sugar

Sugar is the sweet stuff that makes candy and other treats extra delicious, but eating too much of it is bad for you. Sugar isn’t only a food, it’s also an essential part of living cells and a source of energy for all animals.

There are two main senses of sugar. First is refined sugar — the crystals that sweeten and preserve many foods. This yummy stuff comes from the sugarcane and sugar beet plants, and really hit the scene in the 18th and 19th centuries when sugar plantations spread and more people could get sugar. The other kind of sugar refers to biochemistry, and these sugars are an important part of the cells of all living things.

Definitions of sugar
  1. noun
    a white crystalline carbohydrate used as a sweetener and preservative
    synonyms: refined sugar
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    types:
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    caramel, caramelized sugar
    burnt sugar; used to color and flavor food
    lump sugar
    refined sugar molded into rectangular shapes convenient as single servings
    loaf sugar, sugar loaf, sugarloaf
    a large conical loaf of concentrated refined sugar
    cane sugar
    sugar from sugarcane used as sweetening agent
    granulated sugar
    sugar in the form of small grains
    beet sugar
    sugar from sugar beets used as sweetening agent
    corn sugar
    dextrose used as sweetening agent
    brown sugar
    unrefined or only partly refined sugar
    powdered sugar
    sugar granulated into a fine powder
    demerara, demerara sugar
    light brown cane sugar; originally from Guyana
    type of:
    sweetener, sweetening
    something added to foods to make them taste sweeter
  2. noun
    an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain
    synonyms: carbohydrate, saccharide
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    types:
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    ribose
    a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
    beet sugar
    sugar made from sugar beets
    cane sugar
    sucrose obtained from sugar cane
    deoxyribose
    a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids
    invert sugar
    a mixture of equal parts of glucose and fructose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose; found naturally in fruits; sweeter than glucose
    maple sugar
    sugar made from the sap of the sugar maple tree
    monosaccharide, monosaccharose, simple sugar
    a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars; the simplest group of carbohydrates
    oligosaccharide
    any of the carbohydrates that yield only a few monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
    polyose, polysaccharide
    any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
    jaggary, jaggery, jagghery
    unrefined brown sugar made from palm sap
    wood sugar, xylose
    a sugar extracted from wood or straw; used in foods for diabetics
    Lipo-Hepin, Liquaemin, heparin
    a polysaccharide produced in basophils (especially in the lung and liver) and that inhibits the activity of thrombin in coagulation of the blood; it (trade names Lipo-Hepin and Liquaemin) is used as an anticoagulant in the treatment of thrombosis and in heart surgery
    triose
    any monosaccharide sugar containing three atoms of carbon per molecule
    tetrose
    any monosaccharide sugar containing four atoms of carbon per molecule
    pentose
    any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule
    hexose
    a monosaccharide that contains six carbon atoms per molecule
    aldose
    a monosaccharide sugar that contains the aldehyde group or is hemiacetal
    chitin
    a tough semitransparent horny substance; the principal component of the exoskeletons of arthropods and the cell walls of certain fungi
    cellulose
    a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
    animal starch, glycogen
    one form in which body fuel is stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when needed by the body
    inulin
    used to manufacture fructose and in assessing kidney function
    demerara
    a light brown raw cane sugar from Guyana
    dextrin
    any of various polysaccharides obtained by hydrolysis of starch; a tasteless and odorless gummy substance that is used as a thickening agent and in adhesives and in dietary supplements
    disaccharide
    any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
    ketose
    any monosaccharide sugar that contains a ketone group or its hemiacetal
    mucopolysaccharide
    complex polysaccharides containing an amino group; occur chiefly as components of connective tissue
    amylum, starch
    a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice; an important foodstuff and used otherwise especially in adhesives and as fillers and stiffeners for paper and textiles
    tetrasaccharide
    any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield four monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
    trisaccharide
    any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield three monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
    type of:
    macromolecule, supermolecule
    any very large complex molecule; found only in plants and animals
  3. noun
    informal terms for money
    synonyms: boodle, bread, cabbage, clams, dinero, dough, gelt, kale, lettuce, lolly, loot, lucre, moolah, pelf, scratch, shekels, simoleons, wampum
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    type of:
    money
    the most common medium of exchange; functions as legal tender
  4. verb
    sweeten with sugar
    sugar your tea”
    synonyms: saccharify
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    type of:
    dulcify, dulcorate, edulcorate, sweeten
    make sweeter in taste
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