geological formation

Definitions of geological formation
1

n (geology) the geological features of the earth

Synonyms:
formation
Examples:
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Pillars of Hercules
the two promontories at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; according to legend they were formed by Hercules
Barbary Coast
the Mediterranean coast of northern Africa that was famous for its Moorish pirates
Cape Horn
a rocky headland belonging to Chile at the southernmost tip of South America (south of Tierra del Fuego)
Aeolia
an ancient coastal region of northwestern Asia Minor (including Lesbos) where the Aeolians founded several cities around 1100 BC
Areopagus
a hill to the to the west of the Athenian acropolis where met the highest governmental council of ancient Athens and later a judicial court
Nemea
a valley in southeastern Greece where the Nemean Games were held
Golgotha
a hill near Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified
Sion
originally a stronghold captured by David (the 2nd king of the Israelites); above it was built a temple and later the name extended to the whole hill; finally it became a synonym for the city of Jerusalem
Cotswold Hills
a range of low hills in southwestern England
Cheviot Hills
a range of hills on the border between England and Scotland
Pennine Chain
a system of hills in Britain that extend from the Scottish border in the north to the Trent River in the south; forms the watershed for English rivers
Seven Hills of Rome
the hills on which the ancient city of Rome was built
Palatine
the most important of the Seven Hills of Rome; supposedly the location of the first settlement and the site of many imperial palaces
Laurentian Highlands
a large plateau that occupies more than 40% of the land area of Canada; it extends from the Great Lakes northward to the Arctic Ocean
Flodden
a hill in Northumberland where the invading Scots were defeated by the English in 1513
Highlands of Scotland
a mountainous region of northern Scotland famous for its rugged beauty; known for the style of dress (the kilt and tartan) and the clan system (now in disuse)
Lowlands of Scotland
the southern part of Scotland that is not mountainous
Nilgiri Hills
hills in southern India
Mount Asama
a volcano in central Honshu near Nagano; one of the largest volcanoes in Japan (8,340 feet)
Ardennes
a wooded plateau in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France; the site of intense fighting in World War I and World War II
Mount Pinatubo
a volcano on Luzon to the northwest of Manila; erupted in 1991 after 600 years of dormancy
Najd
a central plateau region of the Arabian Peninsula; formerly an independent sultanate until 1932 when it united with Hejaz to form the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Rock of Gibraltar
location of a colony of the United Kingdom on a limestone promontory at the southern tip of Spain; strategically important because it can control the entrance of ships into the Mediterranean; one of the Pillars of Hercules
Capitol Hill
a hill in Washington, D.C., where the Capitol Building sits and Congress meets
Breed's Hill
a hill in Charlestown that was the site of the battle of Bunker Hill in 1775
Cape Hatteras
a promontory on Hatteras Island off the Atlantic coast of North Carolina
Black Hills
mountains in western South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming
Guiana Highlands
a mountainous tableland in northern South America; extends from Venezuela into Guyana and northern Brazil
Cameroon
an inactive volcano in western Cameroon; highest peak on the West African coast
Pico de Orizaba
an extinct volcano in southern Mexico between Mexico City and Veracruz; the highest peak in Mexico (18,695 feet)
Nevado de Colima
an active volcano in southwestern Mexico
Cotacachi
an Andean volcano in northern Ecuador; last erupted in 1955
Cotopaxi
the world's largest active volcano; located in the Andes in north central Ecuador
Demavend
an active volcano in northern Iran
El Misti
the world's 2nd largest active volcano; located in the Andes in southern Peru
Mount Etna
an inactive volcano in Sicily; last erupted in 1961; the highest volcano in Europe (10,500 feet)
Fuego
a volcano in south central Guatemala
Fujinoyama
an extinct volcano in south central Honshu that is the highest peak in Japan; last erupted in 1707; famous for its symmetrical snow-capped peak; a sacred mountain and site for pilgrimages
Galeras
an active volcano in southeastern Colombia in the Andes
Guallatiri
the world's highest volcano; in the Andes in northern Chile; last erupted in 1959
Huainaputina
an inactive volcano in the Andes in southern Peru; last erupted in 1783
Klyuchevskaya
an inactive volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula; last erupted in 1946
Krakatao
a small volcanic island in Indonesia between Java and Sumatra; its violent eruption in 1883 was the greatest in recorded history
