a person entitled by law to inherit the estate of another
KNOW THAT BEFORE GOD, for the health of our soul and those of our ancestors and
heirs, to the honour of God, the exaltation of the holy Church, and the better ordering of our kingdom, at the advice of our reverend fathers Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury,...
a nobleman (in various countries) of varying rank
JOHN, by the grace of God King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou, to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls,
barons, justices, foresters, sheriffs, stewards, servants, and to all his officials and loyal subjects, Greeting.
a person who owes a creditor
(9) Neither we nor our officials will seize any land or rent in payment of a debt, so long as the
debtor has movable goods sufficient to discharge the debt.
the property of being seemingly ceaseless
+ (1) FIRST, THAT WE HAVE GRANTED TO GOD, and by this present charter have confirmed for us and our heirs in
perpetuity, that the English Church shall be free, and shall have its rights undiminished, and its liberties unimpaired.
make reparations or amends for
If we, our chief justice, our officials, or any of our servants offend in any respect against any man, or transgress any of the articles of the peace or of this security, and the offence is made known to four of the said twenty-five barons, they shall come to us - or in our absence from the kingdom to the chief justice - to declare it and claim immediate
a pause from doing something
In cases, however, where a man was deprived or dispossessed of something without the lawful judgment of his equals by our father King Henry or our brother King Richard, and it remains in our hands or is held by others under our warranty, we shall have
respite for the period commonly allowed to Crusaders, unless a lawsuit had been begun, or an enquiry had been made at our order, before we took the Cross as a Crusader.
a severe interrogation
(36) In future nothing shall be paid or accepted for the issue of a writ of
inquisition of life or limbs.
It shall be given
gratis, and not refused.
in a manner that cannot be taken back
*(48) All evil customs relating to forests and warrens, foresters, warreners, sheriffs and their servants, or river-banks and their wardens, are at once to be investigated in every county by twelve sworn knights of the county, and within forty days of their enquiry the evil customs are to be abolished completely and
in spite of everything; without regard to drawbacks
* (10) If anyone who has borrowed a sum of money from Jews dies before the debt has been repaid, his heir shall pay no interest on the debt for so long as he remains under age,
irrespective of whom he holds his lands.
impose and collect
* (12) No 'scutage' or 'aid' may be
levied in our kingdom without its general consent, unless it is for the ransom of our person, to make our eldest son a knight, and (once) to marry our eldest daughter.
send in payment
* (55) All fines that have been given to us unjustly and against the law of the land, and all fines that we have exacted unjustly, shall be entirely
remitted or the matter decided by a majority judgment of the twenty-five barons referred to below in the clause for securing the peace (§61) together with Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, if he can be present, and such others as he wishes to bring with him.
the act of yielding
We will not seek to procure from anyone, either by our own efforts or those of a third party, anything by which any part of these
concessions or liberties might be revoked or diminished.
relating to a system where vassals are protected by lords
(4) The guardian of the land of an heir who is under age shall take from it only reasonable revenues, customary dues, and
a person appointed to carry out the terms of the will
Nothing shall be removed until the whole debt is paid, when the residue shall be given over to the
executors to carry out the dead man’s will.
the elevation of a person, as to the status of a god
KNOW THAT BEFORE GOD, for the health of our soul and those of our ancestors and heirs, to the honour of God, the
exaltation of the holy Church, and the better ordering of our kingdom, at the advice of our reverend fathers Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, and cardinal of...
a levy of one tenth of something
* (25) Every county, hundred, wapentake, and
tithing shall remain at its ancient rent, without increase, except the royal demesne manors.
lessen the intensity of or calm
* (61) SINCE WE HAVE GRANTED ALL THESE THINGS for God, for the better ordering of our kingdom, and to
allay the discord that has arisen between us and our barons, and since we desire that they shall be enjoyed in their entirety, with lasting strength, for ever, we give and grant to the barons the following security:
worthy of adoration or reverence
...those of our ancestors and heirs, to the honour of God, the exaltation of the holy Church, and the better ordering of our kingdom, at the advice of our
reverend fathers Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, and cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Henry archbishop of Dublin, William bishop of London, Peter bishop of Winchester, Jocelin...
