Lee Surrenders to Grant (1865)

On April 9, 1865, after a final battle that failed to break through Union forces, Robert E. Lee surrendered at the Appomattox Court House in Virginia. As a brigadier general and secretary to Ulysses S. Grant, Horace Porter witnessed and recorded this event. In his report, Porter included detailed observations, letters between the opposing generals, and personal opinions—all of which served to emphasize the humanity of the moments leading up to and surrounding the formal ceremony that is now seen as the end of the Civil War.
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definitions & notes only words
  1. correspondence
    communication by the exchange of letters
    A little before noon on the 7th of April, 1865, General Grant, with his staff, rode into the little village of Farmville, on the south side of the Appomattox River, a town that will be memorable in history as the place where he opened the correspondence with Lee which led to the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia.
  2. toilsome
    characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion
    Notwithstanding their long march that day, the men sprang to their feet with a spirit that made every one marvel at their pluck, and came swinging through the main street of the village with a step that seemed as elastic as on the first day of their toilsome tramp.
  3. improvise
    manage in a makeshift way; do with whatever is at hand
    Then was witnessed one of the most inspiring scenes of the campaign. Bonfires were lighted on the sides of the street, the men seized straw and pine knots, and improvised torches; cheers arose from throats already hoarse with shouts of victory, bands played, banners waved, arms were tossed high in air and caught again.
  4. provisions
    a stock or supply of foods
    This statement, together with the news that had been received from Sheridan saying that he had heard that General Lee's trains of provisions which had come by rail were at Appomattox, and that he expected to capture them before Lee could reach them, induced the general to write the following communication:
  5. effusion
    flow under pressure
    The results of the last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any further effusion of blood by asking of you the surrender of that portion of the Confederate States army known as the Army of Northern Virginia.
  6. reciprocate
    act, feel, or give mutually or in return
    GENERAL: I have received your note of this date. Though not entertaining the opinion you express of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia, I reciprocate your desire to avoid useless effusion of blood, and therefore, before considering your proposition, ask the terms you will offer on condition of its surrender.
  7. scant
    less than the correct or legal or full amount
    General Grant had been suffering all the afternoon from a severe headache, the result of fatigue, anxiety, scant fare, and loss of sleep, and by night it was much worse.
  8. conspicuous
    obvious to the eye or mind
    The road was filled with men, animals, and wagons, and to avoid these and shorten the distance we turned slightly to the right and began to "cut across lots"; but before going far we spied men conspicuous in gray, and it was seen that we were moving toward the enemy's left flank, and that a short ride farther would take us into his lines.
  9. apprehensive
    in fear or dread of possible evil or harm
    After reading it, the general rose and said he would ride forward on the road on which Babcock had come, but was apprehensive that hostilities might begin in the meantime, upon the termination of the temporary truce, and asked Babcock to write a line to Meade informing him of the situation.
  10. commodious
    large and roomy
    McLean ushered them into the sitting-room of one of the first houses he came to, but upon looking about and finding it quite small and meagerly furnished, Lee proposed finding something more commodious and better fitted for the occasion.
  11. contrast
    the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared
    The contrast between the two commanders was striking, and could not fail to attract marked attention as they sat ten feet apart facing each other.
  12. stooped
    having the back and shoulders rounded; not erect
    General Grant, then nearly forty-three years of age, was five feet eight inches in height, with shoulders slightly stooped.
  13. erect
    upright in position or posture
    Lee, on the other hand, was fully six feet in height, and quite erect for one of his age, for he was Grant's senior by sixteen years.
  14. genteel
    marked by refinement in taste and manners
    We asked Colonel Marshall afterward how it was that both he and his chief wore such fine toggery, and looked so much as if they had turned out to go to church, while with us our outward garb scarcely rose to the dignity even of the "shabby- genteel."
  15. propitiate
    make peace with
    He enlightened us regarding the contrast, by explaining that when their headquarters wagons had been pressed so closely by our cavalry a few days before, and it was found they would have to destroy all their baggage, except the clothes they carried on their backs, each one, naturally, selected the newest suit he had, and sought to propitiate the god of destruction by a sacrifice of his second best.
  16. substantially
    to a great extent or degree
    General Grant replied: "The terms I propose are those stated substantially in my letter of yesterday--that is, the officers and men surrendered to be paroled and disqualified from taking up arms again until properly exchanged, and all arms, ammunition, and supplies to be delivered up as captured property."
  17. accord
    concurrence of opinion
    Lee inclined his head as indicating his accord with this wish, and General Grant then went on to talk at some length in a very pleasant vein about the prospects of peace.
  18. humiliation
    an instance causing you to lose prestige or self-respect
    Then he looked toward Lee, and his eyes seemed to be resting on the handsome sword that hung at that officer's side. He said afterward that this set him to thinking that it would be an unnecessary humiliation to require the officers to surrender their swords
  19. inadvertently
    without knowledge or intention
    "I presumed it had been omitted inadvertently," continued Lee, "and with your permission I will mark where it should be inserted."
