surgery

Surgery is a medical procedure, usually involving an incision and instruments. A surgery is done to fix or prevent a health problem.

There are a lot of kinds of surgery in the world. Some are very serious, like brain surgery and heart surgery. Others are minor, like getting your appendix removed. In most cases, you'll be unconscious for surgery, to make it easier for the surgeon to get the job done. You can also call the room where surgeries are done a surgery, and talk about the field of surgery.

Definitions of surgery
1

n the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures

“he is professor of surgery at the Harvard Medical School”
Type of:
medical science
the science of dealing with the maintenance of health and the prevention and treatment of disease

n a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body

“he died while undergoing surgery
Synonyms:
operation, surgical operation, surgical procedure, surgical process
Types:
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catheterisation, catheterization
the operation of introducing a catheter into the body
ablation, cutting out, excision, extirpation
surgical removal of a body part or tissue
amputation
a surgical removal of all or part of a limb
angioplasty
an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
arthroplasty
surgical reconstruction or replacement of a malformed or degenerated joint
arthroscopy
a minimally invasive operation to repair a damaged joint; the surgeon examines the joint with an arthroscope while making repairs through a small incision
brain surgery
any surgical procedure involving the brain
castration
surgical removal of the testes or ovaries (usually to inhibit hormone secretion in cases of breast cancer in women or prostate cancer in men)
cauterisation, cauterization, cautery
the act of coagulating blood and destroying tissue with a hot iron or caustic agent or by freezing
chemosurgery
use of chemical to destroy diseased or malignant tissue; used in treatment of skin cancer
craniotomy
a surgical opening through the skull
cryosurgery
the use of extreme cold (usually liquid nitrogen) to destroy unwanted tissue (warts or cataracts or skin cancers)
curettage, curettement
surgery to remove tissue or growths from a bodily cavity (as the uterus) by scraping with a curette
debridement
surgical removal of foreign material and dead tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing
decortication
removal of the outer covering of an organ or part
D and C, dilatation and curettage, dilation and curettage
a surgical procedure usually performed under local anesthesia in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrial lining of the uterus is scraped with a curet; performed to obtain tissue samples or to stop prolonged bleeding or to remove small tumors or to remove fragments of placenta after childbirth or as a method of abortion
electrosurgery
surgery performed with electrical devices (as in electrocautery)
enterostomy, enterotomy
surgical operation that creates a permanent opening through the abdominal wall into the intestine
enucleation
surgical removal of something without cutting into it
wrong-site surgery
a surgical operation performed on the wrong part of the body
evisceration
surgical removal of an organ (or the contents of an organ) from a patient
exenteration
surgical removal of the organs within a body cavity (as those of the pelvis)
eye operation, eye surgery
any surgical procedure involving the eyes
fenestration
surgical procedure that creates a new fenestra to the cochlea in order to restore hearing lost because of osteosclerosis
gastrectomy
surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
gastroenterostomy
surgical creation of an opening between the stomach wall and the small intestines; performed when the normal opening has been eliminated
gastrostomy
surgical creation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the stomach (as for gastrogavage)
heart surgery
any surgical procedure involving the heart
haemorrhoidectomy, hemorrhoidectomy
surgical procedure for tying hemorrhoids and excising them
hysterotomy
surgical incision into the uterus (as in cesarean section)
implantation
a surgical procedure that places something in the human body
intestinal bypass
surgical operation that shortens the small intestine; used in treating obesity
jejunostomy
surgical creation of an opening between the jejunum and the anterior abdominal wall; will allow artificial feeding
major surgery
any surgical procedure that involves anesthesia or respiratory assistance
microsurgery
surgery using operating microscopes and miniaturized precision instruments to perform intricate procedures on very small structures
minor surgery
any surgical procedure that does not involve anesthesia or respiratory assistance
myotomy
surgical incision or division of a muscle
myringectomy
surgical removal of the eardrum
myringoplasty
surgical repair of a perforated eardrum with a tissue graft
myringotomy
surgical incision into the eardrum (to relieve pressure or release pus from the middle ear)
