Literature

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definitions & notes only words
  1. literary genre
    a style of expressing yourself in writing
    Still, many game scripts contain immersive stories and detailed worlds making them a hidden literary genre.
  2. verse form
    a composition written in metrical feet forming rhythmical lines
    In cultures based primarily on oral traditions the formal characteristics of poetry often have a mnemonic function, and important texts: legal, genealogical or moral, for example, may appear first in verse form.
  3. genre
    a kind of literary or artistic work
    Sometimes, a work may be excluded based on its prevailing subject or theme: genre fiction such as romances, crime fiction, (mystery), science fiction, horror or fantasy have all been excluded at one time or another from the literary pantheon, and depending on the dominant mode, may or may not come back into vogue. [edit] History Main article: History of Literature Old book bindings at the Merton College, Oxford library.
  4. paradigmatic
    relating to or serving as a typical example of something
    Perhaps the most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and Milton, consists of unrhymed iambic pentameters.
  5. haiku
    an epigrammatic Japanese verse form of three short lines
    Examples include the haiku, the limerick, and the sonnet.
  6. limerick
    a humorous rhymed verse form of five lines
    Examples include the haiku, the limerick, and the sonnet.
  7. literature
    writings in a particular style on a particular subject
    Definitions People sometimes differentiate between " literature" and some popular forms of written work.
  8. literary
    relating to or characteristic of creative writing
    The terms " literary fiction" and "literary merit" serve to distinguish between individual works.
  9. folktale
    a tale circulated by word of mouth among the common folk
    Conversely, television, film, and radio literature have been adapted to printed or electronic media. [edit] Oral literature The term oral literature refers not to written, but to oral traditions, which includes different types of epic, poetry and drama, folktales, ballads. [edit] Other narrative forms * Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works which originate in digital environments.
  10. free verse
    poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter
    Poetry not adhering to a formal poetic structure is called " free verse" Language and tradition dictate some poetic norms: Persian poetry always rhymes, Greek poetry rarely rhymes, Italian or French poetry often does, English and German poetry can go either way.
  11. unrhymed
    not having rhyme
    Perhaps the most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and Milton, consists of unrhymed iambic pentameters.
  12. emotive
    characterized by feeling
    Romanticism emphasized the popular folk literature and emotive involvement, but gave way in the 19th-century West to a phase of realism and naturalism, investigations into what is real.
  13. literary criticism
    the informed analysis and evaluation of literature
    Literary criticism implies a critique and evaluation of a piece of literature and in some cases is used to improve a work in progress or classical piece.
  14. poetry
    literature in metrical form
    The 20th century brought demands for symbolism or psychological insight in the delineation and development of character. [edit] Poetry A poem is a composition written in verse (although verse has been equally used for epic and dramatic fiction).
  15. epistolary
    written in the form of letters or correspondence
    In this way, use of a technique can lead to the development of a new genre, as was the case with one of the first modern novels, Pamela by Samuel Richardson, which by using the epistolary technique strengthened the tradition of the epistolary novel, a genre which had been practiced for some time already but without the same acclaim.
  16. epic
    a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
    The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the earliest known literary works.
  17. literary study
    the humanistic study of literature
    Yet, they remain too technical to sit well in most programmes of literary study.
  18. pentameter
    a verse line having five metrical feet
    Perhaps the most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and Milton, consists of unrhymed iambic pentameters.
  19. theatrical performance
    a performance of a play
    It generally comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic / theatrical performance (see theatre) rather than at reading.
  20. drama
    a work intended for performance by actors on a stage
    This has now become rare outside opera and musicals, although many would argue that the language of drama remains intrinsically poetic.
  21. rhyme
    correspondence in the final sounds of two or more lines
    Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme.
  22. prose
    ordinary writing as distinguished from verse
    Early novels in Europe did not count as significant litera perhaps because "mere" prose writing seemed easy and unimportant.
  23. prescriptive
    pertaining to giving directives or rules
    Moralizing or prescriptive literature stems from such sources.
  24. canonical
    conforming to orthodox or recognized rules
    Major philosophers through history—Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Nietzsche—have become as canonical as any writers.
  25. fiction
    a literary work based on the imagination
    The terms "literary fiction" and "literary merit" serve to distinguish between individual works.
  26. alliteration
    use of the same consonant at the beginning of each word
    Meter depends on syllables and on rhythms of speech; rhyme and alliteration depend on the sounds of words.
  27. nonfiction
    prose writing that is not formed by the imagination
    They offer some of the oldest prose writings in existence; novels and prose stories earned the names "fiction" to distinguish them from factual writing or nonfiction, which writers historically have crafted in prose. [edit] Natural science As advances and specialization have made new scientific research inaccessible to most audiences, the "literary" nature of science writing has become less pronounced over the last two centuries.
