sugar

Sugar is the sweet stuff that makes candy and other treats extra delicious, but eating too much of it is bad for you. Sugar isn’t only a food, it’s also an essential part of living cells and a source of energy for all animals.

There are two main senses of sugar. First is refined sugar — the crystals that sweeten and preserve many foods. This yummy stuff comes from the sugarcane and sugar beet plants, and really hit the scene in the 18th and 19th centuries when sugar plantations spread and more people could get sugar. The other kind of sugar refers to biochemistry, and these sugars are an important part of the cells of all living things.

Definitions of sugar
1

n a white crystalline carbohydrate used as a sweetener and preservative

Synonyms:
refined sugar
Types:
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caramel, caramelized sugar
burnt sugar; used to color and flavor food
lump sugar
refined sugar molded into rectangular shapes convenient as single servings
loaf sugar, sugar loaf, sugarloaf
a large conical loaf of concentrated refined sugar
cane sugar
sugar from sugarcane used as sweetening agent
granulated sugar
sugar in the form of small grains
beet sugar
sugar from sugar beets used as sweetening agent
corn sugar
dextrose used as sweetening agent
brown sugar
unrefined or only partly refined sugar
powdered sugar
sugar granulated into a fine powder
demerara, demerara sugar
light brown cane sugar; originally from Guyana
Type of:
sweetener, sweetening
something added to foods to make them taste sweeter

n an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain

Synonyms:
carbohydrate, saccharide
Types:
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ribose
a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
beet sugar
sugar made from sugar beets
cane sugar
sucrose obtained from sugar cane
deoxyribose
a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids
invert sugar
a mixture of equal parts of glucose and fructose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose; found naturally in fruits; sweeter than glucose
maple sugar
sugar made from the sap of the sugar maple tree
monosaccharide, monosaccharose, simple sugar
a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars; the simplest group of carbohydrates
oligosaccharide
any of the carbohydrates that yield only a few monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
polyose, polysaccharide
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
jaggary, jaggery, jagghery
unrefined brown sugar made from palm sap
wood sugar, xylose
a sugar extracted from wood or straw; used in foods for diabetics
Lipo-Hepin, Liquaemin, heparin
a polysaccharide produced in basophils (especially in the lung and liver) and that inhibits the activity of thrombin in coagulation of the blood; it (trade names Lipo-Hepin and Liquaemin) is used as an anticoagulant in the treatment of thrombosis and in heart surgery
triose
any monosaccharide sugar containing three atoms of carbon per molecule
tetrose
any monosaccharide sugar containing four atoms of carbon per molecule
pentose
any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule
hexose
a monosaccharide that contains six carbon atoms per molecule
aldose
a monosaccharide sugar that contains the aldehyde group or is hemiacetal
chitin
a tough semitransparent horny substance; the principal component of the exoskeletons of arthropods and the cell walls of certain fungi
cellulose
a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
animal starch, glycogen
one form in which body fuel is stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when needed by the body
inulin
used to manufacture fructose and in assessing kidney function
demerara
a light brown raw cane sugar from Guyana
dextrin
any of various polysaccharides obtained by hydrolysis of starch; a tasteless and odorless gummy substance that is used as a thickening agent and in adhesives and in dietary supplements
disaccharide
any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
ketose
any monosaccharide sugar that contains a ketone group or its hemiacetal
mucopolysaccharide
complex polysaccharides containing an amino group; occur chiefly as components of connective tissue
amylum, starch
a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice; an important foodstuff and used otherwise especially in adhesives and as fillers and stiffeners for paper and textiles
tetrasaccharide
any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield four monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
trisaccharide
any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield three monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
Type of:
macromolecule, supermolecule
any very large complex molecule; found only in plants and animals

n informal terms for money

Synonyms:
boodle, bread, cabbage, clams, dinero, dough, gelt, kale, lettuce, lolly, loot, lucre, moolah, pelf, scratch, shekels, simoleons, wampum
Type of:
money
the most common medium of exchange; functions as legal tender

v sweeten with sugar

sugar your tea”
Synonyms:
saccharify
Type of:
dulcify, dulcorate, edulcorate, sweeten
make sweeter in taste

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