Composting

Activities for this list:

definitions & notes only words
  1. phototrophic bacteria
    green and purple bacteria
    The EM are natural lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and phototrophic bacteria that act as a microbe community within the kitchen scraps, fermenting and accelerating breakdown of the organic matter.
  2. actinomycete
    any bacteria belonging to the order Actinomycetales
    Actinomycetes- Necessary for breaking down paper products such as newspaper, bark, etc.
  3. nightcrawler
    terrestrial worm that burrows into and helps aerate soil
    This type of composting is sometimes suggested as a feasible indoor composting method

    The earthworm species (or composting worms) most often used are Red Wigglers (Eisenia foetida or Eisenia andrei), though European nightcrawlers (Eisenia hortensis) could also be used.
  4. blow fly
    large usually hairy metallic blue or green fly
    Unlike faeces, urine doesn’t attract disease-spreading flies (such as house flies or blow flies), and it doesn’t contain the most hardy of pathogens, such as parasitic worm eggs.
  5. pathogen
    any disease-producing agent
    Adding a healthy person’s urine to compost usually will increase temperatures and therefore increase its ability to destroy pathogens and unwanted seeds.
  6. wiggler
    terrestrial worm that burrows into and helps aerate soil
    Vermicompost
    Rotary screen harvested worm castings

    Vermicompost is the product of composting utilizing various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and earthworms to create a heterogeneous mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste (not to include meat, dairy, fats, or oils), bedding materials, and vermicast.
  7. plant part
    any part of a plant or fungus
    The liquid is applied as a spray to non-edible plant parts such as seedlings, or as a soil-drench (root dip), or as a surface spray to reduce incidence of harmful phytopathogenic fungi in the phyllosphere.Totally
  8. micro-organism
    any organism of microscopic size
    Micro-organisms

    With the proper mixture of water, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen, micro-organisms are allowed to break down organic matter to produce compost.
  9. anaerobic
    not using or dependent on oxygen
    Compost can also be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion.
  10. microorganism
    any organism of microscopic size
    There are many types of microorganisms found in active compost of which the most common are:

    Bacteria- The most numerous of all the micro organisms found in compost.
  11. faeces
    solid excretory product evacuated from the bowels
    Urine

    People excrete far more of certain water-soluble plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in urine than in faeces.
  12. rotifer
    minute aquatic multicellular organisms having a ciliated wheel-like organ for feeding and locomotion; constituents of freshwater plankton
    Rotifers- Rotifers help control populations of bacteria and small protozoans.
  13. aerate
    fill, combine, or supply with oxygen
    The aerated base is just visible through the food scraps and Bokashi bran.
  14. parasitic worm
    worm that is parasitic on the intestines of vertebrates especially roundworms and tapeworms and flukes
    Unlike faeces, urine doesn’t attract disease-spreading flies (such as house flies or blow flies), and it doesn’t contain the most hardy of pathogens, such as parasitic worm eggs.
  15. homogenize
    to make uniform or consistent throughout
    Many such short processes involve a few changes to traditional methods, including smaller, more homogenized pieces in the compost, controlling carbon to nitrogen (CN) ratio at 30 to 1 or less, and monitoring the moisture level more carefully.
  16. metabolite
    any substance involved in metabolism
    Although metabolites of urea are nitrogen fertilizers, it is easy to over-fertilize with urine creating too much ammonia for plants to absorb, acidic conditions, or other phytotoxicity.
  17. nutrient
    any substance that can be metabolized to give energy
    Compost can be rich in nutrients.
  18. humic acid
    a dark brown humic substance that is soluble in water only at pH values greater than 2
    The compost itself is beneficial for the land in many ways, including as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for soil.
  19. lignin
    a complex polymer
    Fungi- Molds and yeast help break down materials that bacteria cannot, especially lignin in woody material.
  20. prion
    (microbiology) an infectious protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid; thought to be the agent responsible for scrapie and other degenerative diseases of the nervous system
    Thermophilic (high-temperature) composting is well known to destroy many seeds and nearly all types of pathogens (exceptions may include prions).
  21. earthworm
    terrestrial worm that burrows into and helps aerate soil
    In addition, earthworms not only ingest partly-composted material, but also continually re-create aeration and drainage tunnels as they move through the compost.
  22. oxidize
    enter into a combination with oxygen
    Nitrogen — to grow and reproduce more organisms to oxidize the carbon.
  23. micro
    extremely small in scale or scope or capability
    Micro-organisms