  28. artwork
    photographs or other visual representations in a printed publication
    * Graphic novels and comic books present stories told in a combination of sequential artwork, dialogue and text. [edit] Genres of literature Further information: List of literary genres A literary genre is a category of literature. [edit] Literary techniques Main article: Literary technique A literary technique or literary device can be used by works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader.
  29. verse
    a piece of poetry
    The 20th century brought demands for symbolism or psychological insight in the delineation and development of character. [edit] Poetry A poem is a composition written in verse (although verse has been equally used for epic and dramatic fiction).
  30. prosody
    the study of poetic meter and the art of versification
    Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme.
  31. syllable
    a unit of spoken language larger than a phoneme
    Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme.
  32. epic poem
    a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
    This Babylonian epic poem arises from stories in Sumerian.
  33. science fiction
    literary fantasy involving the impact of science on society
    Sometimes, a work may be excluded based on its prevailing subject or theme: genre fiction such as romances, crime fiction, (mystery), science fiction, horror or fantasy have all been excluded at one time or another from the literary pantheon, and depending on the dominant mode, may or may not come back into vogue. [edit] History Main article: History of Literature Old book bindings at the Merton College, Oxford library.
  34. iambic
    of or consisting of iambs
    Perhaps the most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and Milton, consists of unrhymed iambic pentameters.
  35. poetic
    of or relating to verse, or literature in metrical form
    Poetry not adhering to a formal poetic structure is called "free verse" Language and tradition dictate some poetic norms: Persian poetry always rhymes, Greek poetry rarely rhymes, Italian or French poetry often does, English and German poetry can go either way.
  36. Aristotle
    one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers
    Scientific works of Aristotle, Copernicus, and Newton still possess great value, but since the science in them has largely become outdated, they no longer serve for scientific instruction.
  37. naturalism
    an artistic movement emphasizing realistic description
    Romanticism emphasized the popular folk literature and emotive involvement, but gave way in the 19th-century West to a phase of realism and naturalism, investigations into what is real.
  38. novel
    an extended fictional work in prose
    Early novels in Europe did not count as significant litera perhaps because "mere" prose writing seemed easy and unimportant.
  39. essay
    an analytic or interpretive literary composition
    In recent years, digital poetry has arisen that takes advantage of the artistic, publishing, and synthetic qualities of digital media. [edit] Essays An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal point of view, exemplified by works by Michel de Montaigne or by Charles Lamb.
  40. metric
    based on a decimal unit of measurement
    Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses ( metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme.
  41. rhyming
    having corresponding sounds especially terminal sounds
    Some of these conventions result from the ease of fitting a specific language's vocabulary and grammar into certain structures, rather than into others; for example, some languages contain more rhyming words than others, or typically have longer words.
  42. satire
    witty language used to convey insults or scorn
    Thus, though David Copperfield employs satire at certain moments, it belongs to the genre of comic novel, not that of satire.
  43. Nietzsche
    influential German philosopher remembered for his concept of the superman and for his rejection of Christian values; considered, along with Kierkegaard, to be a founder of existentialism (1844-1900)
    Major philosophers through history—Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Nietzsche—have become as canonical as any writers.
  44. literary work
    imaginative or creative writing
    The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the earliest known literary works.
  45. classical
    of the most highly developed stage of an early civilization
    Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme.
  46. blank verse
    unrhymed poetry, usually in iambic pentameter
    Perhaps the most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and Milton, consists of unrhymed iambic pentameters.
  47. Descartes
    French philosopher and mathematician
    Major philosophers through history—Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Nietzsche—have become as canonical as any writers.
  48. utilitarian
    having a useful function
    However these areas have become extremely large, and often have a primarily utilitarian purpose: to record data or convey immediate information.
  49. syntax
    the study of the rules for forming admissible sentences
    Critics may exclude works from the classification "literature," for example, on the grounds of bad grammar or syntax, unbelievable or disjointed story, or inconsistent characterization.
  50. mythological
    based on or told of in traditional stories
    Tragedy, as a dramatic genre, developed as a performance associated with religious and civic festivals, typically enacting or developing upon well-known historical or mythological themes.
  51. Odyssey
    a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
    Early examples include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (dated from around 2700 B.C.), parts of the Bible, the surviving works of Homer (the Iliad and the Odyssey), and the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
  52. Plato
    ancient Athenian philosopher
    Major philosophers through history— Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Nietzsche—have become as canonical as any writers.
