overwhelm or overpower
When my parents found out I'd been arrested and gone to jail, they were
a social system with separate facilities for minority groups
Using nonviolent sit-ins, our young organization had successfully ended
segregation at the lunch counters downtown.
involving or likely to cause controversy
Fall 1960 was marked by a
contentious presidential election campaign between Vice-President Richard Nixon and Senator John F. Kennedy.
hopeful that the best will happen in the future
Kennedy narrowly won. What that would mean for me -- and for African-Americans in general -- I did not know. But overall, I was
the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect
It was a clear demonstration of the violent forces unleashed by our quest for human
a plan for attaining a particular goal
tactic was borrowed from students at the University of Texas in Austin.
increase in extent or intensity
In response to the
escalating violence, the Central Committee held a meeting that included allies like Rev. Will Campbell.
a public display of group feelings
There's apt to be some very serious violence if we have another
an address of a religious nature
Even though I was supposed to give my senior
sermon the next day, we refused to post bail.
unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice
It announced that the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was seeking volunteers to test the Supreme Court decision from the previous year, Boynton v. Virginia, which outlawed segregation and racial
discrimination on buses and bus terminals.
liable to lead to sudden change or violence
He wrote us back, but said he thought it was too dangerous, and the situation in Birmingham too
the first of a series of actions
initiative will be historic, and as the executive director of CORE, I'm happy to have you be a part of it.
the reestablishment of cordial relations
Jim Peck -- he had been on the CORE's first freedom ride, the journey of
reconciliation in 1947, which landed all its participants in a chain gang.
someone opposed to violence as a means of settling disputes
There was Albert Bigelow -- a
pacifist arrested in 1958 for steering a skiff called The Golden Rule into a nuclear testing zone in the South Pacific, protesting the use of atomic weapons.
caused by law or conscience to follow a certain course
Riders -- I have faith in your ability to meet any challenge, but I also want you to know that I'm the only person
obligated to go on this trip.
You are free to choose whether to join me -- and if you choose not to go, there will be no blame, no
recrimination, and CORE will pay for your travels back home.
strong evidence for something
The wills we'd signed that week served as
violent action that is usually unprovoked
What are the riders' strategies to deal with any potential
hostilities on this journey?
cause to continue or prevail
We will pay fines because we feel that, by paying money to a segregated state, we would help it
rule of personal conduct
In accordance with Gandhian
principles, before we left Farmer sent out a letter with the plans for our act of civil disobedience --
open to members of all races and ethnic groups
When I got back to Nashville, I attended a picnic to celebrate the fact that, after fourteen weeks of stand-ins, the city's theater owners had finally agreed to
kill a large number of people indiscriminately
You...you realize it may be suicide? You could be
feeling great rapture or delight
ecstatic that they didn't know where we were --
a procession of land vehicles traveling together
I'm supposed to drive this bus to Dothan, Alabama, through Montgomery, but I understand there's a big
convoy down the road.
an organization of employees that bargains with the employer
Everything was up in the air until Bull Connor showed up to talk to the driver, along with Greyhound officials and leaders from the local bus drivers'
a judicial writ commanding police to perform specified acts
Governor Patterson, despite promising to protect us, had
warrants sworn out for our arrest.
a group of people who habitually attend a given church
Dr. King introduced Farmer to the
congregation, and brought him to the pulpit.
a platform raised to give prominence to the person on it
Dr. King introduced Farmer to the congregation, and brought him to the
an agreeable or amusing remark
Let's dispense with the
pleasantries, Reverend King.
any admirable or beneficial attribute
It is not without
merit to say that the Freedom Ride has already made its point, and now should be called off.
defeat thoroughly and conclusively in a competition or fight
The Nashville student movement wants to go on. We can't stop now, right after we've been
suggesting war or military life
After hours of refusing to speak with any federal official, Governor Patterson had finally ordered Montgomery to be put under what he called "qualified
an act boldly resisting authority or an opposing force
His consistent preaching of
defiance of the law, his vitriolic public pronouncements, and his irresponsible actions have created the atmosphere in which violence could thrive.
harsh, bitter, or malicious in tone
His consistent preaching of defiance of the law, his
vitriolic public pronouncements, and his irresponsible actions have created the atmosphere in which violence could thrive.
make steady progress
His consistent preaching of defiance of the law, his vitriolic public pronouncements, and his irresponsible actions have created the atmosphere in which violence could
a political troublemaker
Whereas, as a result of the outside
agitators coming into Alabama to violate our laws and customs...
a way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them
I'm still on
probation from my arrest in Atlanta.
one who voluntarily suffers death
We all love life, and there are no
martyrs here -- but we are well aware that we may have some casualties.
someone injured or killed in an accident
We all love life, and there are no martyrs here -- but we are well aware that we may have some
motivation deriving from ethical or moral principles
Mr. Attorney General, it's a matter of
conscience and morality -- they must use their lives and bodies to right a wrong.
motivation based on ideas of right and wrong
Mr. Attorney General, it's a matter of conscience and
morality -- they must use their lives and bodies to right a wrong.
burdened psychologically or mentally
It's difficult to understand the position of
oppressed people. .
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
Ours is a way out -- creative, moral, and nonviolent. It is not tied to black supremacy or
communism, but to the plight of the oppressed.
of or relating to production and management of wealth
Instead, much of the means of enforcing segregation came through
economic and political pressure organized by a group called the White Citizens' Council.
the state of being under the control of another person
Parchman was the stuff of legends -- dark legends. 21,000 acres of bullwhip-wielding guards and human