    With the proper mixture of water, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen, micro-organisms are allowed to break down organic matter to produce compost.
  24. aerobic
    depending on free oxygen or air
    Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium.
  25. protozoan
    of or relating to the Protozoa
    Rotifers- Rotifers help control populations of bacteria and small protozoans.
  26. neologism
    a newly invented word or phrase
    “Humanure”

    “Humanure” is a neologism designating human excrement (faeces and urine) that is recycled via composting for agricultural or other purposes.
  27. decompose
    break down
    Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment.
  28. Protozoa
    in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers
    Protozoa- Help consume bacteria, fungi and micro organic particulates.
  29. urine
    liquid excretory product
    Urine

    People excrete far more of certain water-soluble plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in urine than in faeces.
  30. parameter
    a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied
    However, none of these parameters differ significantly from early writings of Howard and Balfour, suggesting that in fact modern composting has not made significant advances over the traditional methods that take a few months to work.
  31. particulate
    composed of distinct particles
    Protozoa- Help consume bacteria, fungi and micro organic particulates.
  32. Fungi
    the taxonomic kingdom including yeast, molds, smuts, mushrooms, and toadstools; distinct from the green plants
    Fungi- Molds and yeast help break down materials that bacteria cannot, especially lignin in woody material.
  33. house fly
    common fly that frequents human habitations and spreads many diseases
    Unlike faeces, urine doesn’t attract disease-spreading flies (such as house flies or blow flies), and it doesn’t contain the most hardy of pathogens, such as parasitic worm eggs.
  34. wetland
    a low area where the land is saturated with water
    In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion control, land and stream reclamation, wetland construction, and as landfill cover (see compost uses).
  35. excrete
    eliminate from the body
    Urine

    People excrete far more of certain water-soluble plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in urine than in faeces.
  36. nitrogen
    a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living tissues
    Modern, methodical composting is a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials.
  37. recycle
    use again after processing
    Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment.
  38. biodegradable
    capable of being decomposed
    Treating biodegradable waste before it enters a landfill reduces global warming from fugitive methane; untreated waste breaks down anaerobically in a landfill, producing landfill gas that contains methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
  39. urea
    the chief solid component of mammalian urine
    Urine is primarily composed of water and urea.
  40. ingest
    serve oneself to, or consume regularly
    In addition, earthworms not only ingest partly-composted material, but also continually re-create aeration and drainage tunnels as they move through the compost.
  41. inoculate
    inject or treat with the germ of a disease to render immune
    These scraps are then inoculated with a Bokashi EM mix.
  42. pesticide
    a chemical used to kill destructive insects or animals
    The compost itself is beneficial for the land in many ways, including as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for soil.
  43. ground water
    underground water that is held in the soil and in pervious rocks
    It further prevents the pollution of ground water by controlling the faecal matter decomposition before entering the system.
  44. fruit tree
    tree bearing edible fruit
    This effect has been used by Sepp Holzer for one to allow fruit trees to survive at otherwise inhospitable temperatures and altitudes.
  45. acidic
    being or containing an acid
    Although metabolites of urea are nitrogen fertilizers, it is easy to over-fertilize with urine creating too much ammonia for plants to absorb, acidic conditions, or other phytotoxicity.
  46. cotyledon
    embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants
    It is very common to see blends of 20–30% compost used for transplanting seedlings at cotyledon stage or later.
  47. orca
    predatory black-and-white toothed whale with large dorsal fin; common in cold seas
    Green produces the ORCA Green Machine which allows governments, universities and commercial institutions to employ this aerobic method of composting to presorted organic waste.
  48. nitrite
    the radical -NO2 or any compound containing it
    The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant-nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification.
  49. bacteria
    single-celled organisms that can cause disease
    Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium.
  50. organic
    having properties characteristic of living beings
    Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment.
  51. carbon
    an abundant nonmetallic element in all organic compounds
    Modern, methodical composting is a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials.
  52. chemical process
    (chemistry) any process determined by the atomic and molecular composition and structure of the substances involved
    Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium.
  53. nitrification
    the chemical process in which a nitro group is added to an organic compound (or substituted for another group in an organic compound)
    The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant-nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification.
  54. sludge
    any thick, viscous matter
    The USA is the only Western country that does not distinguish sludge-source compost from green-composts, and by default in the USA 50% of states expect composts to comply in some manner with the federal EPA 503 rule promulgated in 1984 for sludge products.
  55. lactic acid
    a clear odorless hygroscopic syrupy carboxylic acid found in sour milk and in many fruits
    The EM are natural lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and phototrophic bacteria that act as a microbe community within the kitchen scraps, fermenting and accelerating breakdown of the organic matter.
  56. organism
    a living thing that can act or function independently
    Disadvantages (from the modern perspective) are that space is used for a whole year, some nutrients might be leached due to exposure to rainfall, and disease producing organisms and insects may not be adequately controlled.
  57. carbonaceous
    relating to or consisting of or yielding carbon
    Poultry manure also must be be blended with carbonaceous materials - those low in nitrogen preferred, such as sawdust or straw.
  58. greenhouse gas
    a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation
    As a substitute for a flush water process, it reduces the energy consumption and, hence, greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation and processing of water and waste water.
  59. reactive
    participating in processes changing substances into others
    Once the container is full, it is left to ferment for an additional 2 weeks in the container, and then buried under 6-8 inches of soil, in ground or in a non- reactive container.
  60. ammonium
    the ion NH4 derived from ammonia
    Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium.
  61. decomposition
    the organic phenomenon of rotting
    The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning the mixture.
  62. methane
    a colorless odorless gas used as a fuel
    Treating biodegradable waste before it enters a landfill reduces global warming from fugitive methane; untreated waste breaks down anaerobically in a landfill, producing landfill gas that contains methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
  63. fungus
    an organism of the kingdom Fungi lacking chlorophyll and feeding on organic matter; ranging from unicellular or multicellular organisms to spore-bearing syncytia
    Worms and fungi further break up the material.
  64. phosphorus
    a multivalent nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs commonly in inorganic phosphate rocks and as organic phosphates in all living cells; is highly reactive and occurs in several allotropic forms
    Urine

