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definitions & notes only words
  1. emerge
    come out into view, as from concealment
    About thirteen thousand years ago, when glaciers slowly receded, a new ecological area of marshes, grasslands and domestic animals emerged at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. (KPDS 2010)
  2. disillusioned
    freed from false ideas
    Like many other people, novelists, poets and dramatists in the 1920s and 1930s were disillusioned by the inhuman conditions of World War I and by the failure of victory to fulfil its promises.
  3. odds
    the likelihood of a thing occurring
  4. revolt
    rise up against an authority
  5. dwelling
    housing that someone is living in
    In ancient Egypt most people were poor, living in crowded conditions in simple mud-brick dwellings. During the period of prosperity, however, skilled artisans, such as jewellers, goldsmiths, and the like, could elevate themselves and enjoy nicer surroundings. ---- The vast majority of Egyptians, however, were peasants who, as unskilled labourers, provided the brute force necessary for agriculture and construction. Beneath them were slaves, typically captives from foreign wars rather than native
  6. captivate
    attract; cause to be enamored
    In ancient Egypt most people were poor, living in crowded conditions in simple mud-brick dwellings. During the period of prosperity, however, skilled artisans, such as jewellers, goldsmiths, and the like, could elevate themselves and enjoy nicer surroundings. ---- The vast majority of Egyptians, however, were peasants who, as unskilled labourers, provided the brute force necessary for agriculture and construction. Beneath them were slaves, typically captives from foreign wars rather than native
  7. intervene
    be placed or located between other things
    At a panel of historians, a controversial issue is under discussion. One of the historians has referred to a number of documents as evidence to defend his point of view. You notice that the contents of the documents significantly differ from each other and are mostly irrelevant. So you intervene by saying to this historian:
  8. controversial
    marked by or capable of arousing disagreement
    At a panel of historians, a controversial issue is under discussion. One of the historians has referred to a number of documents as evidence to defend his point of view. You notice that the contents of the documents significantly differ from each other and are mostly irrelevant. So you intervene by saying to this historian:
  9. acclaim
    enthusiastic approval
  10. propose
    present for consideration, examination, or criticism
    At a company meeting today, you are expected to present your report on the new trends in marketing. However, your little boy is suddenly taken ill and, therefore, it will be impossible for you to attend the meeting. So you call the director and ask him to excuse you, proposing that you submit the report at the next meeting.
  11. lucrative
    producing a sizeable profit
  12. anticipate
    regard something as probable or likely
  13. anticipated
    expected hopefully
  14. contend
    compete for something
  15. sole
    the underside of the foot
  16. barely
    in a sparse or scanty way
    vThe father of modern socialism, Karl Marx (1818-1883) was barely known in the early nineteenthcentury.
  17. reputation
    the general estimation that the public has for a person
    His reputation rose later, after 1848, when a wave of revolutions and violent confrontation seemed to confirm his distinctive theory of history and make earlier socialists’ emphasis on peaceful reorganization of industrial society seem naive.
  18. revolution
    a single complete turn
    His reputation rose later, after 1848, when a wave of revolutions and violent confrontation seemed to confirm his distinctive theory of history and make earlier socialists’ emphasis on peaceful reorganization of industrial society seem naive.
  19. confrontation
    discord resulting from a clash of ideas or opinions
    His reputation rose later, after 1848, when a wave of revolutions and violent confrontation seemed to confirm his distinctive theory of history and make earlier socialists’ emphasis on peaceful reorganization of industrial society seem naive.
  20. distinctive
    of a feature that helps to identify a person or thing
    His reputation rose later, after 1848, when a wave of revolutions and violent confrontation seemed to confirm his distinctive theory of history and make earlier socialists’ emphasis on peaceful reorganization of industrial society seem naive.
  21. emphasis
    intensity or forcefulness of expression
    His reputation rose later, after 1848, when a wave of revolutions and violent confrontation seemed to confirm his distinctive theory of history and make earlier socialists’ emphasis on peaceful reorganization of industrial society seem naive.
  22. naive
    marked by or showing unaffected simplicity
    His reputation rose later, after 1848, when a wave of revolutions and violent confrontation seemed to confirm his distinctive theory of history and make earlier socialists’ emphasis on peaceful reorganization of industrial society seem naive.
  23. debate
    a discussion with reasons for and against some proposal
    As a child, he grew up in Trier, in the western section of Germany, in a region and a family keenly interested in the political debates and movements of the revolutionary era.
  24. rebellious
    resisting control or authority
    With the so-called Young Hegelian, a group of rebellious students who hated the narrow thinking of a deeply conservative Prussian university system, Marx appropriated Hegel’s concepts for his radical politics.
  25. appropriate
    suitable for a particular person, place, or situation
    With the so-called Young Hegelian, a group of rebellious students who hated the narrow thinking of a deeply conservative Prussian university system, Marx appropriated Hegel’s concepts for his radical politics.
  26. repression
    control by holding down
    The paper’s criticism of legal privilege and political repression put it on a collision course with the Prussian government, which closed it down and sent Marx into exile – first in Paris, then Brussels, and eventually London.
  27. collision
    an accident resulting from violent impact of a moving object
    The paper’s criticism of legal privilege and political repression put it on a collision course with the Prussian government, which closed it down and sent Marx into exile – first in Paris, then Brussels, and eventually London.
  28. exile
    the act of expelling a person from their native land
    The paper’s criticism of legal privilege and political repression put it on a collision course with the Prussian government, which closed it down and sent Marx into exile – first in Paris, then Brussels, and eventually London.
