Latin Love, Vol II: cadere

Falling under this category of words that derive from the Latin root "cadere," meaning "to fall," are some surprises: "incident," "accident," and all of those "-cide" words having to do with killing.
More Latin Love, Volume II lists:
fluere, iacere, onym, and vertere!
ELA Common Core State Standard: "Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word."

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definitions & notes only words
  1. casualty
    someone injured or killed in a military engagement
    There were reports of frightful American casualties—some newspaper said that two thousand American soldiers were being killed and wounded every day.The Chosen
    The word casualty refers to those who have fallen to their deaths, usually as a result of an accident, disaster, or war.
  2. deciduous
    shedding foliage at the end of the growing season
    As deciduous conifers, they drop their needles every fall in a blaze of gold.Seattle Times (Oct 1, 2018)
    Deciduous trees are what makes fall so beautiful in places that enjoy a true changing of the seasons. Deciduous trees are called so because their leaves fall, as opposed to evergreens.
  3. cataract
    disease that involves the clouding of the lens of the eye
    He must’ve been at least fifteen feet tall, but the most startling thing was his enormous milky eye, scarred and webbed with cataracts.The Sea of Monsters
    Cataract has two distinct meanings. One refers to a waterfall and the other to a disease where the the lens of an eye is clouded. This second meaning comes from the Anglo-French word port coliz (portcullis) meaning a "sliding door" and applies to the clouded part of the eye which blocks or obstructs sight.
  4. catalogue
    a complete list of things, usually arranged systematically
    The new study, published this week in Science, adds nearly two million earthquakes to the catalogue of total seismic events in Southern California over the past decade.Scientific American (Apr 18, 2019)
    Catalogue is a Latinized form of the Greek word katalogos meaning "list, register." It is made up of the roots kata, "down, entirely" and legein, "to say" and "to reckon up."
  5. category
    a general concept that marks divisions or coordinations
    It includes a broad range of categories, including age, ancestry, religion, criminal record, disability, family makeup and gender identity.Washington Times (Aug 28, 2019)
    Category is a Latinized form of the Greek word katergoria, "accusation, predicament," deriving from the roots kata, "down to" or "against" and agoreuein, "to rant, to decry." By the 17th century, "accusation" and "predicament" were replaced by a sense of something being "asserted" or "named."
  6. cascade
    a succession of stages, processes, or units
    The incidents were setting off a cascade of major delays on the already struggling subway system, affecting hundreds of trains and thousands of commuters.New York Times (Aug 4, 2019)
    Although the word cascade literally refers to a series of small, related waterfalls, it is also used metaphorically for any series of events where one thing rapidly falls upon or follows another.
  7. cadence
    a recurrent rhythmical series
    He delivers his punch lines at the end of patiently established premises, and then doubles down on them using a second voice, higher-pitched and quicker in cadence.New York Times (Aug 9, 2019)
    If you think about rhythm, how it is a pattern of rising and falling tones, you'll get the connection between the word cadence and its meaning. Although the word is often applied to sounds of speech and music, as in the example sentence, cadence also refers to a marching rhythm.
  8. coincide
    happen simultaneously
    In other words, the beginning of the lead crisis coincides with the beginning of effective lead sampling.Seattle Times (Aug 21, 2019)
    Coincide derives from the Latin prefix com, "together" and the verb incidere, "to fall into." Incidere itself is a compound of in-, "upon," and cadere, "to fall."
  9. homicide
    the killing of a human being by another human being
    A spokeswoman for the city medical examiner said the death had been ruled a homicide by asphyxiation.
    Homo means "man" and -cida means "one who cuts or kills." -Cida actually derives from caedere which still comes from cadere but refers to the physical act of murdering and severing whereas cadere has broader meanings and applications.
  10. decadent
    marked by excessive self-indulgence and moral decay
    However, it’s grown decadent and corrupt over the decades, and under the reign of Lady Sanao Hekate, The Protector, it’s brutally cracked down on its citizens.The Verge (Aug 3, 2019)
    The prefix de- means "down," and the root cad means "to fall." Something decadent refers to both a physical falling as well as a moral falling.
  11. catastrophe
    an event resulting in great loss and misfortune
    But imagine if two catastrophes strike at the same time.Scientific American (Feb 6, 2013)
    The word catastrophe consists of the roots: kata, "down" and strophe, "a twist." When catastrophe strikes, things seem to twist themselves into a downward spiral.
  12. recidivism
    habitual relapse into crime
    If you simply look at the current recidivism rates, about half of criminals will re-offend within a year and as many as 75 percent will re-offend within five years.Fox News (Jul 26, 2019)
    Recidivism is a "re-falling" into crime and refers especially to a person recommitting a given crime and returning to prison for a second time. It comes directly from the Latin recidivus from re-, "again," and a combining form of cadere, "to fall."
  13. catapult
    an engine providing medieval artillery used during sieges
    The swirl of plants released her and she was thrown upward like a catapult projectile.The Son of Neptune
    Catapult was an instrument of war in ancient and medieval times. The meaning of the root kata in this case is "against" or "through" and pallein means "to hurl." The common figurative usage comes from the sense of launching something as if by a catapult.
Created on May 29, 2013 (updated August 29, 2019)

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