    People excrete far more of certain water-soluble plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in urine than in faeces.
  65. untreated
    not given medical care or treatment
    Treating biodegradable waste before it enters a landfill reduces global warming from fugitive methane; untreated waste breaks down anaerobically in a landfill, producing landfill gas that contains methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
  66. input
    signal going into an electronic system
    Modern, methodical composting is a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials.
  67. carbohydrate
    an essential component of living cells and source of energy
    For this reason and others, many modern scientists who deal with carbon transformations are sceptical that there is a “super-charged” way to get nature to make compost rapidly.[citation needed] They also point to the fact that it is the structure of the natural molecules - such as carbohydrates, proteins, and cellulose - that really dictate the rate at which microbial-mediated transformations are possible.
  68. seedling
    young plant or tree grown from a seed
    It is very common to see blends of 20–30% compost used for transplanting seedlings at cotyledon stage or later.
  69. soluble
    capable of being dissolved in some solvent
    Urine

    People excrete far more of certain water- soluble plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in urine than in faeces.
  70. inhibit
    limit the range or extent of
    Generally, direct seeding into a compost is not recommended due to the speed with which it may dry and the possible presence of phytotoxins that may inhibit germination, and the possible tie up of nitrogen by incompletely decomposed lignin.
  71. microbe
    a minute life form ; the term is not in technical use
    The EM are natural lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and phototrophic bacteria that act as a microbe community within the kitchen scraps, fermenting and accelerating breakdown of the organic matter.
  72. excrement
    waste matter discharged from the body
    “Humanure”