  53. pantheon
    a temple to all the gods of antiquity
    Sometimes, a work may be excluded based on its prevailing subject or theme: genre fiction such as romances, crime fiction, (mystery), science fiction, horror or fantasy have all been excluded at one time or another from the literary pantheon, and depending on the dominant mode, may or may not come back into vogue. [edit] History Main article: History of Literature Old book bindings at the Merton College, Oxford library.
  54. developer
    someone who develops real estate
    A notable exception to this can be found in the opinions of the United States Supreme Court Justices, which are often heralded as modern masterpieces of literature. [edit] Game scripts Game design scripts are never seen by the player of a game and only by the developers and/or publishers to help them understand, visualize and maintain consistency while collaborating in creating a game, the audience for these pieces is usually very small.
  55. grammar
    the branch of linguistics that deals with sentence structure
    Critics may exclude works from the classification "literature," for example, on the grounds of bad grammar or syntax, unbelievable or disjointed story, or inconsistent characterization.
  56. Iliad
    a Greek epic poem describing the siege of Troy
    Early examples include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (dated from around 2700 B.C.), parts of the Bible, the surviving works of Homer (the Iliad and the Odyssey), and the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
  57. Byzantine
    of or relating to or characteristic of the Byzantine Empire or the ancient city of Byzantium
    Roman civil law as codified in the Corpus Juris Civilis during the reign of Justinian I of the Byzantine Empire has a reputation as significant literature.
  58. opera
    a drama set to music
    This has now become rare outside opera and musicals, although many would argue that the language of drama remains intrinsically poetic.
  59. dramatic
    characteristic of a stage performance
    The 20th century brought demands for symbolism or psychological insight in the delineation and development of character. [edit] Poetry A poem is a composition written in verse (although verse has been equally used for epic and dramatic fiction).
  60. satirical
    exposing human folly to ridicule
    By contrast, Bleak House employs satire so consistently as to belong to the genre of satirical novel.
  61. imagery
    the ability to form mental pictures of things or events
    Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme.
  62. dialogue
    a conversation between two persons
    It generally comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic / theatrical performance (see theatre) rather than at reading.
  63. language
    a means of communicating by the use of sounds or symbols
    Poetry not adhering to a formal poetic structure is called "free verse" Language and tradition dictate some poetic norms: Persian poetry always rhymes, Greek poetry rarely rhymes, Italian or French poetry often does, English and German poetry can go either way.
  64. symbolism
    the practice of investing things with arbitrary meaning
    The 20th century brought demands for symbolism or psychological insight in the delineation and development of character. [edit] Poetry A poem is a composition written in verse (although verse has been equally used for epic and dramatic fiction).
  65. corpus
    a collection of writings
    Roman civil law as codified in the Corpus Juris Civilis during the reign of Justinian I of the Byzantine Empire has a reputation as significant literature.
  66. realism
    the attribute of accepting the facts of life
    Romanticism emphasized the popular folk literature and emotive involvement, but gave way in the 19th-century West to a phase of realism and naturalism, investigations into what is real.
  67. point of view
    a mental position from which things are perceived
    In recent years, digital poetry has arisen that takes advantage of the artistic, publishing, and synthetic qualities of digital media. [edit] Essays An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal point of view, exemplified by works by Michel de Montaigne or by Charles Lamb.
  68. metaphor
    a figure of speech that suggests a non-literal similarity
    Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme.
  69. Shakespeare
    English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
    Perhaps the most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and Milton, consists of unrhymed iambic pentameters.
  70. vocabulary
    a language user's knowledge of words
    Some of these conventions result from the ease of fitting a specific language's vocabulary and grammar into certain structures, rather than into others; for example, some languages contain more rhyming words than others, or typically have longer words.
  71. aesthetic
    characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste
    It has become clear, however, that prose writing can provide aesthetic pleasure without adhering to poetic forms.
  72. graphic
    written or drawn or engraved
    * Graphic novels and comic books present stories told in a combination of sequential artwork, dialogue and text. [edit] Genres of literature Further information: List of literary genres A literary genre is a category of literature. [edit] Literary techniques Main article: Literary technique A literary technique or literary device can be used by works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader.
  73. film
    a series of moving pictures that tells a story
    War of the Worlds (radio) in 1938 saw the advent of literature written for radio broadcast, and many works of Drama have been adapted for film or television.
  74. poem
    a composition in metrical feet forming rhythmical lines
    This Babylonian epic poem arises from stories in Sumerian.
  75. romance
    a relationship between two lovers
    Sometimes, a work may be excluded based on its prevailing subject or theme: genre fiction such as romances, crime fiction, (mystery), science fiction, horror or fantasy have all been excluded at one time or another from the literary pantheon, and depending on the dominant mode, may or may not come back into vogue. [edit] History Main article: History of Literature Old book bindings at the Merton College, Oxford library.