neurosurgery
any surgery that involves the nervous system (brain or spinal cord or peripheral nerves)
orchiopexy
operation to bring an undescended testicle into the scrotum
osteotomy
surgical sectioning of bone
ostomy
surgical procedure that creates an artificial opening for the elimination of bodily wastes
PPP, UPPP, palatopharyngoplasty, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
surgical resection of unnecessary palatal and oropharyngeal tissue to open the airway; intended to cure extreme cases of snoring (with or without sleep apnea)
phlebectomy
surgical removal or all or part of a vein; sometimes done in cases of severe varicose veins
photocoagulation
surgical procedure that uses an intense laser beam to destroy diseased retinal tissue or to make a scar that will hold the retina in cases of detached retina
anaplasty, plastic surgery, reconstructive surgery
surgery concerned with therapeutic or cosmetic reformation of tissue
polypectomy
surgical removal of a polyp
resection
surgical removal of part of a structure or organ
rhinotomy
surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the nose to drain accumulated pus
rhizotomy
surgical procedure in which spinal nerve roots are cut; done (anterior roots) to relieve intractable pain or (posterior roots) to stop severe muscle spasms
sex-change operation, transsexual surgery
surgical procedures and hormonal treatments designed to alter a person's sexual characteristics so that the resemble those of the opposite sex
Shirodkar's operation, purse-string operation
a surgical procedure in which a suture is used to close the cervix in a pregnant woman; is performed when the cervix has failed to retain previous pregnancies
sterilisation, sterilization
the act of making an organism barren or infertile (unable to reproduce)
strabotomy
the surgical operation of cutting a muscle or tendon of the eye in order to correct strabismus
taxis
the surgical procedure of manually restoring a displaced body part
tracheostomy, tracheotomy
a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air; performed when the pharynx is obstructed by edema or cancer or other causes
organ transplant, transplant, transplantation
an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient)
trephination
an operation that removes a circular section of bone from the skull
tympanoplasty
surgical correction or repair of defects or injuries in the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear
uranoplasty
surgical correction of a defect of the palate
vasovasostomy
a surgical procedure that attempts to restore the function of the vas deferens after a vasectomy
vivisection
the act of operating on living animals (especially in scientific research)
abdominoplasty, tummy tuck
cosmetic surgery of the abdomen to remove wrinkles and tighten the skin over the stomach
adenoidectomy
surgical removal of the adenoids; commonly performed along with tonsillectomy
adrenalectomy, suprarenalectomy
surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands
appendectomy, appendicectomy
surgical removal of the vermiform appendix
arthrodesis
the surgical fixation of a joint which is intended to result in bone fusion
autoplasty
surgical repair by using tissue from another part of the patient's own body
psychosurgery
brain surgery on human patients intended to relieve severe and otherwise intractable mental or behavioral problems
split-brain technique
brain surgery on animals in which the corpus callosum (and sometimes the optic chiasm) is severed so that communication between the cerebral hemispheres is interrupted
colostomy
a surgical operation that creates an opening from the colon to the surface of the body to function as an anus
cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for relief of gallstone pain)
clitoridectomy, female circumcision
excision of the clitoris
suction curettage, vacuum aspiration
a method of induced abortion; prior to the 14th week of gestation the embryo and placenta are removed by applying suction to the dilated cervix
embolectomy
surgical removal of an embolus (usually from an artery)
endarterectomy
surgical removal of the inner lining of an artery that is clogged with atherosclerosis
enervation
surgical removal of a nerve
cosmetic surgery, face lift, face lifting, facelift, lift, nip and tuck, rhytidectomy, rhytidoplasty
plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and other signs of aging from your face; an incision is made near the hair line and skin is pulled back and excess tissue is excised
closed-heart surgery
heart surgery in which a small incision is made (the chest cavity is not opened)
open-heart surgery
heart surgery in which the rib cage is spread open, the heart is stopped and blood is detoured through a heart-lung machine while a heart valve or coronary artery is surgically repaired
hypophysectomy
surgical removal of the pituitary gland
hysterectomy
surgical removal of the uterus
cataract surgery
eye surgery that involves removing all or part of the lens and replacing it with an intraocular lens implant