    “Humanure” is a neologism designating human excrement (faeces and urine) that is recycled via composting for agricultural or other purposes.
  73. fertilize
    provide with fertilizers or add nutrients to
    Although metabolites of urea are nitrogen fertilizers, it is easy to over- fertilize with urine creating too much ammonia for plants to absorb, acidic conditions, or other phytotoxicity.
  74. biological
    pertaining to life and living things
    Each type of manure has its own physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
  75. digestion
    the process by which the body breaks down food
    Compost can also be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion.
  76. dilute
    lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture
    Urine usually does not stink for long, particularly when it is fresh, diluted, or put on sorbents.
  77. absorbent
    having power or capacity or tendency to absorb or soak up something (liquids or energy etc.)
    It provides a rich growing medium, or a porous, absorbent material that holds moisture and soluble minerals, providing the support and nutrients in which plants can flourish, although it is rarely used alone, being primarily mixed with soil, sand, grit, bark chips, vermiculite, perlite, or clay granules to produce loam.
  78. ecosystem
    organisms interacting with their physical environment
    In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion control, land and stream reclamation, wetland construction, and as landfill cover (see compost uses).
  79. potassium
    a light soft silver-white metallic element of the alkali metal group; oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts violently with water; is abundant in nature in combined forms occurring in sea water and in carnallite and kainite and sylvite
    Urine

    People excrete far more of certain water-soluble plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in urine than in faeces.
  80. erosion
    the process of wearing or grinding something down
    In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion control, land and stream reclamation, wetland construction, and as landfill cover (see compost uses).
  81. emission
    the act of causing to flow forth
    As a substitute for a flush water process, it reduces the energy consumption and, hence, greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation and processing of water and waste water.
  82. oxidation
    the process by which a substance combines with oxygen
    Composting organisms require four equally important things to work effectively:

    Carbon — for energy; the microbial oxidation of carbon produces the heat[citation needed].
  83. ferment
    cause to undergo the breakdown of sugar into alcohol
    The EM are natural lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and phototrophic bacteria that act as a microbe community within the kitchen scraps, fermenting and accelerating breakdown of the organic matter.
  84. cellulose
    a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
    For this reason and others, many modern scientists who deal with carbon transformations are sceptical that there is a “super-charged” way to get nature to make compost rapidly.[citation needed] They also point to the fact that it is the structure of the natural molecules - such as carbohydrates, proteins, and cellulose - that really dictate the rate at which microbial-mediated transformations are possible.
  85. yeast
    a single-celled fungus that reproduces asexually
    Fungi- Molds and yeast help break down materials that bacteria cannot, especially lignin in woody material.
  86. mediate
    act between parties with a view to reconciling differences
    For this reason and others, many modern scientists who deal with carbon transformations are sceptical that there is a “super-charged” way to get nature to make compost rapidly.[citation needed] They also point to the fact that it is the structure of the natural molecules - such as carbohydrates, proteins, and cellulose - that really dictate the rate at which microbial- mediated transformations are possible.
  87. oxygen
    a colorless, odorless gas that is essential for respiration
    Oxygen — for oxidizing the carbon, the decomposition process.
  88. parasitic
    relating to an animal or plant that lives in or on a host
    Unlike faeces, urine doesn’t attract disease-spreading flies (such as house flies or blow flies), and it doesn’t contain the most hardy of pathogens, such as parasitic worm eggs.
  89. rotary
    describing or moving in a circle
    Vermicompost
    Rotary screen harvested worm castings

    Vermicompost is the product of composting utilizing various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and earthworms to create a heterogeneous mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste (not to include meat, dairy, fats, or oils), bedding materials, and vermicast.
  90. matrix
    an enclosure within which something originates or develops
    Cardboard or clean paper
    Dried-out egg shells
    Leaves, yard trimmings
    Fruits and vegetables
    Coffee and tea

