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anatomical structure

Definitions of anatomical structure
  1. noun
    a particular complex anatomical part of a living thing
    synonyms: bodily structure, body structure, complex body part, structure
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    layer
    thin structure composed of a single thickness of cells
    apodeme
    ridge-like ingrowth of the exoskeleton of an arthropod that supports internal organs and provides attachment points for muscles
    caliculus, calycle, calyculus
    a small cup-shaped structure (as a taste bud or optic cup or cavity of a coral containing a polyp)
    tooth
    toothlike structure in invertebrates found in the mouth or alimentary canal or on a shell
    pad
    the fleshy cushion-like underside of an animal's foot or of a human's finger
    branchial cleft, gill cleft, gill slit
    one of a series of slit openings in the pharynxes of fishes and aquatic amphibians through which water passes
    branchial arch, gill arch, gill bar
    one of the bony or cartilaginous arches on each side of the pharynx that support the gills of fishes and aquatic amphibians
    peristome
    region around the mouth in various invertebrates
    syrinx
    the vocal organ of a bird
    bulb
    a rounded dilation or expansion in a canal or vessel or organ
    carina
    any of various keel-shaped structures or ridges such as that on the breastbone of a bird or that formed by the fused petals of a pea blossom
    cauda
    any taillike structure
    chiasm, chiasma, decussation
    an intersection or crossing of two tracts in the form of the letter X
    cingulum
    (anatomy) an encircling structure (as the ridge around the base of a tooth)
    concha
    (anatomy) a structure that resembles a shell in shape
    filament, filum
    a threadlike structure (as a chainlike series of cells)
    germ
    a small apparently simple structure (as a fertilized egg) from which new tissue can develop into a complete organism
    infundibulum
    any of various funnel-shaped parts of the body (but especially the hypophyseal stalk)
    interstice
    a small structural space between tissues or parts of an organ
    landmark
    an anatomical structure used as a point of origin in locating other anatomical structures (as in surgery) or as point from which measurements can be taken
    limbus
    a border or edge of any of various body parts distinguished by color or structure
    rib
    a riblike supporting or strengthening part of an animal or plant
    blade
    a broad flat body part (as of the shoulder or tongue)
    radicle
    (anatomy) a small structure resembling a rootlet (such as a fibril of a nerve)
    plexus, rete
    a network of intersecting blood vessels or intersecting nerves or intersecting lymph vessels
    tube, tube-shaped structure
    (anatomy) any hollow cylindrical body structure
    passage, passageway
    a path or channel or duct through or along which something may pass
    fundus
    (anatomy) the base of a hollow organ or that part of the organ farthest from its opening
    funiculus
    any of several body structure resembling a cord
    head
    that part of a skeletal muscle that is away from the bone that it moves
    bodily cavity, cavity, cavum
    (anatomy) a natural hollow or sinus within the body
    root, tooth root
    the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jaw and serves as support
    capsule
    a structure that encloses a body part
    uvea
    the part of the eye that contains the iris and ciliary body and choroid
    lens nucleus, nucleus
    the central structure of the lens that is surrounded by the cortex
    membranous labyrinth
    the sensory structures of the inner ear including the labyrinthine receptors and the cochlea; contained within the bony labyrinth
    bony labyrinth, osseous labyrinth
    cavity in the petrous part of the temporal bone that contains the membranous labyrinth
    glans
    a small rounded structure; especially that at the end of the penis or clitoris
    alveolar bed
    lung tissue densely packed with alveoli
    valve
    a structure in a hollow organ (like the heart) with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it
    vascular structure
    a structure composed of or provided with blood vessels
    lacrimal apparatus
    the structures that secrete and drain tears from the eye
    cytoskeleton
    a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
    nucleolar organiser, nucleolar organizer, nucleolus organiser, nucleolus organizer
    the particular part of a chromosome that is associated with a nucleolus after nuclear division
    centromere, kinetochore
    a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
    aster
    star-shaped structure formed in the cytoplasm of a cell having fibers like rays that surround the centrosome during mitosis
    neural structure
    a structure that is part of the nervous system
    fold, plica
    a folded part (as in skin or muscle)
    convolution, gyrus
    a convex fold or elevation in the surface of the brain
    cartilaginous structure
    body structure given shape by cartilage
    ball
    a more or less rounded anatomical body or mass
    plate
    any flat platelike body structure or part
    horny structure, unguis
    any rigid body structure composed primarily of keratin
    skeletal structure
    any structure created by the skeleton of an organism
    costa
    a riblike part of a plant or animal (such as a middle rib of a leaf or a thickened vein of an insect wing)
    head
    the rounded end of a bone that fits into a rounded cavity in another bone to form a joint
    bridge
    the hard ridge that forms the upper part of the nose
    rotator cuff
    a supporting structure of the shoulder consisting of the muscles and tendons that attach the arm to the shoulder joint and enable the arm to move
