Providence is the guardianship and care provided by a deity or god. Religious people thank their god for his providence.
The word provide is a good clue to this word's meaning: when a religious being is said to give people providence, he's taking care of them — providing for them. For religious people, any good thing that happens to them — like landing a new job, getting healthy, or finding money on the ground — could be considered an example of providence. You can also talk about people providing providence, if they're showing care and prudence in managing resources.