tell you how many deer a given area can support-how much browse there is for the deer to eat before they begin to suppress the Line reproduction of trees, before they begin to starve in 5 the winter.
  214. crater
    a bowl-shaped geological formation at the top of a volcano
    Researchers think they have pinpointed its former resting place to just two possible sites-a region called Sinus Sabaeus, fourteen degrees south of the Martian equator, or a crater east of the Hesperia Planitia region.
  215. dominance
    the power or right to give orders or make decisions
    The same child may display dominance and give orders to a younger playmate but show deference and follow orders from an older friend.
  216. infusion
    the act of introducing a modifying element or quality
    I boiled a nutri¬tious infusion in a flask with a long curved neck like this one.
  217. mentality
    a habitual or characteristic attitude of the mind
    Passage 1
    It was no accident that nineteenth-century naturalist Charles Darwin strove to connect the mentality and emotionality of people with that of dogs, rather than, say, Line doves or horses.
  218. competence
    the quality of being adequately or well qualified
    I simply had not envi55sioned its historical meaning.

    * tenure: a permanent position, often granted to a teacher after a specified number of years of demonstrated competence

    10.
  219. data
    a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
    (A) Examining data from observations of pretending behavior in apes other than orangutans
    (B) Expanding ongoing observations of orangutans to include pretending behavior
    (C) Documenting pretending behavior among orangutans raised by humans
    (D) Comparing specific pretending behaviors in free-ranging and domesticated orangutans
    (E) Reviewing existing data on free-ranging orangutans to determine the earliest record of pretending behavior

    9.
  220. kernel
    a single whole grain of a cereal
    Words that jump out of New York Creole1 conversations, like the last kernel in a cooling popcorn machine.
  221. mimic
    imitate, especially for satirical effect
    “More outside” and “Allgone sticky” (lines 46 and 47-48) are examples of
    (A) overgeneralization errors frequently made by children
    (B) exceptional instances of children’s language use
    (C) children’s attempts to communicate by thinking rather than mimicking
    (D) speech used by parents to communicate with their children
    (E) sentences displaying children’s use of grammatical morphemes

    14.
  222. browse
    feed as in a meadow or pasture
    In college, young people continue to be assigned certain books, but far more important are the books they discover for themselves browsing in the library, in bookstores, on the shelves of friends, one book leading to another, back and forth in history and across languages and cultures.
  223. reflective
    capable of physically throwing back light or sound
    Colorado"), the author implies that viewing the plains from the prospect of a river might lead one to conclude that the plains are
    (A) less arid than they actually are
    (B) less populous than they actually are
    (C) rising more rapidly toward the mountains than they actually do
    (D) not fertile enough to sustain the growth of trees
    (E) not as arid as the desert

    11.The author mentions the Blackfeet (lines 34-40) primarily because
    (A) they appreciated the plains
    (B) they were experts in using th...
  224. terrier
    any of several breeds of small, short-bodied dog
    Creature comforts are important to animals: "Grub first, then ethics" 10 is a motto that would describe many a wise Labrador retriever, and I have a bull terrier named Annie whose continual quest for the perfect pillow inspires her to awesome feats.
  225. intensive
    characterized by a heightened level or degree
    The word "extended" in line 2 most nearly means
    (A) prolonged
    (B) expanded
    (C) removed
    (D) allocated
    (E) intensive

    11.
  226. compatible
    able to exist and perform in harmonious combination
    The author invokes "the Founding Fathers" (lines 9-10) chiefly in order to
    (A) appeal to the reader's sense of patriotism
    (B) introduce a historical parallel
    (C) examine the history of legislative debate
    (D) remind the reader how attitudes change over time
    (E) suggest that progress is compatible with tradition

    16.
  227. dolphin
    any of various small toothed whales with a beaklike snout
    To compare intelligence
    80 in creatures that have evolved differently is a bit like deciding which has hit upon the best mode of travel: the dolphin or the horse."
  228. rudimentary
    being in the earliest stages of development
    In lines 35-39 ("In college ... cultures"), the education illustrated is best described as
    (A) elitist
    (B) philanthropic
    (C) eclectic
    (D) methodical
    (E) rudimentary

    22.
  229. elevate
    raise from a lower to a higher position
    The word "lift" in line 5 most closely means
    (A) raise
    (B) elevate
    (C) make better
    (D) boost up
    (E) take

    8.
  230. alcoholic
    characteristic of or containing volatile hydroxyl compounds
    *The period from 1920 to 1933 during which alcoholic beverages were prohibited by law in the United States.
  231. activate
    put in motion
    The phrase “attend to” in lines 106-107 most closely means
    (A) look after
    (B) notice
    (C) activate
    (D) be present to
    (E) associate with