    cornu
    (anatomy) any structure that resembles a horn in shape
    corona
    (anatomy) any structure that resembles a crown in shape
    receptor
    a cellular structure that is postulated to exist in order to mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response
    zona, zone
    (anatomy) any encircling or beltlike structure
    armature
    a protective or defensive covering of a plant or animal
    blastocele, blastocoel, blastocoele, cleavage cavity, segmentation cavity
    the fluid-filled cavity inside a blastula
    blastoderm, blastodisc, germinal area, germinal disc
    a layer of cells on the inside of the blastula
    archenteron
    central cavity of the gastrula; becomes the intestinal or digestive cavity
    hypodermis
    layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle in e.g. arthropods
    vane, web
    the flattened weblike part of a feather consisting of a series of barbs on either side of the shaft
    operculum
    a hard flap serving as a cover for (a) the gill slits in fishes or (b) the opening of the shell in certain gastropods when the body is retracted
    comb
    ciliated comb-like swimming plate of a ctenophore
    hoof
    the horny covering of the end of the foot in ungulate mammals
    eyecup, optic cup
    (embryology) a two-walled cuplike depression that develops into the pigmented and sensory layers of the retina
    denticle
    small pointed ridge on the exoskeleton of an arthropod
    claw
    sharp curved horny process on the toe of a bird or some mammals or reptiles
    calamus, quill, shaft
    the hollow spine of a feather
    nervure, vein
    one of the horny ribs that stiffen and support the wing of an insect
    birth canal
    a passage in the uterus and vagina through which a fetus passes during vaginal birth
    carina fornicis
    ridge on the lower surface of the fornix of the brain
    corpus mamillare, mamillary body, mammillary body
    one of two small round structures on the undersurface of the brain that form the terminals of the anterior arches of the fornix
    keel
    the median ridge on the breastbone of birds that fly
    chiasma opticum, optic chiasm, optic chiasma
    the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
    nasal concha
    one of several turbinate bones in the nasal cavity
    craniometric point
    a landmark on the skull from which craniometric measurements can be taken
    aortic plexus
    a plexus of lymph nodes in the lower portion of the abdominal aorta
    nerve plexus
    a network of intersecting nerves
    tubule
    a small tube
    salpinx
    a tube in the uterus or the ear
    malpighian body, malpighian corpuscle, renal corpuscle
    the capsule that contains Bowman's capsule and a glomerulus at the expanded end of a nephron
    meatus
    a natural body passageway
    opening, orifice, porta
    an aperture or hole that opens into a bodily cavity
    canal, channel, duct, epithelial duct
    a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance
    sinus
    any of various air-filled cavities especially in the bones of the skull
    sinusoid
    tiny endothelium-lined passages for blood in the tissue of an organ
    locule, loculus
    a small cavity or space within an organ or in a plant or animal
    lumen
    a cavity or passage in a tubular organ
    hair, pilus
    any of the cylindrical filaments characteristically growing from the epidermis of a mammal
    carpal tunnel
    a passageway in the wrist through which nerves and the flexor muscles of the hands pass
    socket
    a bony hollow into which a structure fits
    pulp cavity
    the central cavity of a tooth containing the pulp (including the root canal)
    cranial orbit, eye socket, orbit, orbital cavity
    the bony cavity in the skull containing the eyeball
    ganglion
    an encapsulated neural structure consisting of a collection of cell bodies of neurons
    epiglottis
    a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing
    buccal cavity
    the cavity between the jaws and the cheeks
    antrum
    a natural cavity or hollow in a bone
    cloaca
    (zoology) the cavity (in birds, reptiles, amphibians, most fish, and monotremes but not mammals) at the end of the digestive tract into which the intestinal, genital, and urinary tracts open
    vestibule
    any of various bodily cavities leading to another cavity (as of the ear or vagina)
    root canal
    the passage in the root of a tooth through which its nerve and blood vessels enter the pulp cavity
    pulp
    the soft inner part of a tooth
    epicanthic fold, epicanthus
    a vertical fold of skin over the nasal canthus; normal for Mongolian peoples; sometimes occurs in Down's syndrome
    eyeball, orb
    the ball-shaped capsule containing the vertebrate eye
    auricle, ear, pinna
    the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
    tragus
    a small cartilaginous flap in front of the external opening of the ear
    mediastinum
    the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
    middle ear, tympanic cavity, tympanum
    the main cavity of the ear; between the eardrum and the inner ear
    lens capsule
    a tenuous mesoblastic membrane surrounding the lens of the eye
    cochlea
    the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the organ of Corti
    glans clitoridis
    small mass of erectile tissue at the end of the body of the clitoris
    glans penis
    the conical mass of erectile tissue that forms the head of the penis
    pleural cavity
    the cavity in the thorax that contains the lungs and heart
    chamber
    an enclosed volume in the body
    cranial cavity, intracranial cavity
    the cavity enclosed by the cranium
    cardiac valve, heart valve
    a valve to control one-way flow of blood
    valvelet, valvula, valvule