cyclodestructive surgery
an eye operation that treats glaucoma by destroying the ciliary body with a laser
filtration surgery
eye surgery that opens a passage allowing excess aqueous humor to drain into surrounding tissues; a treatment for glaucoma
iridectomy
an eye operation that treats closed-angle glaucoma by surgical removal of part of the iris of the eye
iridotomy
a surgical procedure that makes an incision in the iris of the eye in order to enlarge the pupil or to treat closed-angle glaucoma
keratotomy
surgical incision into the cornea
LASEK, laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis
a refractive surgery procedure that reshapes the cornea
laser trabecular surgery
eye surgery that makes many tiny laser burns in an area that will increase the drainage of aqueous humor
LASIK, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
a refractive surgery procedure that reshapes the cornea
vitrectomy
a surgical procedure that removes the vitreous humor and replace it with saline solution
ileostomy
surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall to function as an anus; performed in cases of cancer of the colon or ulcerative colitis
corneal graft, corneal transplant, keratoplasty
a surgical procedure in which part or all of a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by healthy corneal tissue from a donor
lipectomy, selective lipectomy
plastic surgery involving the breakdown and removal of fatty tissue
mastopexy
plastic surgery to lift or reshape the breasts
neuroplasty
plastic surgery of the nerves
otoplasty
reconstructive surgery of the auricle of the external ear
laminectomy
surgical removal of the bony arches on one or more vertebrae
laryngectomy
surgical removal of part or all of the larynx (usually to treat cancer of the larynx)
lithotomy
surgical removal of a stone (calculus)
lobectomy
surgical removal of a lobe from any organ of the body (as the lung or brain)
lumpectomy
surgical removal of a tumor without removing much of the surrounding tissue or lymph nodes; performed in some cases of breast cancer
robotic telesurgery
microsurgery in which the surgeon performs surgery by manipulating the hands of a robot
mastectomy
surgical removal of a breast to remove a malignant tumor
mastoidectomy
surgical removal of some or all of the mastoid process
meniscectomy
surgical removal of the meniscus of the knee
nephrectomy
surgical removal of a kidney
neurectomy
surgical removal of all or part of a nerve
oophorectomy, ovariectomy
surgical removal of one of both ovaries
oophorosalpingectomy
surgical removal of one or both ovaries and the corresponding Fallopian tubes
ophthalmectomy
surgical removal of an eye
orchidectomy, orchiectomy
surgical removal of one or both testicles
pancreatectomy
surgical removal of part or all of the pancreas
pneumonectomy
surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)
prostatectomy
surgical removal of part or all of the prostate gland
salpingectomy
surgical removal of one or both Fallopian tubes
septectomy
surgical removal of all or part of a septum (especially the nasal septum or atrial septum)
sigmoidectomy
surgical removal of part or all of the sigmoid colon (usually to remove a malignant tumor)
splenectomy
surgical removal of the spleen
stapedectomy
surgical removal of the stapes of the middle ear
sympathectomy
surgical interruption of a nerve pathway in the sympathetic nervous system
thrombectomy
surgical removal of a blood clot (thrombus) from a blood vessel
thyroidectomy
surgical removal of the thyroid gland
tonsillectomy
surgical removal of the palatine tonsils; commonly performed along with adenoidectomy
phalloplasty
reconstructive surgery on the penis to repair congenital abnormality or injury
proctoplasty, rectoplasty
reconstructive surgery of the anus or rectum
altering, fixing, neutering
the sterilization of an animal
TURP, transurethral resection of the prostate
removal of significant amounts of prostate tissue (as in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia)
cryocautery
application of a substance that destroys tissue by freezing it
thermocautery
cautery (destruction of tissue) by heat
vasectomy
surgical procedure that removes all or part of the vas deferens (usually as a means of sterilization); is sometimes reversible
vulvectomy
surgical removal of part or all of the vulva
surgical contraception
contraception by surgical sterilization
xenotransplant, xenotransplantation
a surgical procedure in which tissue or whole organs are transfered from one species to another species
Type of:
medical procedure
a procedure employed by medical or dental practitioners

n a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations

Synonyms:
OR, operating room, operating theater, operating theatre
Type of:
hospital room
a room in a hospital for the care of patients

n a room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted

“he read the warning in the doctor's surgery
Type of:
room
an area within a building enclosed by walls and floor and ceiling

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