conformity to one's own sense of right conduct
But, my good master Bates dying in two years after, and I having few friends, my business began to fail; for my
conscience would not suffer me to imitate the bad practice of too many among my brethren.
a journey usually by ship
It would not be proper, for some reasons, to trouble the reader with the particulars of our adventures in those seas: let it suffice to inform him, that in our
passage from thence to the East Indies, we were driven by a violent storm to the northwest of Van Diemen's Land.
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
By an observation, we found ourselves in the
latitude of 30 degrees 2 minutes south.
Compare with "longitude" (in the list for Part Three).
the periodic rise and fall of the sea level
For my own part, I swam as fortune directed me, and was pushed forward by wind and
become less in amount or intensity
I often let my legs drop, and could feel no bottom: but when I was almost gone, and able to struggle no longer, I found myself within my depth; and by this time the storm was much
However, in my thoughts I could not sufficiently wonder at the intrepidity of these
diminutive mortals, who dare venture to mount and walk upon my body, while one of my hands was at liberty, without trembling at the very sight of so prodigious a creature as I must appear to them.
great in size, force, extent, or degree
However, in my thoughts I could not sufficiently wonder at the intrepidity of these diminutive mortals, who dare venture to mount and walk upon my body, while one of my hands was at liberty, without trembling at the very sight of so
prodigious a creature as I must appear to them.
the appearance conveyed by a person's face
Upon this the Hurgo and his train withdrew with much civility and cheerful
any substance that can be used as food
These circumstances, added to the refreshment I had received by their
victuals and drink, which were very nourishing, disposed me to sleep.
a formal public statement
proclamation was soon issued to forbid it upon pain of death.
Jonathan Swift uses numerous situations where the governments that he encounters issue orders and draw up documents that are parallel with those he knew of in Europe. Compare with the other vocabulary words in this list: subsidy, edict, and levy.
a means to an end
expedient I could think of, was to creep into my house, which I accordingly did; and shutting the gate after me, I went as far as the length of my chain would suffer, and discharged my body of that uneasy load.
openly straightforward and direct without secretiveness
But this was the only time I was ever guilty of so uncleanly an action; for which I cannot but hope the
candid reader will give some allowance, after he has maturely and impartially considered my case, and the distress I was in.
of very great significance
I would not have dwelt so long upon a circumstance, that perhaps at first sight may appear not very
momentous, if I had not thought it necessary to justify my character in point of cleanliness to the world; which I am told some of my maligners have been pleased, upon this and other occasions, to call in question.
made tough by habitual exposure
By the same computation they provided me with sheets, blankets, and coverlets, tolerable enough for one who had been so long
inured to hardships as I.
think about carefully; weigh
In the meantime, the Emperor held frequent councils to
debate what course should be taken with me; and I was afterwards assured by a particular friend, a person of great quality, who was looked upon to be as much in the secret as any, that the court was under many difficulties concerning me.
a grant paid by a government to an enterprise
For this prince lives chiefly upon his own demesnes, seldom, except upon great occasions, raising any
subsidies upon his subjects, who are bound to attend him in his wars at their own expense.
uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing
He put this engine to our ears, which made an
incessant noise like that of a water-mill...
the second of two or the second mentioned of two
...and we conjecture it is either some unknown animal, or the god that he worships; but we are more inclined to the
latter opinion, because he assured us (if we understood him right, for he expressed himself very imperfectly) that he seldom did anything without consulting it: he called it his oracle, and said it pointed out the time for every action of his life.
Even though this word is often used with more than two things mentioned, it should only be used with two. Likewise this rule applies to its opposite word, "former" (which means the first mentioned of two).
showing effects of planning or manipulation
From the left fob he took out a net almost large enough for a fisherman, but
contrived to open and shut like a purse, and serve him for the same use: we found therein several massy pieces of yellow metal, which, if they be real gold, must be of immense value.
having great mass and weight and unwieldiness
In one of these cells were several globes or balls of a most
ponderous metal, about the bigness of our heads, and requiring a strong hand to lift them: the other cell contained a heap of certain black grains, but of no great bulk or weight, for we could hold above fifty of them in the palms of our hands.
auguring favorable circumstances and good luck
Signed and sealed on the fourth day of the eighty-ninth moon of your Majesty's
cause to lose courage
His Majesty, who is a most magnanimous prince, was less
daunted than I could expect; he ordered me to return it into the scabbard, and cast it on the ground as gently as I could, about six foot from the end of my chain.
occupy in an agreeable, entertaining or pleasant fashion
diverts the emperor and his nobility of both sexes in a very uncommon manner.
in fear or dread of possible evil or harm
The natives came by degrees to be less
apprehensive of any danger from me.
compete for something
But the danger is much greater when the ministers themselves are commanded to show their dexterity; for by
contending to excell themselves and their fellows, they strain so far, that there is hardly one of them who has not received a fall, and some of them two or three.
unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment
I had sent so many memorials and petitions for my liberty, that his Majesty at length mentioned the matter, first in the cabinet, and then in a full council; where it was opposed by none, except Skyresh Bolgolam, who was pleased, without any
provocation, to be my mortal enemy.
lie face downward, as in submission
I made my acknowledgments by
prostrating myself at his Majesty's feet: but he commanded me to rise; and after many gracious expressions, which, to avoid the censure of vanity, I shall not repeat, he added, that he hoped I should prove a useful servant, and well deserve all the favors he had already conferred upon me, or might do for the future.
