surgery

Surgery is a medical procedure, usually involving an incision and instruments. A surgery is done to fix or prevent a health problem.

There are a lot of kinds of surgery in the world. Some are very serious, like brain surgery and heart surgery. Others are minor, like getting your appendix removed. In most cases, you'll be unconscious for surgery, to make it easier for the surgeon to get the job done. You can also call the room where surgeries are done a surgery, and talk about the field of surgery.

Definitions of surgery
  1. noun
    the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures
    “he is professor of surgery at the Harvard Medical School”
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    type of:
    medical science
    the science of dealing with the maintenance of health and the prevention and treatment of disease
  2. noun
    a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body
    “he died while undergoing surgery
    synonyms: operation, surgical operation, surgical procedure, surgical process
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    types:
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    catheterisation, catheterization
    the operation of introducing a catheter into the body
    ablation, cutting out, excision, extirpation
    surgical removal of a body part or tissue
    amputation
    a surgical removal of all or part of a limb
    angioplasty
    an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
    arthroplasty
    surgical reconstruction or replacement of a malformed or degenerated joint
    arthroscopy
    a minimally invasive operation to repair a damaged joint; the surgeon examines the joint with an arthroscope while making repairs through a small incision
    brain surgery
    any surgical procedure involving the brain
    castration
    surgical removal of the testes or ovaries (usually to inhibit hormone secretion in cases of breast cancer in women or prostate cancer in men)
    cauterisation, cauterization, cautery
    the act of coagulating blood and destroying tissue with a hot iron or caustic agent or by freezing
    chemosurgery
    use of chemical to destroy diseased or malignant tissue; used in treatment of skin cancer
    craniotomy
    a surgical opening through the skull
    cryosurgery
    the use of extreme cold (usually liquid nitrogen) to destroy unwanted tissue (warts or cataracts or skin cancers)
    curettage, curettement
    surgery to remove tissue or growths from a bodily cavity (as the uterus) by scraping with a curette
    debridement
    surgical removal of foreign material and dead tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing
    decortication
    removal of the outer covering of an organ or part
    D and C, dilatation and curettage, dilation and curettage
    a surgical procedure usually performed under local anesthesia in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrial lining of the uterus is scraped with a curet; performed to obtain tissue samples or to stop prolonged bleeding or to remove small tumors or to remove fragments of placenta after childbirth or as a method of abortion
    electrosurgery
    surgery performed with electrical devices (as in electrocautery)
    enterostomy, enterotomy
    surgical operation that creates a permanent opening through the abdominal wall into the intestine
    enucleation
    surgical removal of something without cutting into it
    wrong-site surgery
    a surgical operation performed on the wrong part of the body
    evisceration
    surgical removal of an organ (or the contents of an organ) from a patient
    exenteration
    surgical removal of the organs within a body cavity (as those of the pelvis)
    eye operation, eye surgery
    any surgical procedure involving the eyes
    fenestration
    surgical procedure that creates a new fenestra to the cochlea in order to restore hearing lost because of osteosclerosis
    gastrectomy
    surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
    gastroenterostomy
    surgical creation of an opening between the stomach wall and the small intestines; performed when the normal opening has been eliminated
    gastrostomy
    surgical creation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the stomach (as for gastrogavage)
    heart surgery
    any surgical procedure involving the heart
    haemorrhoidectomy, hemorrhoidectomy
    surgical procedure for tying hemorrhoids and excising them
    hysterotomy
    surgical incision into the uterus (as in cesarean section)
    implantation
    a surgical procedure that places something in the human body
    intestinal bypass
    surgical operation that shortens the small intestine; used in treating obesity
    jejunostomy
    surgical creation of an opening between the jejunum and the anterior abdominal wall; will allow artificial feeding
    major surgery
    any surgical procedure that involves anesthesia or respiratory assistance
    microsurgery
    surgery using operating microscopes and miniaturized precision instruments to perform intricate procedures on very small structures
    minor surgery
    any surgical procedure that does not involve anesthesia or respiratory assistance
    myotomy
    surgical incision or division of a muscle
    myringectomy
    surgical removal of the eardrum
    myringoplasty
    surgical repair of a perforated eardrum with a tissue graft
    myringotomy
    surgical incision into the eardrum (to relieve pressure or release pus from the middle ear)