    a small valve
    vas, vessel
    a tube in which a body fluid circulates
    amniotic cavity
    the fluid-filled cavity that surrounds the developing embryo
    greater peritoneal sac, peritoneal cavity
    the interior of the peritoneum; a potential space between layers of the peritoneum
    bursa omentalis, lesser peritoneal cavity, omental bursa
    an isolated part of the peritoneal cavity that is dorsal to the stomach
    pericardial cavity, pericardial space
    the space between the layers of the pericardium that contains fluid that lubricates the membrane surfaces and allows easy heart movement
    vacuole
    a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell
    reflex arc
    the neural path of a reflex
    center, centre, nerve center, nerve centre
    a cluster of nerve cells governing a specific bodily process
    cerebral hemisphere, hemisphere
    either half of the cerebrum
    piriform area, piriform lobe, pyriform area, pyriform lobe
    pear-shaped neural structure on either side of the brain in the rhinencephalon
    olfactory bulb
    one of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities
    brain, encephalon
    that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord
    neencephalon, neoencephalon
    the part of the brain having the most recent phylogenetic origin; the cerebral cortex and related parts
    palaeencephalon, paleencephalon, paleoencephalon
    the more primitive parts of the brain phylogenetically; most structures other than the cerebral cortex
    hypophyseal stalk
    the funnel-shaped stalk connecting the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
    cerebellum
    a major division of the vertebrate brain; situated above the medulla oblongata and beneath the cerebrum in humans
    cerebellar hemisphere
    either of two lateral lobes of the cerebellum
    vermis, vermis cerebelli
    the narrow central part of the cerebellum between the two hemispheres
    paleocerebellum
    the anterior lobe of the cerebellum which was one of the earliest parts of the hindbrain to develop in mammals
    cerebral cortex, cerebral mantle, cortex, pallium
    the layer of unmyelinated neurons (the grey matter) forming the cortex of the cerebrum
    geniculate body
    one of four small oval masses that protrude slightly from the underside of the thalamus and function as synaptic centers on the way to the cerebral cortex
    frontal gyrus
    any of the convolutions of the outer surface of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum
    temporal gyrus
    any of the convolutions of the outer surface of the temporal lobe of the cerebrum
    parietal gyrus
    any of the convolutions of the outer surface of the parietal lobe of the cerebrum
    occipital gyrus
    any of the convolutions of the outer surface of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum
    cerebrum
    anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres; dominant part of the brain in humans
    central gyrus
    either of two gyri on either side of the central sulcus
    bulb, medulla, medulla oblongata
    lower or hindmost part of the brain; continuous with spinal cord; (`bulb' is an old term for medulla oblongata)
    forebrain, prosencephalon
    the anterior portion of the brain; the part of the brain that develops from the anterior part of the neural tube
    hippocampus
    a complex neural structure (shaped like a sea horse) consisting of grey matter and located on the floor of each lateral ventricle; intimately involved in motivation and emotion as part of the limbic system; has a central role in the formation of memories
    cingulate gyrus, gyrus cinguli
    a long curved structure on the medial surface of the cerebral hemispheres; the cortical part of the limbic system
    telencephalon
    the anterior division of the forebrain; the cerebrum and related parts of the hypothalamus
    betweenbrain, diencephalon, interbrain, thalmencephalon
    the posterior division of the forebrain; connects the cerebral hemispheres with the mesencephalon
    limbic brain, limbic system, visceral brain
    a system of functionally related neural structures in the brain that are involved in emotional behavior
    subthalamus
    the ventral part of the thalamus
    thalamus
    large egg-shaped structures of grey matter that form the dorsal subdivision of the diencephalon
    hypothalamus
    a basal part of the diencephalon governing autonomic nervous system
    mesencephalon, midbrain
    the middle portion of the brain
    locus niger, nucleus niger, substantia nigra
    a layer of deeply pigmented grey matter in the midbrain; associated with the striate body; is involved in metabolic disturbances associated with Parkinson's disease and with Huntington's disease
    hindbrain, rhombencephalon
    the posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem
    myelencephalon
    the posterior part of the hindbrain in developing vertebrates; forms the medulla oblongata in adults
    pons, pons Varolii
    a band of nerve fibers linking the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum with the midbrain
    brain stem, brain-stem, brainstem
    the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
    nucleus
    any histologically identifiable mass of neural cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord
    ventricle
    one of four connected cavities in the brain; is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid
    radiation
    a radial arrangement of nerve fibers connecting different parts of the brain
    medulla spinalis, spinal cord
    a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain; a long tubelike structure extending from the base of the brain through the vertebral canal to the upper lumbar region
    ANS, autonomic nervous system
    the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
