macromolecule

Definitions of macromolecule
1

n any very large complex molecule; found only in plants and animals

Synonyms:
supermolecule
Types:
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protein
any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
carbohydrate, saccharide, sugar
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain
lipid, lipide, lipoid
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
nucleic acid
(biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotide chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
capsid
the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
gluten
a protein substance that remains when starch is removed from cereal grains; gives cohesiveness to dough
ribose
a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
recombinant protein
a protein derived from recombinant DNA
actomyosin
a protein complex in muscle fibers; composed of myosin and actin; shortens when stimulated and causes muscle contractions
aleurone
granular protein in outermost layer of endosperm of many seeds or cereal grains
amyloid
(pathology) a waxy translucent complex protein resembling starch that results from degeneration of tissue
apoenzyme
a protein that combines with a coenzyme to form an active enzyme
compound protein, conjugated protein
a protein complex combining amino acids with other substances
enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
fibrin
a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots; it forms a network that traps red cells and platelets
filaggrin
the main protein of the keratohyalin granules
growth factor
a protein that is involved in cell differentiation and growth
haptoglobin
a protein in plasma that binds free hemoglobin and removes it (as from wounds)
iodinated protein, iodoprotein
a protein that contains iodine
nucleoprotein
any of several substances found in the nuclei of all living cells; consists of a protein bound to a nucleic acid
opsin
retinal protein formed by the action of light on rhodopsin
phosphoprotein
containing chemically bound phosphoric acid
plasma protein
any of the proteins in blood plasma
PSA, prostate specific antigen
a protein manufactured exclusively by the prostate gland; PSA is produced for the ejaculate where it liquifies the semen and allows sperm cells to swim freely; elevated levels of PSA in blood serum are associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer
proteome
the full complement of proteins produced by a particular genome
simple protein
a protein that yields only amino acids when hydrolyzed
beet sugar
sugar made from sugar beets
cane sugar
sucrose obtained from sugar cane
cytokine
any of various protein molecules secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system
deoxyribose
a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids
fat
a soft greasy substance occurring in organic tissue and consisting of a mixture of lipids (mostly triglycerides)
ferritin
a protein containing 20% iron that is found in the intestines and liver and spleen; it is one of the chief forms in which iron is stored in the body
triglyceride
glyceride occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues; it consists of three individual fatty acids bound together in a single large molecule; an important energy source forming much of the fat stored by the body
invert sugar
a mixture of equal parts of glucose and fructose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose; found naturally in fruits; sweeter than glucose
maple sugar
sugar made from the sap of the sugar maple tree
monosaccharide, monosaccharose, simple sugar
a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars; the simplest group of carbohydrates
oil
a slippery or viscous liquid or liquefiable substance not miscible with water
oligosaccharide
any of the carbohydrates that yield only a few monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
phospholipid
any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes
polyose, polysaccharide
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
antibody
any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
jaggary, jaggery, jagghery
unrefined brown sugar made from palm sap
wax
any of various substances of either mineral origin or plant or animal origin; they are solid at normal temperatures and insoluble in water
wood sugar, xylose
a sugar extracted from wood or straw; used in foods for diabetics
Type of:
molecule
(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
organic compound
any compound of carbon and another element or a radical

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