    Uses
    Main article: Uses of compost

    Compost is generally recommended as an additive to soil, or other matrices such as coir and peat, as a tilth improver, supplying humus and nutrients.
  91. incidence
    the relative frequency of occurrence of something
    The liquid is applied as a spray to non-edible plant parts such as seedlings, or as a soil-drench (root dip), or as a surface spray to reduce incidence of harmful phytopathogenic fungi in the phyllosphere.Totally
  92. Fahrenheit
    of or relating to a temperature scale proposed by the inventor of the mercury thermometer
    The hotter the pile gets, the more often added air and water is necessary; the air/water balance is critical to maintaining high temperatures (135°-160° Fahrenheit) until the materials are broken down.
  93. leach
    cause (a liquid) to percolate
    Disadvantages (from the modern perspective) are that space is used for a whole year, some nutrients might be leached due to exposure to rainfall, and disease producing organisms and insects may not be adequately controlled.
  94. molecule
    the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
    For this reason and others, many modern scientists who deal with carbon transformations are sceptical that there is a “super-charged” way to get nature to make compost rapidly.[citation needed] They also point to the fact that it is the structure of the natural molecules - such as carbohydrates, proteins, and cellulose - that really dictate the rate at which microbial-mediated transformations are possible.
  95. larva
    the immature free-living form of most invertebrates and amphibians and fish which at hatching from the egg is fundamentally unlike its parent and must metamorphose
    The “microbial pesticides” in compost may include thermophiles and mesophiles, however certain composting detritivores such as black soldier fly larvae and redworms, also reduce many pathogens.
  96. porous
    full of vessels or holes
    It provides a rich growing medium, or a porous, absorbent material that holds moisture and soluble minerals, providing the support and nutrients in which plants can flourish, although it is rarely used alone, being primarily mixed with soil, sand, grit, bark chips, vermiculite, perlite, or clay granules to produce loam.
  97. operational
    pertaining to a series of actions for achieving a result
    This plant, with 15 independent anaerobic digestors will be the world’s largest composting facility once fully operational in early 2011 and forms part of the Qatar Domestic Solid Waste Management Center, the largest integrated waste management complex in the Middle East.
  98. EPA
    an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
    The USA is the only Western country that does not distinguish sludge-source compost from green-composts, and by default in the USA 50% of states expect composts to comply in some manner with the federal EPA 503 rule promulgated in 1984 for sludge products.
  99. nitrate
    any compound containing the nitrate group
    The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant-nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification.
  100. global warming
    a rise in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere
    Treating biodegradable waste before it enters a landfill reduces global warming from fugitive methane; untreated waste breaks down anaerobically in a landfill, producing landfill gas that contains methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
  101. heterogeneous
    consisting of elements not of the same kind or nature
    Vermicompost
    Rotary screen harvested worm castings

    Vermicompost is the product of composting utilizing various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and earthworms to create a heterogeneous mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste (not to include meat, dairy, fats, or oils), bedding materials, and vermicast.
  102. carbon dioxide
    a heavy odorless colorless gas formed during respiration and by the decomposition of organic substances; absorbed from the air by plants in photosynthesis
    Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium.
  103. loam
    a rich soil consisting of sand, clay and organic materials
    It provides a rich growing medium, or a porous, absorbent material that holds moisture and soluble minerals, providing the support and nutrients in which plants can flourish, although it is rarely used alone, being primarily mixed with soil, sand, grit, bark chips, vermiculite, perlite, or clay granules to produce loam.
  104. static
    not in physical motion
    Industrial scale composting in the form of in-vessel composting, aerated static pile composting, and anaerobic digestion takes place in most Western countries now, and in many areas is mandated by law.
  105. temperature
    the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment
    The hotter the pile gets, the more often added air and water is necessary; the air/water balance is critical to maintaining high temperatures (135°-160° Fahrenheit) until the materials are broken down.
  106. sustainable
    capable of being prolonged
    In the English-speaking world it was Sir Albert Howard who worked extensively in India on sustainable practices and Lady Eve Balfour who was a huge proponent of composting.
  107. calcium
    a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light
    Human faecal matter and urine have high percentages of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, carbon, and calcium.
  108. meter
    a basic unit of length (approximately 1.094 yards)
    However, thermophilic composting requires a fair amount of material, around a cubic meter.
  109. sceptical
    marked by or given to doubt
    For this reason and others, many modern scientists who deal with carbon transformations are sceptical that there is a “super-charged” way to get nature to make compost rapidly.[citation needed] They also point to the fact that it is the structure of the natural molecules - such as carbohydrates, proteins, and cellulose - that really dictate the rate at which microbial-mediated transformations are possible.
  110. rainfall
    water falling in drops from vapor condensed in the atmosphere
    Disadvantages (from the modern perspective) are that space is used for a whole year, some nutrients might be leached due to exposure to rainfall, and disease producing organisms and insects may not be adequately controlled.
  111. dioxide
    an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen in the molecule
    Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium.
  112. intensive
    characterized by a heightened level or degree
    Bokashi is a method of intensive composting.
  113. livestock
    any animals kept for use or profit
    The amount of manure composted on a livestock farm is often determined by cleaning schedules, land availability, and weather conditions.
  114. peat
    partially carbonized vegetable matter saturated with water
    Cardboard or clean paper
    Dried-out egg shells
    Leaves, yard trimmings
    Fruits and vegetables
    Coffee and tea