make an express demand or provision in an agreement
The reader may please to observe, that in the last article for the recovery of my liberty the Emperor
stipulates to allow me a quantity of meat and drink sufficient for the support of 1,728 Lilliputians.
include in scope
The wall which
encompassed it is two feet and a half high, and at least eleven inches broad, so that a coach and horses may be driven very safely round it; and it is flanked with strong towers at ten feet distance.
an entreaty addressed to someone of superior status
He ordered his coach to wait at a distance, and desired I would give him an hour's audience; which I readily consented to, on account of his quality and personal merits, as well as the many good offices he had done me during my
solicitations at court.
a specialist in the investigation of existence and knowledge
For as to what we have heard you affirm, that there are other kingdoms and states in the world inhabited by human creatures as large as yourself, our
philosophers are in much doubt, and would rather conjecture that you dropped from the moon, or one of the stars; because it is certain, that a hundred mortals of your bulk would, in a short time, destroy all the fruits and cattle of his Majesty's dominions.
Philosophy (and philosopher) is mentioned a few times in Gulliver's Travels, and it is especially treated in the third part of the book. Jonathan Swift used his satire to make social commentary, and the shortcomings of intellectuals was one of his chief targets.
a formal or authoritative proclamation
Whereupon the Emperor his father published an
edict, commanding all his subjects, upon great penalties, to break the smaller end of their eggs.
try to stir up
These civil commotions were constantly
fomented by the monarchs of Blefuscu; and when they were quelled, the exiles always fled for refuge to that empire.
suppress or crush completely
These civil commotions were constantly fomented by the monarchs of Blefuscu; and when they were
quelled, the exiles always fled for refuge to that empire.
the formal separation of a church into two churches
During the course of these troubles, the Emperors of Blefuscu did frequently expostulate by their ambassadors, accusing us of making a
schism in religion, by offending against a fundamental doctrine of our great prophet Lustrog, in the fifty-fourth chapter of the Blundecral (which is their however, is thought to be a mere strain upon the text: for the words are these...
When Swift uses this word, he is usually referring to the many divisions of the church, and it is also a source for his social commentary.
a government order imposing a trade barrier
... all intercourse between the two empires having been strictly forbidden during the war, upon pain of death, and an
embargo laid by our Emperor upon all vessels whatsoever.
the front part of a vessel
I then took my tackling, and fastening a hook to a hole at the
prow of each, I tied all the cords together at the end.
a formal expression of praise
This great prince received me at my landing with all possible
encomiums, and created me a Nardac upon the spot, which is the highest title of honor among them.
the quality of being magnificent or splendid
There were six ambassadors, with a train of about five hundred persons, and their entry was very magnificent, suitable to the
grandeur of their master, and the importance of their business.
a very small person
It is to be observed, that these ambassadors spoke to me by an interpreter, the languages of both empires differing as much from each other as any two in Europe, and each nation priding itself upon the antiquity, beauty, and energy of their own tongues, with an avowed contempt for that of their neighbor; yet our Emperor, standing upon the advantage he had got by the seizure of their fleet, obliged them to deliver their credentials, and make their speech in the
Jonathan Swift coined this term. The word we use for a small thing or person comes from this book.
a formal exposition
Although I intend to leave the description of this empire to a particular
treatise, yet in the meantime I am content to gratify the curious reader with some general ideas.
Gulliver's Travels is part adventure and part exposition of unknown places. Although they are fantastical places that serve as metaphors for types of people and societies Jonathan Swift was familiar with, he approaches their descriptions as if he were writing entries in an encyclopedia. Often, you'll find words that refer to a philosophical perspective, simultaneously hinting at (and ridiculing) those perspectives. "Treatise" is one of those words.
inadequate in amount or degree
Or, if that fund be
deficient, it is largely supplied by the Crown.
a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits
Although we usually call reward and punishment the two hinges upon which all government turns, yet I could never observe this
maxim to be put in practice by any nation except that of Lilliput.
This word is another reference to philosophical or mathematical consideration.
impose and collect
The pension from each family for the education and entertainment of a child, upon failure of due payment, is
levied by the Emperor's officers.
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
As to persons of quality, they give security to appropriate a certain sum for each child, suitable to their condition; and these funds are always managed with good
husbandry, and the most exact justice.
lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of
In the several debates upon this impeachment, it must be confessed that his Majesty gave many marks of his great lenity, often urging the services you had done him, and endeavoring to
extenuate your crimes.
something immaterial that interferes with action or progress
That the loss of your eyes would be no
impediment to your bodily strength, by which you might still be useful to his Majesty.
examine or consider with attention and in detail
But having in my life
perused many state trials, which I ever observed to terminate as the judges thought fit to direct, I dared not rely on so dangerous a decision, in so critical a juncture, and against such powerful enemies.
This word is often misused to mean almost the opposite of its actual meaning.
catch sight of
Having thus prepared all things as well as I was able, I set sail on the twenty-fourth day of September, 1701, at six in the morning; and when I had gone about four leagues to the northward, the wind being at southeast, at six in the evening I
descried a small island about half a league to the northwest.
impossible to satisfy
I stayed but two months with my wife and family; for my
insatiable desire of seeing foreign countries would suffer me to continue no longer.