    neurosurgery
    any surgery that involves the nervous system (brain or spinal cord or peripheral nerves)
    orchiopexy
    operation to bring an undescended testicle into the scrotum
    osteotomy
    surgical sectioning of bone
    ostomy
    surgical procedure that creates an artificial opening for the elimination of bodily wastes
    PPP, UPPP, palatopharyngoplasty, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
    surgical resection of unnecessary palatal and oropharyngeal tissue to open the airway; intended to cure extreme cases of snoring (with or without sleep apnea)
    phlebectomy
    surgical removal or all or part of a vein; sometimes done in cases of severe varicose veins
    photocoagulation
    surgical procedure that uses an intense laser beam to destroy diseased retinal tissue or to make a scar that will hold the retina in cases of detached retina
    anaplasty, plastic surgery, reconstructive surgery
    surgery concerned with therapeutic or cosmetic reformation of tissue
    polypectomy
    surgical removal of a polyp
    resection
    surgical removal of part of a structure or organ
    rhinotomy
    surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the nose to drain accumulated pus
    rhizotomy
    surgical procedure in which spinal nerve roots are cut; done (anterior roots) to relieve intractable pain or (posterior roots) to stop severe muscle spasms
    sex-change operation, transsexual surgery
    surgical procedures and hormonal treatments designed to alter a person's sexual characteristics so that the resemble those of the opposite sex
    Shirodkar's operation, purse-string operation
    a surgical procedure in which a suture is used to close the cervix in a pregnant woman; is performed when the cervix has failed to retain previous pregnancies
    sterilisation, sterilization
    the act of making an organism barren or infertile (unable to reproduce)
    strabotomy
    the surgical operation of cutting a muscle or tendon of the eye in order to correct strabismus
    taxis
    the surgical procedure of manually restoring a displaced body part
    tracheostomy, tracheotomy
    a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air; performed when the pharynx is obstructed by edema or cancer or other causes
    organ transplant, transplant, transplantation
    an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient)
    trephination
    an operation that removes a circular section of bone from the skull
    tympanoplasty
    surgical correction or repair of defects or injuries in the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear
    uranoplasty
    surgical correction of a defect of the palate
    vasovasostomy
    a surgical procedure that attempts to restore the function of the vas deferens after a vasectomy
    vivisection
    the act of operating on living animals (especially in scientific research)
    abdominoplasty, tummy tuck
    cosmetic surgery of the abdomen to remove wrinkles and tighten the skin over the stomach
    adenoidectomy
    surgical removal of the adenoids; commonly performed along with tonsillectomy
    adrenalectomy, suprarenalectomy
    surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands
    appendectomy, appendicectomy
    surgical removal of the vermiform appendix
    arthrodesis
    the surgical fixation of a joint which is intended to result in bone fusion
    autoplasty
    surgical repair by using tissue from another part of the patient's own body
    psychosurgery
    brain surgery on human patients intended to relieve severe and otherwise intractable mental or behavioral problems
    split-brain technique
    brain surgery on animals in which the corpus callosum (and sometimes the optic chiasm) is severed so that communication between the cerebral hemispheres is interrupted
    colostomy
    a surgical operation that creates an opening from the colon to the surface of the body to function as an anus
    cholecystectomy
    surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for relief of gallstone pain)
    clitoridectomy, female circumcision
    excision of the clitoris
    suction curettage, vacuum aspiration
    a method of induced abortion; prior to the 14th week of gestation the embryo and placenta are removed by applying suction to the dilated cervix
    embolectomy
    surgical removal of an embolus (usually from an artery)
    endarterectomy
    surgical removal of the inner lining of an artery that is clogged with atherosclerosis
    enervation
    surgical removal of a nerve
    cosmetic surgery, face lift, face lifting, facelift, lift, nip and tuck, rhytidectomy, rhytidoplasty
    plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and other signs of aging from your face; an incision is made near the hair line and skin is pulled back and excess tissue is excised
    closed-heart surgery
    heart surgery in which a small incision is made (the chest cavity is not opened)
    open-heart surgery
    heart surgery in which the rib cage is spread open, the heart is stopped and blood is detoured through a heart-lung machine while a heart valve or coronary artery is surgically repaired
    hypophysectomy
    surgical removal of the pituitary gland
    hysterectomy
    surgical removal of the uterus
    cataract surgery
    eye surgery that involves removing all or part of the lens and replacing it with an intraocular lens implant
    cyclodestructive surgery
    an eye operation that treats glaucoma by destroying the ciliary body with a laser
