Opacity is the characteristic of being difficult to understand or unclear. A professor whose lectures are known for opacity is going to find himself in a room full of some very frustrated students.
In its literal sense opacity is used to talk about objects that don't allow light to shine through. A window that has accumulated a lot of dirt and dust is characterized by its opacity, as opposed to a transparent window, which is one you can see right through. The word opacity is used more generally for anything obscure, unclear, or incomprehensible, like the opacity of a novel full of ten-syllable words or a dictionary that doesn't give you any clear or straightforward definitions.