types:
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absolute value, numerical value
a real number regardless of its sign

acid value
(chemistry) the amount of free acid present in fat as measured by the milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize it

chlorinity
a measure of the quantity of chlorine or other halides in water (especially seawater)

number
a concept of quantity involving zero and units

quire
a quantity of paper; 24 or 25 sheets

ream
a quantity of paper; 480 or 500 sheets; one ream equals 20 quires

solubility
the quantity of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent (yielding a saturated solution)

toxicity
the degree to which something is poisonous

unit, unit of measurement
any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange

arity
the number of arguments that a function can take

coordinate, coordinate
a number that identifies a position relative to an axis

folio, page number, pagination, paging
the system of numbering pages

cytotoxicity
the degree to which something is toxic to living cells

measuring block, measuring unit
a unit of measurement

denier
a unit of measurement for the fineness of silk or nylon or rayon

diopter, dioptre
a unit of measurement of the refractive power of a lens which is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measured in meters; used by oculists

carat, karat, kt
the unit of measurement for the proportion of gold in an alloy; 18karat gold is 75% gold; 24karat gold is pure gold

decimal
a number in the decimal system

constant
a number representing a quantity assumed to have a fixed value in a specified mathematical context

oxidation number, oxidation state
the degree of oxidation of an atom or ion or molecule; for simple atoms or ions the oxidation number is equal to the ionic charge

cardinality
(mathematics) the number of elements in a set or group (considered as a property of that grouping)

count
the total number counted

factor
any of the numbers (or symbols) that form a product when multiplied together

Fibonacci number
a number in the Fibonacci sequence

prime, prime quantity
a number that has no factor but itself and 1

composite number
an integer that is divisible without remainder by at least one positive integer other than itself and one

score
a number that expresses the accomplishment of a team or an individual in a game or contest

record
the number of wins versus losses and ties a team has had

compound number
a quantity expressed in two different units

no., ordinal, ordinal number
the number designating place in an ordered sequence

cardinal, cardinal number
the number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order

base, radix
(numeration system) the positive integer that is equivalent to one in the next higher counting place

floatingpoint number
a number represented in floatingpoint notation

fixedpoint number
a number represented in fixedpoint notation

atomic number
the order of an element in Mendeleyev's table of the elements; equal to the number of protons in the nucleus or electrons in the neutral state of an atom of an element

baryon number
a number equal to the difference between the number of baryons and the number of antibaryons in any subatomic structure; it is conserved in all types of particle interactions

quota
a prescribed number

absorption unit
a unit for measuring absorption

acceleration unit
a unit for measuring acceleration

angular unit
a unit of measurement for angles

area unit, square measure
a system of units used to measure areas

capacity measure, capacity unit, cubage unit, cubature unit, cubic content unit, cubic measure, displacement unit, volume unit
a unit of measurement of volume or capacity

computer memory unit
a unit for measuring computer memory

electromagnetic unit, emu
any of various systems of units for measuring electricity and magnetism

explosive unit
any unit for measuring the force of explosions

force unit
a unit of measurement of physical force

linear measure, linear unit
a unit of measurement of length

metric, metric unit
a decimal unit of measurement of the metric system (based on meters and kilograms and seconds)

miles per gallon
the distance traveled in a vehicle powered by one gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel

monetary unit
a unit of money

MFLOP, megaflop, million floating point operations per second
(computer science) a unit for measuring the speed of a computer system

teraflop, trillion floating point operations per second
(computer science) a unit for measuring the speed of a computer system

MIPS, million instructions per second
(computer science) a unit for measuring the execution speed of a computer's CPU (but not the whole system)

pain unit
a unit measuring the intensity of pain

pressure unit
a unit measuring force per unit area

printing unit
a unit of measurement for printing

sound unit
any acoustic unit of measurement

telephone unit
a unit of measurement for telephone use

temperature unit
a unit of measurement for temperature

weight, weight unit
a unit used to measure weight

mass unit
a unit of measurement for mass

unit of viscosity
a unit of measurement for viscosity

energy unit, heat unit, work unit
a unit of measurement for work

langley
unit of solar radiation

Brinell number
measure of the hardness of a material

point
the unit of counting in scoring a game or contest

bit
a unit of measurement of information (from binary + digit); the amount of information in a system having two equiprobable states

electrostatic unit
any of various units of electricity based on forces of interaction between electric charges

linage, lineage
the number of lines in a piece of printed material

natural number
the number 1 and any other number obtained by adding 1 to it repeatedly

integer, whole number
any of the natural numbers (positive or negative) or zero

addend
a number that is added to another number (the augend)

augend
a number to which another number (the addend) is added

minuend
the number from which the subtrahend is subtracted

subtrahend
the number to be subtracted from the minuend

difference, remainder
the number that remains after subtraction; the number that when added to the subtrahend gives the minuend

complex number, complex quantity, imaginary, imaginary number
(mathematics) a number of the form a+bi where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of 1

modulus
the absolute value of a complex number

second power, square
the product of two equal terms

cube, third power
the product of three equal terms

biquadrate, biquadratic, fourth power, quartic
an algebraic equation of the fourth degree

root
a number that, when multiplied by itself some number of times, equals a given number

dividend
a number to be divided by another number

divisor
the number by which a dividend is divided

quotient
the number obtained by division

remainder
the part of the dividend that is left over when the dividend is not evenly divisible by the divisor

multiplier, multiplier factor
the number by which a multiplicand is multiplied

multiplicand
the number that is multiplied by the multiplier