the action of making of goods and services for sale
Chapter Two: Being the true story of how humans first began to fish and how fishing became an
being within reasonable or average limits
When the destruction of fish was
moderate, the impact was
moderate, and the small adjustments made by nature usually were not even noticed.
very lively and profitable
But they understood that the secret of their game was to catch as many fish as they could while still maintaining a
prosperous fish population in their fishing grounds.
(of animals) moving seasonally
Until modern times, fishermen and fishing communities worried most about
obtain a document granting sole rights to an invention
Thomas Savery, an English military engineer and inventor,
patented the first steam engine in 1698.
being like nothing done or experienced or created before
Fishermen tend to be problem solvers by nature, and until there is a problem to solve, they are not particularly interested in new technology (although once there is a problem to solve, they can be extremely
a region marked off for administrative or other purposes
Throughout history, these nations competed with one another for fish and fishing
not marked by fine distinctions
In 1376, they petitioned the British Parliament to pass a law banning their use because the nets swept up fish indiscriminately, taking many immature young fish.
first in rank or degree
Because it was a large port, capable of storing ice from not-too-distant Norway (ice was essential for keeping fish fresh on its way to market), the port of Grimsby became a
premier port for quality fish in London.
based in scientific and industrial progress
Dragging nets from engine-powered (as opposed to wind-powered) ships was a huge
technological boon for the fishermen, especially because they could then use the rail line at Grimsby to get the fish to London rapidly.
producing a sizeable profit
Even though steam-powered vessels had been around for almost eighty years, and were proving to be
lucrative for the fishermen that used them, by the 1870s most fishermen were still using sailing power.
From the late 1870s on, the English regularly
convened commissions aimed at curbing the destruction caused by trawlers.
a special group delegated to consider some matter
From the late 1870s on, the English regularly convened
commissions aimed at curbing the destruction caused by trawlers.
not yet fully developed
..."the continued operation of these trawlers scraping over the fishing grounds and destroying countless numbers of young and
immature fish, is the greatest menace to the future of the fisheries, the greatest danger the fisheries have ever faced along this coast."
something that is a source of danger
..."the continued operation of these trawlers scraping over the fishing grounds and destroying countless numbers of young and immature fish, is the greatest
menace to the future of the fisheries, the greatest danger the fisheries have ever faced along this coast."
an event that is a beginning
inception of what is believed will result in a strong and mighty protest of the fishing and vessel owning interests of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts against the use of the otter and beam trawl took place at the rooms of the Master Mariners Association yesterday afternoon...
tending to discourage, especially of prices
...the association went on record as condemning as strongly as possible this method of fishing and appointing a committee to take up active work of crystalizing the feeling among master mariners, fishermen and fishing vessel owners at any and every possible port and later urge governmental action in the shape of
prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening
The article claimed the "wasteful destruction of immature fish," was one of the primary problems and that this destruction "cannot be
obviated by regulating the size of the mesh nor by returning the undersized fish caught to the sea."
capable of being done with means at hand
The article concluded—as American and European regulators have only recently come to understand—that "the only
feasible method is to close off fishing grounds or prohibit the landing of fish."
send out rays or waves
Where naval ships had been chasing submarines underwater, now fishermen could chase fish underwater using similar methods: small airplanes could be sent out to find the schools of fish, and sonar—sound that
radiated and bounced off of objects, which it then identified—could also be used to find fish.
the type of environment in which an organism normally lives
Fishermen could hunt down fish as they hid between rocks because there was literally nowhere left for fish to hide, and fishermen could do it faster than ever with the gas-powered trawlers, tearing up the bottom as they went, completely changing the ocean
a submerged ridge of rock or coral near the water's surface
Wait until you see all the colorful fish that live in the coral
serving to warn
Chapter Three: Being the sad,
cautionary tale of the orange roughy
cause to occur rapidly
The area becomes rich in nitrates, which
stimulates the growth of plankton.
synthesis of compounds in plants aided by radiant energy
Like land-based plants, they are green because they are filled with a substance called chlorophyll, which uses energy from sunlight to create sugars for food, which in turn creates oxygen. This process, sustains plant life on earth, is called
so small as to be invisible without a magnifying device
Zooplankton range in size from
microscopic to almost eight inches.
mainly aquatic arthropod usually having a segmented body
Some zooplankton are actually larvae that eventually change into worms, mollusks,
crustaceans, coral, and even some types of fish.
form or compose
These are slow, steady hunters who stay close to home and whose muscles
constitute the white meat that most people prefer to eat.
organisms interacting with their physical environment
ecosystem is based on the destruction of life and the struggles for survival among species, and it is in such systems that men in the form of fishermen are drawn to take part in the killing
any immature animal
The fish doesn't even become capable of producing
offspring until it is twenty years old, which would be an older fish in most of the species we know.
an incorrect assumption
One of mankind's most enduring
misconceptions is that of nature's bounty.
not easily ruined
That's the belief that nature is such a powerful force that it is
kill on a large scale
About 150 years later, a book called A Cyclopedia of Commerce and Commercial Navigation tried to verify Leeuwenhoek's findings and concluded that the egg count was "a number that will baffle all the efforts of man to
And celebrated French novelist Alexander Dumas wrote in his spectacularly incorrect food encyclopedia, Le Grand Dictionnaire de Cuisine, published
posthumously in 1873: "It has been calculated that if no accident prevented the hatching of the eggs and each egg reached maturity, it would take only three years to fill the seas so that you could walk across the Atlantic dryshod on the backs of cod."
the study of the structure of animals
Huxley greatly contributed to understanding of the
anatomy of animals.
firm and dependable especially in loyalty
He was a
staunch supporter of Darwin's theory of evolution.
a person considered as coming from some ancestor or race
He was also the first to suggest that birds are the modern
descendants of dinosaurs, a view widely held today.
an auxiliary activity
They stated that "fisherman, as a class, are exceedingly unobservant of anything about fish which is not absolutely forced upon them by their daily
avocations," which established the very harmful tradition of showing contempt for the knowledge fishermen acquire through experience.
the activity of protecting something from loss or danger
The fact is that fisherman need to know almost everything about fish in order to do a good job of catching them, and no one has a deeper involvement in or greater concern for the
preservation of fish populations.
change toward something smaller or lower
"Any tendency to over-fishing will meet with its natural check in the
diminution of the supply....in other words, we would realize we were overfishing by the simple fact that we were hauling in fewer fish."