IELTS Band 8 Writing - 2

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definitions & notes only words
  1. affectation
    a deliberate pretense or exaggerated display
    To a vast majority, fountain pens are an affectation.
  2. complacent
    contented to a fault with oneself or one's actions
    Paul believes the medical advances made in treating HIV over the past decade have led to people becoming more complacent and taking more risks.
    = self-satisfied
  3. concomitant
    an event or situation that happens at the same time
    Quality and equity in education must be conceived as concomitant.Washington Post (Apr 17, 2012)
    = co-occurrence
    > subsequent
  4. culpable
    deserving blame or censure as being wrong or injurious
    But the state is even more culpable, making bad decisions about the design of the program, particularly the contractual requirements related to field testing.New York Times (Jun 26, 2012)
    = blameworthy, blameable, guilty
  5. depravity
    moral perversion; impairment of virtue and moral principles
    The depravities of leading men in TV dramas traditionally don’t leave permanent scars.New York Times (Jul 6, 2011)
    = a corrupt or degenerate act or practice
  6. espouse
    choose and follow a theory, idea, policy, etc.
    But one complicating factor potentially cancels out much of the optimism espoused yesterday.Scientific American (May 11, 2011)
    - adopt, embrace
  7. galling
    causing irritation or annoyance
    The high pay phone costs in Germany are particularly galling for many troops because they can call home from combat areas for much less.New York Times (Mar 2, 2012)
    = annoying, irritating
  8. hallmark
    a distinctive characteristic or attribute
    And within those types, they found hallmark genetic changes that are driving many cancers.
  9. ignominious
    deserving or bringing disgrace or shame
    After an ignominious two years, the program was scrapped.BusinessWeek (Nov 4, 2011)
    = dishonourable,disgraceful, inglorious, shameful
  10. nefarious
    extremely wicked
    According to my “hospitality insider,” nefarious guest activities are only becoming more foul and disturbing.Slate (Jul 3, 2012)
    = villainous
  11. nonchalant
    marked by casual unconcern or indifference
    Indian society's nonchalant attitude towards the disease must change as well.Nature (May 23, 2012)
    = unconcerned, casual
  12. mitigate
    make less severe or harsh
    Here are a few ways to mitigate problems and frustrations.Nature (Jul 5, 2012)
    = lighten, palliate,
  13. perpetuate
    cause to continue or prevail
    Many accused the show of mocking Islam and perpetuating racial stereotypes.
  14. propensity
    a natural inclination
    Most unfortunate, and misleading, are the links these reporters imply between military service, mental health and an increased propensity for extreme violence.New York Times (Jul 3, 2012)
  15. reconcile
    come to terms
    Fighting and reconciling is a major part of any healthy relationship.Slate (Apr 24, 2012)
    = harmonise
  16. scapegoat
    someone who is punished for the errors of others
    “Our folks are so angry and frustrated about being used as a scapegoat that they’re going to continue to engage in this battle.”New York Times (Jun 9, 2012)
  17. squander
    spend thoughtlessly; throw away
    In his world fortunes are constantly being made and squandered.
    = spend extravagantly
  18. supersede
    take the place or move into the position of
    Company officials say they hoped to see a national sales tax law in place that will supersede state laws.
    = replace
  19. ludicrous
    inviting ridicule
    A few years ago, the idea of blind drivers seemed ludicrous.
    = absurd, nonsensical, idiotic, humorous, laughable, ridiculous
  20. latent
    potentially existing but not presently evident or realized
    “Uncertainties about the fiscal outlook in the United States present a particular latent risk to global financial stability,” Mr. Viñals said.New York Times (Jul 16, 2012)
    = potential, possible
    > inactive (not presently active)
  21. tenacity
    persistent determination
    The work is pushed steadily, with tenacity, but results are slow in coming.Orth, Samuel P.
Created on September 24, 2012 (updated September 27, 2012)

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