The idea of polar suggests equal opposites. For example, the North and South Poles are at opposite ends of the planet, and both are equally glacial, or very cold, which, by the way, is another meaning of polar.

The English word polar derives from the Latin polus and the Greek polos, which means "axis." (See the connection with the North and South Poles?) The discovery of polar bears was first recorded in the mid-18th century, while the idea of "polar opposites" came about in 1832. The adjective polar is also used to describe something vitally important, an idea that came from the importance of Polaris, the North Star, which has always been a voyager’s guide.

Definitions of polar
  1. adjective
    of or existing at or near a geographical pole or within the Arctic or Antarctic Circles
    polar regions”
    located or found throughout a polar region
    Arctic, north-polar
    of or relating to the Arctic
    Antarctic, south-polar
    at or near the south pole
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    of or existing at or near the geographic equator
    pantropic, pantropical
    distributed throughout the tropics
    tropic, tropical
    relating to or situated in or characteristic of the tropics (the region on either side of the equator)
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  2. adjective
    located at or near or coming from the earth's poles
    polar diameter”
    polar zone”
    “a polar air mass”
    “Antarctica is the only polar continent”
  3. adjective
    extremely cold
    polar weather”
    synonyms: arctic, frigid, gelid, glacial, icy
    having a low or inadequate temperature or feeling a sensation of coldness or having been made cold by e.g. ice or refrigeration
  4. adjective
    characterized by opposite extremes; completely opposed
    “extreme and indefensible polar positions”
    synonyms: diametric, diametrical, opposite
    unlike in nature, quality, form, or degree
  5. adjective
    having a pair of equal and opposite charges
    of a particle or body or system; having a net amount of positive or negative electric charge
  6. adjective
    being of crucial importance
    “the polar events of this study”
    “a polar principal”
    synonyms: pivotal
    crucial, important
    of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis
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