the term during which some position is held
(46) All barons who have founded abbeys, and have charters of English kings or ancient
tenure as evidence of this, may have guardianship of them when there is no abbot, as is their due.
attack someone physically or emotionally
...which the offence was declared to us or to him, the four barons shall refer the matter to the rest of the twenty-five barons, who may distrain upon and
assail us in every way possible, with the support of the whole community of the land, by seizing our castles, lands, possessions, or anything else saving only our own person...
proceeding from the head of the Roman Catholic Church
...Jocelin bishop of Bath and Glastonbury, Hugh bishop of Lincoln, Walter bishop of Worcester, William bishop of Coventry, Benedict bishop of Rochester, Master Pandulf subdeacon and member of the
papal household, Brother Aymeric master of the knighthood of the Temple in England, William Marshal earl of Pembroke, William earl of Salisbury, William earl of Warren, William earl of Arundel,...
act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises
If we, our chief justice, our officials, or any of our servants offend in any respect against any man, or
transgress any of the articles of the peace or of this security, and the offence is made known to four of the said twenty-five barons, they shall come to us - or in our absence from the kingdom to the chief justice - to declare it and claim immediate redress.
the act of binding yourself to a course of action
* (42) In future it shall be lawful for any man to leave and return to our kingdom unharmed and without fear, by land or water, preserving his
allegiance to us, except in time of war, for some short period, for the common benefit of the realm.
lack of agreement or harmony
* (61) SINCE WE HAVE GRANTED ALL THESE THINGS for God, for the better ordering of our kingdom, and to allay the
discord that has arisen between us and our barons, and since we desire that they shall be enjoyed in their entirety, with lasting strength, for ever, we give and grant to the barons the following security:
an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious
* (53) We shall have similar respite in
rendering justice in connexion with forests that are to be disafforested, or to remain forests, when these were first afforested by our father Henry or our brother Richard; with the guardianship of lands in another person's 'fee', when we have hitherto had this by virtue of a 'fee' held of us for knight's service by a third party; and with abbeys founded in another person's 'fee', in which the lord of the 'fee' claims to own a right.
get by special effort
We will not seek to
procure from anyone, either by our own efforts or those of a third party, anything by which any part of these concessions or liberties might be revoked or diminished.
marked by sound judgment
If we have given the guardianship of the land to a sheriff, or to any person answerable to us for the revenues, and he commits destruction or damage, we will exact compensation from him, and the land shall be entrusted to two worthy and
prudent men of the same 'fee', who shall be answerable to us for the revenues, or to the person to whom we have assigned them.
of or associated with a church
(22) A fine imposed upon the lay property of a clerk in holy orders shall be assessed upon the same principles, without reference to the value of his
be relevant to
(5) For so long as a guardian has guardianship of such land, he shall maintain the houses, parks, fish preserves, ponds, mills, and everything else
pertaining to it, from the revenues of the land itself.
(20) For a trivial offence, a free man shall be fined only in proportion to the degree of his offence, and for a serious offence correspondingly, but not so heavily as to
deprive him of his livelihood.
highest in extent or degree
Any man who so desires may take an oath to obey the commands of the twenty-five barons for the achievement of these ends, and to join with them in assailing us to the
utmost of his power.
a person who is under the protection of another
(3) But if the heir of such a person is under age and a
ward, when he comes of age he shall have his inheritance without 'relief' or fine.
give or supply
On our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once
render justice in full.
be adequate, either in quality or quantity
(19) If any assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court, as many knights and freeholders shall afterwards remain behind, of those who have attended the court, as will
suffice for the administration of justice, having regard to the volume of business to be done.