World History: Patterns of Interaction: Chapter 6

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  1. republic
    a political system in which power lies in a body of citizens
    A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.
  2. patrician
    a member of the aristocracy
    One group was the patricians, the wealthy landowners who held most of the power.
  3. plebeian
    one of the common people
    The other important group was the plebeians, the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population.
  4. tribune
    an ancient Roman official elected by the plebeians
    In time, Rome’s leaders allowed the plebeians to form their own assembly and elect representatives called tribunes. Tribunes protected the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officials.
  5. consul
    one of the two magistrates elected annually in ancient Rome
    Rome had two officials called consuls. Like kings, they commanded the army and directed the government. However, their power was limited. A consul’s term was only one year long.
  6. senate
    assembly possessing high legislative powers
    The senate was the aristocratic branch of Rome’s government. It had both legislative and administrative functions in the republic.
  7. dictator
    a ruler who is unconstrained by law
    In times of crisis, the republic could appoint a dictator—a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army. A dictator’s power lasted for only six months.
  8. legion
    a large military unit
    Roman soldiers were organized into large military units called legions.
  9. civil war
    a war between factions in the same country
    A period of civil war, or conflict between groups within the same country, followed their deaths.
  10. triumvirate
    a group of three people responsible for civil authority
    For the next ten years, these men dominated Rome as a triumvirate, a group of three rulers.
  11. apostle
    an ardent early supporter of a cause or reform
    Some of the Gospels are thought to have been written by one or more of Jesus’ disciples, or pupils. These 12 men later came to be called apostles.
  12. diaspora
    the dispersion of something that was originally localized
    Most Jews were driven from their homeland into exile. This dispersal of the Jews is called the Diaspora.
  13. bishop
    a senior member of the Christian clergy
    At the local level, a priest led each small group of Christians. A bishop, who was also a priest, supervised several local churches.
  14. pope
    the head of the Roman Catholic Church
    Eventually, every major city had its own bishop. However, later bishops of Rome claimed to be the heirs of Peter. These bishops said that Peter was the first pope, the father or head of the Christian Church.
  15. inflation
    a general and progressive increase in prices
    However, the economy soon suffered from inflation, a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices.
  16. mercenary
    a person hired to fight for another country than their own
    To defend against the increasing threats to the empire, the government began to recruit mercenaries, foreign soldiers who fought for money. While mercenaries would accept lower pay than Romans, they felt little sense of loyalty to the empire.
  17. aqueduct
    a conduit that carries water over a valley
    Arches also supported bridges and aqueducts. Aqueducts were designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns.
Created on August 26, 2021 (updated September 10, 2021)

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