mindful of the future in spending money
Spirits are not finely touched
But to fine issues, nor nature never lends
The smallest scruple of her excellence
But, like a
thrifty goddess, she determines
Herself the glory of a creditor
Both thanks and use.
uneasiness about the fitness of an action
Nor need you, on mine honor, have to do
The literal meaning of the Latin root refers to a sharp stone. This connects to the definition of "a unit of apothecary weight equal to 20 grains," which is suggested by the previous example. Here, the noun is used figuratively to suggest uneasiness (which can be caused by a stone in one's shoe); it also hints that the Duke is testing Angelo's scruples ("motivation deriving from moral principles").
make more specific
Your scope is as mine own,
So to enforce or
qualify the laws
As to your soul seems good.
The verb also means "prove capable or fit; meet requirements." While this definition does not fit the example, it is suggested by the exchange: the Duke argues that nature gave Angelo good qualities that he must use, while Angelo replies that there should be more tests to prove his qualification for ruling Vienna (which, to flatter the Duke, Angelo qualifies with the adjectives "noble" and "great").
the trait of judging wisely and objectively
I do not relish well
Their loud applause and aves vehement,
Nor do I think the man of safe
That does affect it.
The noun also means "knowing how to avoid embarrassment or distress." While this trait can be seen as wise, too much of it can also be a sign of self-consciousness. In avoiding public appearances that should confirm his strength and protection, the Duke places his own insecurity above the needs of his people.
excessively or hypocritically pious
Thou conclud’st like the
sanctimonious pirate that went to sea with the ten commandments but scraped one out of the table.
In Latin, "sanctus" means "holy" and "monium" is a suffix meaning "state, condition" so the English adjective sounds like it should be a compliment. But it is used as an insult here to describe a pirate who changes religious laws to suit his own desires. Most of the characters who claim to be moral will be revealed as sanctimonious, especially the ironically named Angelo.
the state of having little or no money and possessions
Thus, what with the war, what with the sweat, what with the gallows, and what with
poverty, I am custom-shrunk.
cause to be admitted, as a person to an institution
Bear me to prison, where I am
As a participial adjective, "committed" also means "associated in an exclusive sexual relationship." While that is true for Claudio, he uses the word negatively here to describe being committed to prison. This is for committing ("perform an act, usually with a negative connotation") the crime of impregnating a woman he is emotionally committed to but has not yet publicly and legally married.
persons who exercise control over others
Thus can the demigod
Make us pay down for our offense, by weight,
The words of heaven: on whom it will, it will;
On whom it will not, so; yet still ’tis just.
beyond reasonable limits
As surfeit is the father of much fast,
So every scope by the
Turns to restraint.
The Latin verb "moderari" is related to "modus" which means "measure." Thus, to moderate something is to keep it within the properly set measure. Here, in comparing what he has done to surfeit, Claudio seems like he is sorry: just like someone who has eaten too much and needs to fast, he has enjoyed his freedoms too much and is now turning to restraint (there is a visual pun on the physical restraints of shackles or fetters).
avoiding detection by moving carefully
But it chances
stealth of our most mutual entertainment
With character too gross is writ on Juliet.
a sharp prod on a rider's heel used to urge a horse onward
Whether it be the fault and glimpse of newness,
Or whether that the body public be
A horse whereon the governor doth ride,
Who, newly in the seat, that it may know
He can command, lets it straight feel the
government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator
tyranny be in his place
Or in his eminence that fills it up
the disadvantage or painful consequences of an action
I stagger in—but this new governor
Awakes me all the enrollèd
Which have, like unscoured armor, hung by th’ wall
So long that nineteen zodiacs have gone round,
And none of them been worn
residence that is a place of religious seclusion
I prithee, Lucio, do me this kind service:
This day my sister should the
And there receive her approbation.
characterized by severity or restraint
Acquaint her with the danger of my state;
Implore her, in my voice, that she make friends
strict deputy; bid herself assay him.
the act of enforcing something
I pray she may, as well for the encouragement of the like, which else would stand under grievous
imposition, as for the enjoying of thy life, who I would be sorry should be thus foolishly lost at a game of tick-tack.