  29. masterpiece
    the most outstanding work of a creative artist or craftsman
    (I) Cervantes’s masterpiece, the satirical novel Don Quixote, recounts the adventures of a Spanish gentleman, Don Quixote of La Mancha.
  30. satirical
    exposing human folly to ridicule
    (I) Cervantes’s masterpiece, the satirical novel Don Quixote, recounts the adventures of a Spanish gentleman, Don Quixote of La Mancha.
  31. novel
    an extended fictional work in prose
    (I) Cervantes’s masterpiece, the satirical novel Don Quixote, recounts the adventures of a Spanish gentleman, Don Quixote of La Mancha.
  32. adventure
    a wild and exciting undertaking
    (I) Cervantes’s masterpiece, the satirical novel Don Quixote, recounts the adventures of a Spanish gentleman, Don Quixote of La Mancha.
  33. epic
    a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
    (III) In the novel, Don Quixote is fifty years old and has already become unbalanced by his constant reading of chivalric epics.(IV)
  34. flock
    a group of birds
    (V) So, he sets out on a knightly adventure, imagining windmills to be giants, and flocks of sheep to be armies of infidels.
  35. infidel
    a person who does not acknowledge your god
    (V) So, he sets out on a knightly adventure, imagining windmills to be giants, and flocks of sheep to be armies of infidels.
  36. rebellion
    organized opposition to authority
    (I) Between 1540 and 1660, Europe was racked by a combination of religious wars, political rebellions, and economic crises.
  37. confidence
    belief in yourself and your abilities
    (II) Hence, confidence in traditional structures of social, religious, and political authority was undermined.
  38. epoch
    a period marked by distinctive character
    (IV) However, for artists andintellectuals, the period proved to be one of the most creative epochs in the history of Europe.
  39. peril
    a state of danger involving risk
    (V) Like shakespeare, Rembrandt knew that life’s journey is full of perils, but his most mature paintings suggest that these can be mastered with a courageous awareness of one’s human shortcomings.
  40. flourish
    grow vigorously
    (II) Seaborne trade flourished up and down the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, allowing smaller, seaside centres to become powerful merchant city-states.
  41. coast
    the shore of a sea or ocean
    (II) Seaborne trade flourished up and down the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, allowing smaller, seaside centres to become powerful merchant city-states.
  42. merchant
    a businessperson engaged in retail trade
    (II) Seaborne trade flourished up and down the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, allowing smaller, seaside centres to become powerful merchant city-states.
  43. bewilder
    cause to be confused emotionally
    (III) The great coastal cities of the eastern Mediterranean became wealthy entrepôts for the exchange of a bewildering variety of goods.(IV)
  44. exploit
    use or manipulate to one's advantage
    (V) At the same time, the great states of the region continued to exploit their control of overland trade routes, relying more than ever on moving goods to an international market.
  45. nomadic
    migratory
    (I) The Mongols were one of a number of nomadic peoples inhabiting the steppes of Central Asia.
  46. accomplished
    highly skilled
    (IV) Like many nomadic peoples throughout history, they were highly accomplished cavalry soldiers and constantly raided the sedentary peoples to their south.
  47. sedentary
    requiring sitting or little activity
    (IV) Like many nomadic peoples throughout history, they were highly accomplished cavalry soldiers and constantly raided the sedentary peoples to their south.
  48. keen
    intense or sharp
    The Germans did not cherish a keen interest in colonialism, but they were immensely interested in the imperial policies pursued by other European powers.
  49. immensely
    to an exceedingly great extent or degree
    The Germans did not cherish a keen interest in colonialism, but they were immensely interested in the imperial policies pursued by other European powers.
  50. pursue
    follow in an effort to capture
    The Germans did not cherish a keen interest in colonialism, but they were immensely interested in the imperial policies pursued by other European powers.
  51. biodiversity
    the variety of plant and animal life in a habitat
    The loss of global biodiversity is occurring at an alarming rate.
  52. depleted
    no longer sufficient
    Overfishing has depleted stocks around the world.
  53. soil
    material in the top layer of the surface of the earth
    Poor farming practices have depleted soils while allowing the invasion of harmful species.
  54. invasion
    any entry into an area not previously occupied
    Poor farming practices have depleted soils while allowing the invasion of harmful species.
  55. induce
    cause to act in a specified manner
    Especially in Europe, ecosystems have suffered more human- induced damage than those on any other continent.
  56. continent
    one of the large landmasses of the earth
    Especially in Europe, ecosystems have suffered more human-induced damage than those on any other continent.
  57. exploitation
    an act that victimizes someone
    The spread of urbanization and the over- exploitation of resources is having an enormous impact on biodiversity.
  58. blame
    an accusation that one is responsible for some misdeed
    In fact, the future of oil is not that much different from its past: undoubtedly, oil production and consumption will become cleaner and more efficient, but prices will continue to be volatile, and the oil industry will continue to be blamed for conflicts, corruption, and pollution.
  59. vital
    performing an essential function in the living body
    And for all the current talk about the end of the oil age, it will remain a vital source of energy as it is now, nearly a century after the first warnings about soaring consumption and limited resources.
  60. soar
    rise rapidly
    And for all the current talk about the end of the oil age, it will remain a vital source of energy as it is now, nearly a century after the first warnings about soaring consumption and limited resources.
  61. elusive
    skillful at evading capture
Created on June 12, 2013 (updated June 19, 2013)

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