    filtration surgery
    eye surgery that opens a passage allowing excess aqueous humor to drain into surrounding tissues; a treatment for glaucoma
    iridectomy
    an eye operation that treats closed-angle glaucoma by surgical removal of part of the iris of the eye
    iridotomy
    a surgical procedure that makes an incision in the iris of the eye in order to enlarge the pupil or to treat closed-angle glaucoma
    keratotomy
    surgical incision into the cornea
    LASEK, laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis
    a refractive surgery procedure that reshapes the cornea
    laser trabecular surgery
    eye surgery that makes many tiny laser burns in an area that will increase the drainage of aqueous humor
    LASIK, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
    a refractive surgery procedure that reshapes the cornea
    vitrectomy
    a surgical procedure that removes the vitreous humor and replace it with saline solution
    ileostomy
    surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall to function as an anus; performed in cases of cancer of the colon or ulcerative colitis
    corneal graft, corneal transplant, keratoplasty
    a surgical procedure in which part or all of a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by healthy corneal tissue from a donor
    lipectomy, selective lipectomy
    plastic surgery involving the breakdown and removal of fatty tissue
    mastopexy
    plastic surgery to lift or reshape the breasts
    neuroplasty
    plastic surgery of the nerves
    otoplasty
    reconstructive surgery of the auricle of the external ear
    laminectomy
    surgical removal of the bony arches on one or more vertebrae
    laryngectomy
    surgical removal of part or all of the larynx (usually to treat cancer of the larynx)
    lithotomy
    surgical removal of a stone (calculus)
    lobectomy
    surgical removal of a lobe from any organ of the body (as the lung or brain)
    lumpectomy
    surgical removal of a tumor without removing much of the surrounding tissue or lymph nodes; performed in some cases of breast cancer
    robotic telesurgery
    microsurgery in which the surgeon performs surgery by manipulating the hands of a robot
    mastectomy
    surgical removal of a breast to remove a malignant tumor
    mastoidectomy
    surgical removal of some or all of the mastoid process
    meniscectomy
    surgical removal of the meniscus of the knee
    nephrectomy
    surgical removal of a kidney
    neurectomy
    surgical removal of all or part of a nerve
    oophorectomy, ovariectomy
    surgical removal of one of both ovaries
    oophorosalpingectomy
    surgical removal of one or both ovaries and the corresponding Fallopian tubes
    ophthalmectomy
    surgical removal of an eye
    orchidectomy, orchiectomy
    surgical removal of one or both testicles
    pancreatectomy
    surgical removal of part or all of the pancreas
    pneumonectomy
    surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)
    prostatectomy
    surgical removal of part or all of the prostate gland
    salpingectomy
    surgical removal of one or both Fallopian tubes
    septectomy
    surgical removal of all or part of a septum (especially the nasal septum or atrial septum)
    sigmoidectomy
    surgical removal of part or all of the sigmoid colon (usually to remove a malignant tumor)
    splenectomy
    surgical removal of the spleen
    stapedectomy
    surgical removal of the stapes of the middle ear
    sympathectomy
    surgical interruption of a nerve pathway in the sympathetic nervous system
    thrombectomy
    surgical removal of a blood clot (thrombus) from a blood vessel
    thyroidectomy
    surgical removal of the thyroid gland
    tonsillectomy
    surgical removal of the palatine tonsils; commonly performed along with adenoidectomy
    phalloplasty
    reconstructive surgery on the penis to repair congenital abnormality or injury
    proctoplasty, rectoplasty
    reconstructive surgery of the anus or rectum
    altering, fixing, neutering
    the sterilization of an animal
    TURP, transurethral resection of the prostate
    removal of significant amounts of prostate tissue (as in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia)
    cryocautery
    application of a substance that destroys tissue by freezing it
    thermocautery
    cautery (destruction of tissue) by heat
    vasectomy
    surgical procedure that removes all or part of the vas deferens (usually as a means of sterilization); is sometimes reversible
    vulvectomy
    surgical removal of part or all of the vulva
    surgical contraception
    contraception by surgical sterilization
    xenotransplant, xenotransplantation
    a surgical procedure in which tissue or whole organs are transfered from one species to another species
    type of:
    medical procedure
    a procedure employed by medical or dental practitioners
  3. noun
    a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations
    synonyms: OR, operating room, operating theater, operating theatre
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    type of:
    hospital room
    a room in a hospital for the care of patients
  4. noun
    a room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted
    “he read the warning in the doctor's surgery
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    type of:
    room
    an area within a building enclosed by walls and floor and ceiling
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