A History of the United States: Chapter 14: North and South

24 words 396 learners

Learn words with Flashcards and other activities

Full list of words from this list:

  1. innovation
    a creation resulting from study and experimentation
    The early years of the 1800s saw much innovation in industry and technology.
  2. clipper
    a fast sailing ship used in former times
    Clipper ships got their name because they "clipped" time from long journeys.
  3. transform
    change or alter in appearance or nature
    Railways and canals transformed trade in these regions.
  4. telegraph
    apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire
    The growth of industry and the new pace of travel created a need for faster methods of communication. The telegraph—a device that used electric signals to send messages—filled that need.
  5. Morse code
    a set of dots and dashes that represents letters and numbers
    Telegraph operators sent messages quickly by using Morse code. This code uses different arrangements of short and long signals—dots and dashes—to represent letters of the alphabet.
  6. union
    an employee organization that bargains with an employer
    Skilled workers formed trade unions. These were groups of workers with the same trade, or skill. The idea was that by working together, union members would have more power than they would as individuals.
  7. strike
    refusal to work in protest against low pay or bad conditions
    The workers staged a series of strikes in the mid-1830s. A strike is a refusal to work in order to put pressure on employers.
  8. prejudice
    a partiality preventing objective consideration of an issue
    In the North, slavery had largely disappeared by the 1830s. Still, racial prejudice—an unfair opinion of a group—and discrimination—unfair treatment of a group—remained.
  9. discrimination
    unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice
    In the North, slavery had largely disappeared by the 1830s. Still, racial prejudice—an unfair opinion of a group—and discrimination—unfair treatment of a group—remained.
  10. community
    a group of people living in a particular local area
    In addition, most communities in the North did not allow African Americans to attend public schools.
  11. licensed
    given official approval to act
    In 1845 Macon B. Allen became the first African American licensed, or given official authority, to practice law in the United States.
  12. famine
    a severe shortage of food resulting in starvation and death
    The people of Ireland faced famine, an extreme shortage of food.
  13. nativist
    advocating the perpetuation of native societies
    In the 1830s and 1840s, some people began to resist immigration. They were known as nativists. Nativists believed that immigration threatened the future of "native"—American-born—citizens.
  14. productivity
    the amount of work each worker can complete in a set time
    With a cotton gin, productivity—the amount a worker can produce in a given time—shot up.
  15. process
    subject to treatment with the aim of readying for a purpose
    The cotton gin helped workers process 50 times more cotton each day than they could by hand.
  16. consequence
    the outcome of an event
    The use of the cotton gin had important consequences.
  17. domestic
    of concern to or concerning the internal affairs of a nation
    The Upper South became a center for the sale and transport of enslaved people. This trade became known as the domestic slave trade.
  18. yeoman
    a free man who cultivates his own land
    Most white people in the South were yeomen, farmers who generally owned small farms of 50 to 200 acres (20–81 ha).
  19. overseer
    a person who directs and manages others
    Most enslaved African Americans, however, were field hands. They worked from sunrise to sunset to plant, tend, and harvest crops. An overseer, or plantation manager, supervised them.
  20. legal
    established by or founded upon law or official rules
    In 1808 Congress banned the import of slaves. Slavery remained legal, but traders could no longer purchase enslaved people from other countries.
  21. spiritual
    religious song originated by African-Americans in the South
    Enslaved people prayed for their freedom. They expressed their beliefs in spirituals, African American religious folk songs.
  22. brief
    of short duration or distance
    In 1831 he led a group of followers on a brief, violent rampage in Southhampton County, Virginia.
  23. Underground Railroad
    secret aid to help people escape slavery in the U.S.
    A runaway might receive aid from the Underground Railroad, a network of "safe houses" owned by people opposed to slavery.
  24. literacy
    the ability to read and write
    The South lagged behind other parts of the country in literacy, the ability to read and write.
Created on June 14, 2021 (updated June 18, 2021)

Sign up now (it’s free!)

Whether you’re a teacher or a learner, can put you or your class on the path to systematic vocabulary improvement.