Nutrition and Digestion - Introductory

If you have a deficiency of information about nutrition and digestion, review these terms and fortify your knowledge! You'll learn about the digestive system, metabolism, and a variety of nutrients, including vitamins and minerals. This list will provide plenty of food for thought.
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Full list of words from this list:

  1. absorption
    taking nutrients into the body after digestion
  2. anemia
    a deficiency of red blood cells
  3. bacteria
    single-celled organisms that can cause disease
  4. bile
    a digestive juice secreted by the liver
  5. calcium
    a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light
  6. calorie
    unit of heat raising 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade
  7. carbohydrate
    an essential component of living cells and source of energy
  8. cholesterol
    a substance in the blood that can cause heart disease
  9. deficiency
    the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  10. diabetes
    a disease characterized by high glucose levels in the blood
  11. diet
    the usual food and drink consumed by an organism
  12. digestion
    the process by which the body breaks down food
  13. digestive system
    the system that makes food absorbable into the body
  14. energy
    any source of usable power
  15. fat
    a kind of body tissue that serves as a source of energy
  16. fiber
    coarse, indigestible plant food low in nutrients
  17. fortify
    add nutrients to
  18. fructose
    a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits
  19. gall bladder
    a muscular sac attached to the liver that stores bile (secreted by the liver) until it is needed for digestion
  20. gastric juice
    digestive secretions of the stomach glands consisting chiefly of hydrochloric acid and mucin and the enzymes pepsin and rennin and lipase
  21. glucose
    a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms
  22. insulin
    a glucose-regulating hormone produced in the pancreas
  23. iron
    a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element
  24. large intestine
    beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum
  25. liver
    large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat; synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood; synthesizes vitamin A; detoxifies poisonous substances and breaks down worn-out erythrocytes
  26. malnutrition
    a state of poor nourishment
  27. metabolism
    the organic processes that are necessary for life
  28. micronutrient
    a substance needed only in small amounts for normal body function (e.g., vitamins or minerals)
  29. mineral
    a solid inorganic substance occurring in nature
  30. multivitamin
    a pill or tablet containing several vitamins
  31. nutrient
    any substance that can be metabolized to give energy
  32. nutrition
    the organic process of nourishing or being nourished
  33. obesity
    the condition of being excessively overweight
  34. pancreas
    a large gland that secretes insulin and digestive enzymes
  35. pharynx
    the passage to the stomach and lungs
  36. protein
    an organic compound essential to living cells
  37. saliva
    a clear liquid secreted by glands in the mouth
  38. small intestine
    the longest part of the alimentary canal
  39. sodium
    a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt)
  40. starch
    a complex carbohydrate in seeds, fruits, and pith of plants
  41. stomach
    enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal
  42. sucrose
    a complex carbohydrate found in many plants and used as a sweetening agent
  43. supplement
    an additional component that improves capability
  44. trace element
    an element that occurs at very small quantities in the body but is nonetheless important for many biological processes
  45. vitamin A
    any of several fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal vision; prevents night blindness or inflammation or dryness of the eyes
  46. vitamin B
    originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins
  47. vitamin C
    a vitamin found in fresh fruits and vegetables
  48. vitamin D
    a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  49. vitamin E
    a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal reproduction; an important antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the body
  50. vitamin
    an organic substance essential to normal metabolism
Created on February 8, 2017 (updated April 5, 2017)

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