    18.
  232. habitat
    the type of environment in which an organism normally lives
    The third paragraph is best described as
    (A) an account of a natural struggle for survival
    (B) a comparison between two types of environments
    (C) a description of a disruption in an ecological system
    (D) a demonstration of successful efforts to preserve an environment
    (E) a guideline for opposing the destruction of a crucial habitat

    9.
  233. psychologist
    a specialist in the science of mental life
    But Anne Line Russon, a psychologist, says she has found only about 20 5 recorded cases of possible pretending in free-ranging orangutans, culled from thousands of hours of observation.
  234. immune
    of the condition in which an organism can resist disease
    As for the adults who would deplore it, the ones who promoted this show, weren't they immune themselves to the extent that they could put in the echo-chamber effects, 60 the music, the solemnity, simulating the awe that they supposed they ought to feel?
  235. Mercury
    messenger of Jupiter and god of commerce
    Moonless Mercury rotating three times while circling the Sun twice; an odd arrangement, not as satisfying as what they used to tell us -that it rotated once as it circled the Sun.
  236. programming
    setting an order and time for planned events
    Newton's law still Line describes motions in the Solar System 5 with good precision and is adequate for programming the trajectories of space probes to the Moon and planets.
  237. human body
    alternative names for the body of a human being
    (B) It concerns a physical process that occurs in more than one area of the human body.
  238. mania
    an irrational but irresistible motive for a belief or action
    Her curiosity was a disease, almost a mania.
  239. DNA
    a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell
    “Cloning” is the creation of a new individual from the
    unique DNA (or genetic information) of another.
  240. falcon
    a diurnal bird of prey
    Among the films shown were Laura; 10 The Maltese Falcon; Murder, My Sweet; Double Indemnity; and The Woman in the Window.
  241. component
    one of the individual parts making up a larger entity
    The author of Passage 1 mentions two sports stars (lines 31-33) in order to
    (A) argue against genetic analysis of any sports star’s physical abilities
    (B) distinguish between lasting fame and mere celebrity
    (C) clarify the crucial role of rigorous, sustained training
    (D) highlight the need for greater understanding of the athletes’ genetic data
    (E) suggest that athletes’ special skills have a genetic component

    20.
  242. equator
    an imaginary line around the Earth forming a great circle
    Researchers think they have pinpointed its former resting place to just two possible sites-a region called Sinus Sabaeus, fourteen degrees south of the Martian equator, or a crater east of the Hesperia Planitia region.
  243. obstruction
    any structure that makes progress difficult
    Colorado"), the author implies that viewing the plains from the prospect of a river might lead one to conclude that the plains are
    (A) less arid than they actually are
    (B) less populous than they actually are
    (C) rising more rapidly toward the mountains than they actually do
    (D) not fertile enough to sustain the growth of trees
    (E) not as arid as the desert

    11.The author mentions the Blackfeet (lines 34-40) primarily because
    (A) they appreciated the plains
    (B) they were experts in using th...
  244. marrow
    network of connective tissue filling the cavities of bones
    Another theory suggests that tonsils and the appendix might manufacture the antibody-producing white 10 blood cells called B lymphocytes; however, B lymphocytes could also be produced by bone marrow.
  245. repressed
    characterized by the suppression of impulses or emotions
    A central purpose of the Passage is to
    (A) illustrate the character of the author’s mother
    (B) portray the admissions process for boarding schools at that time
    (C) show the author’s repressed hostility toward her mother
    (D) comment on examples of racism in the United States
    (E) reveal how the author became skeptical of human nature

    Online Course Test-4
    Questions 9-12 are based on the following passages.
  246. immunity
    the condition in which an organism can resist disease
    Children have a natural immunity, most of them, and it shouldn't be tampered with.
  247. diagnosis
    identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
    (E) A doctor diagnoses one ailment but overlooks elements of the patient's overall health.
  248. procedure
    a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
    Perhaps they were not careful to follow my procedures.
  249. sterile
    incapable of reproducing
    The fluid remained sterile so long as the flask was maintained in the vertical position.
  250. laboratory
    a workplace for the conduct of scientific research
    The focus of the lecture is on how Pasteur
    (A) disproved an erroneous theory
    (B) documented and published his experiments
    (C) developed a process for killing microbes
    (D) applied his findings on spontaneous generation to new problems
    (E) contributed to the improvement of laboratory research standards

    14.
Created on July 1, 2011

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