types:
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multinomial, polynomial
a mathematical function that is the sum of a number of terms

expansion
a function expressed as a sum or product of terms

inverse function
a function obtained by expressing the dependent variable of one function as the independent variable of another; f and g are inverse functions if f(x)=y and g(y)=x

Kronecker delta
a function of two variables i and j that equals 1 when i=j and equals 0 otherwise

metric, metric function
a function of a topological space that gives, for any two points in the space, a value equal to the distance between them

transformation
(mathematics) a function that changes the position or direction of the axes of a coordinate system

isometry
a onetoone mapping of one metric space into another metric space that preserves the distances between each pair of points

operator
(mathematics) a symbol or function representing a mathematical operation

circular function, trigonometric function
function of an angle expressed as a ratio of the length of the sides of rightangled triangle containing the angle

threshold function
a function that takes the value 1 if a specified function of the arguments exceeds a given threshold and 0 otherwise

exponential, exponential function
a function in which an independent variable appears as an exponent

biquadratic, biquadratic polynomial, quartic polynomial
a polynomial of the fourth degree

homogeneous polynomial
a polynomial consisting of terms all of the same degree

monic polynomial
a polynomial in one variable

quadratic, quadratic polynomial
a polynomial of the second degree

series
(mathematics) the sum of a finite or infinite sequence of expressions

reflection
(mathematics) a transformation in which the direction of one axis is reversed

rotation
(mathematics) a transformation in which the coordinate axes are rotated by a fixed angle about the origin

translation
(mathematics) a transformation in which the origin of the coordinate system is moved to another position but the direction of each axis remains the same

affine transformation
(mathematics) a transformation that is a combination of single transformations such as translation or rotation or reflection on an axis

linear operator
an operator that obeys the distributive law: A(f+g) = Af + Ag (where f and g are functions)

identity, identity element, identity operator
an operator that leaves unchanged the element on which it operates

sin, sine
ratio of the length of the side opposite the given angle to the length of the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle

arc sine, arcsin, arcsine, inverse sine
the inverse function of the sine; the angle that has a sine equal to a given number

cos, cosine
ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle

arc cosine, arccos, arccosine, inverse cosine
the inverse function of the cosine; the angle that has a cosine equal to a given number

tan, tangent
ratio of the opposite to the adjacent side of a rightangled triangle

arc tangent, arctan, arctangent, inverse tangent
the inverse function of the tangent; the angle that has a tangent equal to a given number

cotan, cotangent
ratio of the adjacent to the opposite side of a rightangled triangle

arc cotangent, arccotangent, inverse cotangent
the inverse function of the cotangent; the angle that has a cotangent equal to a given number

sec, secant
ratio of the hypotenuse to the adjacent side of a rightangled triangle

arc secant, arcsec, arcsecant, inverse secant
the inverse function of the secant; the angle that has a secant equal to a given number

cosec, cosecant
ratio of the hypotenuse to the opposite side of a rightangled triangle

arc cosecant, arccosecant, inverse cosecant
the angle that has a cosecant equal to a given number