    Uses
    Main article: Uses of compost

    Compost is generally recommended as an additive to soil, or other matrices such as coir and peat, as a tilth improver, supplying humus and nutrients.
  115. inert
    unable to move or resist motion
    Co-composting is a technique that combines solid waste with de-watered biosolids, although difficulties controlling inert and plastics contamination from municipal solid waste makes this approach less attractive.
  116. liquid
    fluid matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
    Liquid “compost tea” is drained once or twice a week and can be diluted 1:100 and added to plants as fertilizer, or poured directly down drains to help clean them.
  117. protein
    an organic compound essential to living cells
    For this reason and others, many modern scientists who deal with carbon transformations are sceptical that there is a “super-charged” way to get nature to make compost rapidly.[citation needed] They also point to the fact that it is the structure of the natural molecules - such as carbohydrates, proteins, and cellulose - that really dictate the rate at which microbial-mediated transformations are possible.
  118. ammonia
    a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3)
    Although metabolites of urea are nitrogen fertilizers, it is easy to over-fertilize with urine creating too much ammonia for plants to absorb, acidic conditions, or other phytotoxicity.
  119. reproduce
    make a copy or equivalent of
    Nitrogen — to grow and reproduce more organisms to oxidize the carbon.
  120. vapor
    a visible suspension in the air of particles of a substance
    In that process much water will be released as vapor (“steam”), and the oxygen will be quickly depleted, explaining the need to actively manage the pile.
  121. altitude
    elevation above sea level or above the earth's surface
    This effect has been used by Sepp Holzer for one to allow fruit trees to survive at otherwise inhospitable temperatures and altitudes.
  122. conservation
    careful management of the environment and natural resources
    Humanure aids in the conservation of fresh water by avoiding the usage of potable water required by the typical flush toilet.
  123. humans
    all of the living human inhabitants of the earth
    Humanure may be deemed safe for humans to use on crops if handled in accordance with local health regulations, and composted properly.
  124. mechanical
    using tools or devices
    Mechanical sorting of mixed waste streams combined with anaerobic digestion or in-vessel composting is called mechanical biological treatment, and are increasingly being used in developed countries due to regulations controlling the amount of organic matter allowed in landfills.
  125. chemical
    produced by reactions involving atomic or molecular changes
    Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium.
  126. temperate
    not extreme
    The advantage of this method is that little working time or effort is required from the composter and it fits in naturally with agricultural practices in temperate climates.
  127. pollution
    contamination of the natural environment
    It further prevents the pollution of ground water by controlling the faecal matter decomposition before entering the system.
  128. scientist
    a person with advanced knowledge of empirical fields
    For this reason and others, many modern scientists who deal with carbon transformations are sceptical that there is a “super-charged” way to get nature to make compost rapidly.[citation needed] They also point to the fact that it is the structure of the natural molecules - such as carbohydrates, proteins, and cellulose - that really dictate the rate at which microbial-mediated transformations are possible.
  129. usage
    the act of employing
    Humanure aids in the conservation of fresh water by avoiding the usage of potable water required by the typical flush toilet.
  130. acid
    any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste
    The compost itself is beneficial for the land in many ways, including as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for soil.
  131. mineral
    a solid inorganic substance occurring in nature
    It provides a rich growing medium, or a porous, absorbent material that holds moisture and soluble minerals, providing the support and nutrients in which plants can flourish, although it is rarely used alone, being primarily mixed with soil, sand, grit, bark chips, vermiculite, perlite, or clay granules to produce loam.
  132. disease
    an impairment of health
    Disadvantages (from the modern perspective) are that space is used for a whole year, some nutrients might be leached due to exposure to rainfall, and disease producing organisms and insects may not be adequately controlled.
  133. newspaper
    a daily or weekly publication on folded sheets
    Non-traditional bedding materials are also used, including newspaper and chopped cardboard.
  134. human
    a person; a hominid with a large brain and articulate speech
    Human urine can be used directly as fertilizer or it can be put onto compost.
  135. landscape
    an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view
    It is used in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, and agriculture.

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