When you're certain, you're sure about something. When you raise your hand to give the answer, you feel certain that you are correct.
Certain can mean "definite" or "sure to happen," like getting wet, a certain outcome of not having an umbrella in a rainstorm. It can also refer to a particular person or thing. You can use it avoid explaining something unnecessarily — you might say, "There are certain things I want to do when I get home." To avoid saying someone's name, you can say, "a certain person," as in, "A certain person left the kitchen a mess."