  76. meter
    a basic unit of length (approximately 1.094 yards)
    Meter depends on syllables and on rhythms of speech; rhyme and alliteration depend on the sounds of words.
  77. sonnet
    a verse form of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme
    Examples include the haiku, the limerick, and the sonnet.
  78. tragedy
    an event resulting in great loss and misfortune
    Tragedy, as a dramatic genre, developed as a performance associated with religious and civic festivals, typically enacting or developing upon well-known historical or mythological themes.
  79. fantasy
    imagination unrestricted by reality
    Sometimes, a work may be excluded based on its prevailing subject or theme: genre fiction such as romances, crime fiction, (mystery), science fiction, horror or fantasy have all been excluded at one time or another from the literary pantheon, and depending on the dominant mode, may or may not come back into vogue. [edit] History Main article: History of Literature Old book bindings at the Merton College, Oxford library.
  80. epistle
    a specially long, formal letter
    Genres related to the essay may include: * the memoir, telling the story of an author's life from the author's personal point of view * the epistle: usually a formal, didactic, or elegant letter. * works by Lady Murasaki[citation needed], the Arabic Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, the Arabic Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, and the Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong[citation needed].
  81. theatre
    a building where performances can be presented
    Works for theatre (see below) traditionally took verse form.
  82. theatrical
    of or relating to the stage
    It generally comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic / theatrical performance (see theatre) rather than at reading.
  83. masterpiece
    the most outstanding work of a creative artist or craftsman
    A notable exception to this can be found in the opinions of the United States Supreme Court Justices, which are often heralded as modern masterpieces of literature. [edit] Game scripts Game design scripts are never seen by the player of a game and only by the developers and/or publishers to help them understand, visualize and maintain consistency while collaborating in creating a game, the audience for these pieces is usually very small.
  84. rhythm
    an interval during which a recurring sequence occurs
    Meter depends on syllables and on rhythms of speech; rhyme and alliteration depend on the sounds of words.
  85. text
    the words of something written
    In cultures based primarily on oral traditions the formal characteristics of poetry often have a mnemonic function, and important texts: legal, genealogical or moral, for example, may appear first in verse form.
  86. performance
    the act of doing something successfully
    It generally comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic / theatrical performance (see theatre) rather than at reading.
  87. Homer
    ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
    Early examples include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (dated from around 2700 B.C.), parts of the Bible, the surviving works of Homer (the Iliad and the Odyssey), and the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
  88. ballad
    a narrative poem of popular origin
    Conversely, television, film, and radio literature have been adapted to printed or electronic media. [edit] Oral literature The term oral literature refers not to written, but to oral traditions, which includes different types of epic, poetry and drama, folktales, ballads. [edit] Other narrative forms * Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works which originate in digital environments.
  89. memoir
    an account of the author's personal experiences
    Genres related to the essay may include: * the memoir, telling the story of an author's life from the author's personal point of view * the epistle: usually a formal, didactic, or elegant letter. * works by Lady Murasaki[citation needed], the Arabic Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, the Arabic Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, and the Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong[citation needed].
  90. video
    broadcasting visual images of stationary or moving objects
    * Films, videos and broadcast soap operas have carved out a niche which often parallels the functionality of prose fiction.
  91. artistic
    relating to the products of human creativity
    In recent years, digital poetry has arisen that takes advantage of the artistic, publishing, and synthetic qualities of digital media. [edit] Essays An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal point of view, exemplified by works by Michel de Montaigne or by Charles Lamb.
  92. topic
    the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
    In recent years, digital poetry has arisen that takes advantage of the artistic, publishing, and synthetic qualities of digital media. [edit] Essays An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal point of view, exemplified by works by Michel de Montaigne or by Charles Lamb.
  93. writer
    a person who is able to write and has written something
    They offer some of the oldest prose writings in existence; novels and prose stories earned the names "fiction" to distinguish them from factual writing or nonfiction, which writers historically have crafted in prose. [edit] Natural science As advances and specialization have made new scientific research inaccessible to most audiences, the "literary" nature of science writing has become less pronounced over the last two centuries.
  94. romantic
    expressive of or exciting love
    Romeo and Juliet, for example, is a classic romantic drama generally accepted as literature.
  95. musical
    characterized by or capable of producing music
    This has now become rare outside opera and musicals, although many would argue that the language of drama remains intrinsically poetic.
  96. plot
    a small area of ground covered by specific vegetation
    Additionally, the freedom authors gain in not having to concern themselves with verse structure translates often into a more complex plot or into one richer in precise detail than one typically finds even in narrative poetry.
Created on February 13, 2011

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