  20. countenance
    the appearance conveyed by a person's face
    When Lee came to the sentence about the officers' side-arms, private horses, and baggage, he showed for the first time during the reading of the letter a slight change of countenance, and was evidently touched by this act of generosity.
  21. allude
    make an indirect reference to
    It was doubtless the condition mentioned to which he particularly alluded when he looked toward General Grant as he finished reading and said with some degree of warmth in his manner: "This will have a very happy effect upon my army."
  22. conviction
    an unshakable belief in something without need for proof
    "The cavalrymen and artillerists own their own horses in our army. Its organization in this respect differs from that of the United States." This expression attracted the notice of our officers present, as showing how firmly the conviction was grounded in his mind that we were two distinct countries.
  23. concession
    a point that is yielded
    His face showed plainly that he was quite anxious to have this concession made, and Grant said very promptly and without giving Lee time to make a direct request.
  24. conciliate
    gain the good will of or cause to be more favorably inclined
    It will be very gratifying and will do much toward conciliating our people.
  25. stipulation
    a restriction insisted upon as a condition for an agreement
    I will proceed to designate the proper officers to carry the stipulations into effect.
  26. swarthy
    naturally having skin of a dark color
    Parker was a full-blooded Indian, and the reigning Chief of the Six Nations. When Lee saw his swarthy features he looked at him with evident surprise, and his eyes rested on him for several seconds.
  27. surmise
    a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence
    What was passing in his mind probably no one ever knew, but the natural surmise was that he at first mistook Parker for a Negro, and was struck with astonishment to find that the commander of the Union armies had one of that race on his personal staff.
  28. jocose
    characterized by jokes and good humor
    Williams at one time referred in rather jocose a manner to a circumstance which occurred during their former service together, as if he wanted to say something in a good natured way to break up the frigidity of the conversation, but Lee was in no mood for pleasantries, and he did not unbend, or even relax the fixed sternness of his features.
  29. earnestness
    the trait of being serious
    "I think it will be ample," remarked Lee, and added with considerable earnestness of manner, "and it will be a great relief, I assure you."
  30. bridle
    the act of restraining power or action or limiting excess
    Lee signaled to his orderly to bring up his horse, and while the animal was being bridled the general stood on the lowest step and gazed sadly in the direction of the valley beyond where his army lay--now an army of prisoners.
  31. overwhelm
    overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli
    All appreciated the sadness that overwhelmed him, and he had the personal sympathy of every one who beheld him at this supreme moment of trial.
  32. reverie
    an abstracted state of absorption
    The approach of his horse seemed to recall him from his reverie, and he at once mounted.
  33. rejoice
    express great joy
    "The war is over, the rebels are our countrymen again, and the best sign of rejoicing after the victory will be to abstain from all demonstrations in the field."
  34. inculcate
    teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions
    About 9 o'clock on the morning of the 10th General Grant with his staff rode out toward the enemy's lines, but it was found upon attempting to pass through that the force of habit is hard to overcome, and that the practice which had so long been inculcated in Lee's army of keeping Grant out of his lines was not to be overturned in a day, and he was politely requested at the picket-lines to wait till a message could be sent to headquarters asking for instructions.
  35. distinguished
    standing above others in character or attainment
    As soon as Lee heard that his distinguished opponent was approaching, he was prompt to correct the misunderstanding at the picket-line, and rode out at a gallop to receive him.
  36. hindrance
    something immaterial that interferes with action or progress
    He said the emancipation of the Negroes would be no hindrance to the restoring of relations between the two sections of the country, as it would probably not be the desire of the majority of the Southern people to restore slavery then, even if the question were left open to them.
  37. sentiment
    a personal belief or judgment
    Finding that he entertained these sentiments, General Grant told him that no one's influence in the South was so great as his, and suggested to him that he should advise the surrender of the remaining armies and thus exert his influence in favor of immediate peace.
  38. averse
    strongly opposed
    Lee, however, was averse to stepping beyond his duties as a soldier, and said the authorities would doubtless soon arrive at the same conclusion without his interference.
  39. cordial
    politely warm and friendly
    They all stepped up to pay their respects to General Grant, who received them very cordially and talked with them until it was time to leave.
  40. remnant
    a small part remaining after the main part no longer exists
    The charges were now withdrawn from the guns, the camp-fires were left to smolder in their ashes, the flags were tenderly furled--those historic banners, battle-stained, bullet-riddled, many of them but remnants of their former selves, with scarcely enough left of them on which to imprint the names of the battles they had seen--and the Army of the Union and the Army of Northern Virginia turned their backs upon each other for the first time in four long, bloody years.

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