The noun also means "an uncalled-for burden." Both definitions fit: it can refer to Angelo who is enforcing the law, and it can refer to all the people who would feel the burden of this law that seeks to control their private lives. Especially since the act of fornication has not been punished for 19 years. sentencing Claudio to death for it now seems uncalled for.
run or flow slowly, as in drops or in an unsteady stream
Believe not that the dribbling dart of love
Can pierce a complete bosom.
silly or trivial
My holy sir, none better knows than you
How I have ever loved the life removed,
And held in
idle price to haunt assemblies
Where youth and cost witless bravery keeps.
The adjective also means "lacking a sense of restraint or responsibility" and "not yielding a return." All the definitions can fit. The Duke thinks that social gatherings are wasteful activities for the young and stupid. But his perspective is due to his old age and self-consciousness. He could also be described as idle ("not in action or at work"), since he prefers living a quiet, secluded life to enforcing the laws.
the trait of refraining from something, especially alcohol
I have delivered to Lord Angelo,
A man of stricture and firm
My absolute power and place here in Vienna,
And he supposes me traveled to Poland,
For so I have strewed it in the common ear,
And so it is received.
the act of restraining power or action or limiting excess
We have strict statutes and most biting laws,
The needful bits and
curbs to headstrong weeds,
Which for this fourteen years we have let slip,
Even like an o’ergrown lion in a cave
That goes not out to prey.
The literal meaning of "curb" intended by the Duke is "a bit with an attached chain or strap to check a horse" (a bit is "a piece of metal held in horse's mouth by reins"). This metaphor was used earlier by Claudio (see "spur"), but it would be more complete here if "weeds" were replaced by "steeds."
secured with a cover or binding
Now, as fond fathers,
bound up the threat’ning twigs of birch
Only to stick it in their children’s sight
For terror, not to use—in time the rod
More mocked than feared
the act of imposing something (as a tax or an embargo)
so our decrees,
infliction, to themselves are dead
propriety in manners and conduct
And liberty plucks justice by the nose,
The baby beats the nurse, and quite athwart
irritate or vex
Sith ’twas my fault to give the people scope,
’Twould be my tyranny to strike and
For what I bid them do
The word is used as a verb here. As a noun, it can mean "an open sore on the back of a horse caused by a saddle" (this would continue the horse and rider/people and law enforcement metaphor). In humans, gall is "a digestive juice secreted by the liver" which was once thought to produce "a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will." Because the Duke wants his people to think highly of him, he does not punish them when they break the rules. Instead, he sends in Angelo to do his job.
not strict in discipline
for we bid this be done
When evil deeds have their
And not the punishment.
sharply exact or accurate or delimited
Lord Angelo is
Stands at a guard with envy, scarce confesses
That his blood flows or that his appetite
Is more to bread than stone.
a special advantage or benefit not enjoyed by all
And have you nuns no farther
a rule or condition that limits freedom
I speak not as desiring more,
But rather wishing a more strict
Upon the sisterhood, the votarists of Saint Clare.
The noun also means "discipline in personal and social activities." This is how Claudio used it earlier. Here, Isabella says she wants strict rules, which suggests that she might have trouble disciplining herself. Although the audience is never told why Isabella is considering entering a nunnery, the Duke's words to the friar suggest that one reason can be a broken heart. For 17th century women, life as a nun can be freer and safer than being a wife and mother.
dedicate to a deity by a promise
When you have
vowed, you must not speak with men
But in the presence of the Prioress.
Then, if you speak, you must not show your face;
Or if you show your face, you must not speak.
turn away from; give up
I hold you as a thing enskied and sainted,
By your renouncement an immortal spirit,
And to be talked with in sincerity
As with a saint.
make less lively, intense, or vigorous
Upon his place,
And with full line of his authority,
Governs Lord Angelo, a man whose blood
Is very snow-broth; one who never feels
The wanton stings and motions of the sense,
But doth rebate and
blunt his natural edge
With profits of the mind: study and fast.
He arrests him on it,
And follows close the
rigor of the statute
To make him an example.
The noun also means "the quality of being strictly valid." From the perspective of Angelo, this definition would describe all the laws that the Duke has entrusted him to enforce. But for Lucio and Claudio, the rigor of the fornication law is "something hard to endure."
censured him already,
And, as I hear, the Provost hath a warrant
make an effort or attempt
Assay the power you have.
the state of being unsure of something
doubts are traitors
And makes us lose the good we oft might win
By fearing to attempt.