    choroid plexus, plexus choroideus
    a vascular plexus of the cerebral ventricles that regulate intraventricular pressure
    lumbar plexus, plexus lumbalis
    a lymphatic plexus located along the lower portion of the aorta and iliac vessels
    pterygoid plexus
    a plexus of veins draining the region of the pterygoid muscles and draining into the internal maxillary and anterior facial veins
    sac
    a structure resembling a bag in an animal
    uterine cavity
    the space inside the uterus between the cervical canal and the Fallopian tubes
    umbilical, umbilical cord
    membranous duct connecting the fetus with the placenta
    placenta
    the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
    rete testis
    network of tubules carrying sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the vasa efferentia
    spermatic cord
    a structure resembling a cord that suspends the testis within the scrotum and contains the vas deferens and other vessels and nerves
    nasal cavity
    either of the two cavities lying between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth and extending from the face to the pharynx
    nasopharynx
    cavity forming the upper part of the pharynx
    oropharynx
    cavity formed by the pharynx at the back of the mouth
    laryngopharynx
    the lower part of the pharynx
    larynx, voice box
    a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech
    plica vocalis, vocal band, vocal cord, vocal fold
    either of two pairs of folds of mucous membrane projecting into the larynx
    esophagus, gorge, gullet, oesophagus
    the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
    epicardia
    the short part of the esophagus extending downward from the diaphragm to the stomach
    blind gut, caecum, cecum
    the cavity in which the large intestine begins and into which the ileum opens
    ileocecal valve
    valve between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine; prevents material from flowing back from the large to the small intestine
    frill
    (paleontology) a bony plate that curves upward behind the skull of many ceratopsian dinosaurs
    fauces
    the passage between the back of the mouth and the pharynx
    fistula, sinus
    an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface
    shunt
    a passage by which a bodily fluid (especially blood) is diverted from one channel to another
    tubular cavity
    a cavity having the shape of a tube
    armpit, axilla, axillary cavity, axillary fossa
    the hollow under the arm where it is joined to the shoulder
    chest cavity, thoracic cavity
    the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart
    rib cage
    the bony enclosing wall of the chest
    areola
    small space in a tissue or body part such as the area between veins on a leaf or an insect's wing
    abdomen, abdominal cavity
    the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
    arch
    a curved bony structure supporting or enclosing organs (especially the inner sides of the feet)
    heel
    the back part of the human foot
    girdle
    an encircling or ringlike structure
    lamina
    a thin plate or layer (especially of bone or mineral)
    nail
    horny plate covering and protecting part of the dorsal surface of the digits
    column
    any tubular or pillar-like supporting structure in the body
    appendicular skeleton
    the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs
    axial skeleton
    the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
    back, backbone, rachis, spinal column, spine, vertebral column
    the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord
    costal cartilage
    the cartilages that connect the sternum and the ends of the ribs; its elasticity allows the chest to move in respiration
    metacarpus
    the part of the hand between the carpus and phalanges
    metatarsus
    the skeleton of the human foot between the toes and the tarsus; the corresponding part of the foot in birds or of the hind foot in quadrupeds
    tarsus
    the part of the foot of a vertebrate between the metatarsus and the leg; in human beings the bones of the ankle and heel collectively
    pelvis, renal pelvis
    a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter
    pelvic cavity
    the space bounded by the bones of the pelvis and containing the pelvic viscera
    celom, celoma, coelom
    a cavity in the mesoderm of an embryo that gives rise in humans to the pleural cavity and pericardial cavity and peritoneal cavity
    ruga
    (anatomy) a fold or wrinkle or crease
    tentorium
    (anatomy) a fold of dura mater that covers the cerebellum and supports the occipital lobes of the cerebrum
    zona pellucida
    thick membrane around the mammalian ovum; can be penetrated by one sperm in the fertilization process; usually remains around the fertilized egg until it is implanted in the wall of the uterus
    alpha receptor, alpha-adrenergic receptor, alpha-adrenoceptor
    receptors postulated to exist on nerve cell membranes of the sympathetic nervous system in order to explain the specificity of certain agents that affect only some sympathetic activities (such as vasoconstriction and relaxation of intestinal muscles and contraction of smooth muscles)
    beta receptor, beta-adrenergic receptor, beta-adrenoceptor
    receptors postulated to exist on nerve cell membranes of the sympathetic nervous system in order to explain the specificity of certain agents that affect only some sympathetic activities (such as vasodilation and increased heart beat)
    zonula, zonule
    small beltlike zone
    fossa, pit
    a concavity in a surface (especially an anatomical depression)
    type of:
    body part
    any part of an organism such as an organ or extremity
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