censure severely or angrily
Elizabeth, with a sense of
reprimanding herself for having forgot: Aye!
Compare with "reproach" in the list for Act 3--the adverbs "severely" and "angrily" make the criticizing tone of a reprimand more unpleasant that that of a reproach. But because the reprimand here is directed at Elizabeth by herself, it is weaker than the reproach that Judge Danforth hears from Reverend Hale.
a state of conflict between persons
Elizabeth--she doesn’t want
friction, and yet she must: You come so late I thought you’d gone to Salem this afternoon.
an expression of strong disapproval
Proctor, holding back a full
condemnation of her: It is a fault, it is a fault, Elizabeth--you’re the mistress here, not Mary Warren.
an unshakable belief in something without need for proof
Proctor, scoffing, but without
conviction: Ah, they’d never hang--
Proctor scoffs ("treat with contemptuous disregard") without conviction because as a secret sinner, he does not trust himself or the community. The seventeenth-century Salem court also seems to be scoffing at convictions ("a final judgment of guilty in a criminal case"); normally the accused must be tried and convicted before they are sentenced, but here, those who have been accused must confess their guilt to avoid a death sentence.
move hesitatingly, as if about to give way
Elizabeth, with a smile, to keep her dignity: John, if it were not Abigail that you must go to hurt, would you
characterized by a firm belief in your opinions
solemn warning: You will not judge me more, Elizabeth.
A couple of lines later, Proctor shouts: "I cannot speak but I am doubted, every moment judged for lies, as though I come into a court when I come into this house!" This, along with the next two example sentences, connects the Proctors' domestic dispute to a court case (which foreshadows the witch trials and sets up comparisons).
enter a defendant's answer
plead my honesty no more, Elizabeth.
a lay judge or civil authority who administers the law
I do not judge you. The
magistrate sits in your heart that judges you.
unnatural lack of color in the skin
Her strangeness throws him off, and her evident
pallor and weakness.
make amends for
As though to
compensate, Mary Warren goes to Elizabeth with a small rag doll.
full of difficulty or confusion or bewilderment
perplexed, looking at the doll: Why, thank you, it’s a fair poppet.
Compare with "confounded" in the list for Act 3--the adjectives are synonymous, but in the example sentences, the characters differ in their emotional intensity and resulting actions.
to make better
He sentenced her. He must.
ameliorate it: But not Sarah Good. For Sarah Good confessed, y’see.
a signed written agreement between two or more parties
That she--in horror at the memory--she sometimes made a
compact with Lucifer, and wrote her name in his black book--with her blood--and bound herself to torment Christians till God’s thrown down--and we all must worship Hell forevermore
Compare with "covenant" in this list. Although the two are sometimes used interchangeably (both come from words--the Latin "pacisci" and the Old French "convenir"--that mean "to agree"), in the play, "compact" is used both as a noun and verb to refer to an agreement between a human and the Devil. Because a compact is often written and signed, which is necessary when the participants don't trust each other, it is also more appropriate for the Devil.
angered at something unjust or wrong
Mary Warren, with an
indignant edge: She tried to kill me many times, Goody Proctor!
shower with love; show excessive affection for
Spoke or silent, a promise is surely made. And she may
dote on it now--I am sure she does--and thinks to kill me, then to take my place.
She’d dare not call out such a farmer’s wife but there be
monstrous profit in it.
"Monstrous" also means "shockingly brutal or cruel"--both definitions fit, since Abigail would want the abnormally large profit, but Elizabeth would see the profit as shockingly brutal or cruel since it would be gained through her death.
lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike
Elizabeth, “reasonably”: John, have you ever shown her somewhat of
admit or acknowledge, often reluctantly
Elizabeth, “conceding”: I think you be somewhat ashamed, for I am there, and she so close.
courteous regard for people's feelings
He is different now--drawn a little, and there is a quality of
deference, even of guilt, about his manner now.
avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing
evade me, Abigail. Did your cousin drink any of the brew in that kettle?
having or showing or expressing reverence for a deity
But it’s hard to think so
pious a woman be secretly a Devil’s bitch after seventy year of such good prayer.
marked by skill in deception
But the Devil is a
wily one, you cannot deny it.
I labor the earth from dawn of day to blink of night, and I tell you true, when I look to heaven and see my money
glaring at his elbows--it hurt my prayer, sir, it hurt my prayer.
"Glaring" also means "conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible"--both definitions fit (in addition to "glare" as "an angry stare"), since Proctor is describing the physical appearance of golden candlesticks and judging Reverend Parris for spending his hard-earned money on expensive items that add nothing to, and actually hurts, one's spiritual faith.
Proctor starts to speak, then stops, then, as though unable to
restrain this: I like it not that Mr. Parris should lay his hand upon my baby.
an agreement between God and his people
There be no mark of blame upon my life, Mr. Hale. I am a
covenanted Christian woman.
wish, long, or crave for
Thou shalt not
covet thy neighbor’s goods, nor make unto thee any graven image.
doubt about someone's honesty
He looks to both of them, an attempt at a smile on his face, but his
misgivings are clear.
foolish or mentally irregular
I never knew until tonight that the world is gone
daft with this nonsense.
a judicial writ commanding police to perform specified acts
Mockingly quoting the
warrant: “For the marvelous and supernatural murder of Goody Putnam’s babies.”
"Warrant" also means "formal and explicit approval"--this is the opposite of what Francis is expressing here with his mocking of the words that charge his wife with murder. The warrant also seems to mock itself with the adjective "marvelous" that is supposed to mean "being or having the character of a miracle" but also means "too improbable to admit of belief" and "extraordinarily good or great."
touched by rot or decay
Hale, turns from Francis, deeply troubled, then: Believe me, Mr. Nurse, if Rebecca Nurse be
tainted, then nothing’s left to stop the whole green world from burning.
draw back, as with fear or pain
Hale, pleading: Nurse, though our hearts break, we cannot
flinch; these are new times, sir.
difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze
There is a misty plot afoot so
subtle we should be criminal to cling to old respects and ancient friendships.
with extreme care or delicacy
Cheever: Why, a poppet--he
gingerly turns the poppet over--a poppet may signify--Now, woman, will you please to come with me?
with ineptitude; in an incompetent manner
ineptly reaching toward Elizabeth: No, no, I am forbid to leave her from my sight.
Compare with the antonymous "gingerly" in this list. Both adverbs describe the manner of a court official, who is careful with a doll and clumsy with a real woman.
hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of
I tell you true, Proctor, I never warranted to see such proof of Hell, and I bid you
obstruct me not, for I--
marked by active interest and enthusiasm
Mary Warren, glancing about at the
avid faces: Why--I made it in the court, sir, and--give it to Goody Proctor tonight.
harming someone in retaliation for something they have done
I’ll tell you what’s walking Salem--
vengeance is walking Salem.
Let you counsel among yourselves; think on your village and what may have drawn from heaven such thundering
wrath upon you all.
unrestrained indulgence in sexual activity
lechery on you, Mr. Proctor!
Compare this noun to the adjective "licentious" in the list for Act 1. Lechery is focused on sexual activity and is used here as a punishable crime, while licentious (the Latin "licentia" means "freedom") people simply lack the moral discipline to restrain themselves in any activity that may or may not be a punishable crime.
grip or seize, as in a wrestling match
Now Hell and Heaven
grapple on our backs, and all our old pretense is ripped away--make your peace!