Lascar
a volcano in the Andes in Chile
Mauna Kea
an active volcano on north central Hawaii Island; highest peak in the Hawaiian Islands
Mauna Loa
an active volcano on south central Hawaii Island
Nyamuragira
an active volcano in eastern Congo
Nyiragongo
an active volcano in eastern Congo
Purace
an inactive volcano in the Andes in southern Colombia; last erupted in 1950
Sangay
an inactive volcano in the Andes in central Ecuador; last erupted in 1946
Tupungatito
an inactive volcano in central Chile; last erupted in 1959
Mount Saint Helens
an active volcano in the Cascade Range in southwestern Washington; erupted violently in 1980 after 123 years of inactivity
Mount Vesuvius
a volcano in southwestern Italy on the Mediterranean coast; a Plinian eruption in 79 AD buried Pompeii and killed Pliny the Elder; last erupted in 1944
Adirondack Mountains
a mountain range in northeastern New York State; a popular resort area
Admiralty Range
mountains in Antarctica to the north of Victoria Land
Alaska Range
a mountain range in south central Alaska; contains Mount McKinley
Allegheny Mountains
the western part of the Appalachian Mountains; extending from northern Pennsylvania to southwestern Virginia
the Alps
a large mountain system in south-central Europe; scenic beauty and winter sports make them a popular tourist attraction
Altai Mountains
a mountain range in central Asia that extends a thousand miles from Kazakhstan eastward into western Mongolia and northern China
Andes
a mountain range in South America running 5000 miles along the Pacific coast
Apennines
a mountain range extending the length of the Italian peninsula
Appalachian Mountains
a mountain range in the eastern United States extending from Quebec to the Gulf of Mexico; a historic barrier to early westward expansion of the United States
Aristarchus
a bright crater on the Moon
Atacama Trench
a depression in the floor of the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile
Atlantic Coast
a coast of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlas Mountains
a mountain range in northern Africa between the Mediterranean and the Sahara Desert; extends from southwestern Morocco to northern Tunisia
Australian Alps
a range of mountains in Australia that forms the southern end of the Great Dividing Range
Balkan Mountain Range
the major mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula
Berkshire Hills
a low mountain range in western Massachusetts; a resort area
Black Hills
mountains in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming; sacred to the Sioux (whites settling in the Black Hills led to the Battle of Little Bighorn); site of Mount Rushmore
Blue Ridge Mountains
a range of the Appalachians extending from southern Pennsylvania to northern Georgia
Bougainville Trench
a depression in the floor of the Pacific Ocean between New Guinea and the Solomon Islands
Cambrian Mountains
a rugged plateau that runs north to south through central Wales
Cantabrian Mountains
a range of mountains in northern Spain along the coast of the Bay of Biscay
Cape Canaveral
a sandy promontory (formerly Cape Kennedy) extending into the Atlantic Ocean from a barrier island off the eastern coast of Florida; the site of a NASA center for spaceflight
Cape Sable
a promontory on the far southern part of Nova Scotia
Carlsbad Caverns
a group of caverns in southeastern New Mexico noted for their stalactites and stalagmites
Carpathian Mountains
a mountain range in central Europe that extends from Slovakia and southern Poland southeastward through western Ukraine to northeastern Romania; a popular resort area
Cascade Mountains
a mountain range in the northwestern United States extending through Washington and Oregon and northern California; a part of the Coast Range
Catskill Mountains
a range of the Appalachians to the west of the Hudson in southeastern New York; includes many popular resort areas
Caucasus Mountains
the mountain range in Caucasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that forms part of the traditional border between Europe and Asia
Coast Mountains
a string of mountain ranges along the Pacific coast of North America from southeastern Alaska to Lower California
Colorado Plateau
a large plateau to the south and west of the Rocky Mountains; abuts mountains on the north and east and ends in an escarpment overlooking lowlands to the south and west; the Grand Canyon is carved out of the southwestern corner
Copernicus
a conspicuous crater on the Moon
Cumberland Mountains
the southwestern part of the Appalachians
Dolomite Alps
an eastern range of the Alps in northeastern Italy famous for their dolomitic limestone
Fingal's Cave
a large cave with basaltic pillars on Staffa island in Scotland
Great Dividing Range
a mountain range running along the eastern coast of Australia
Great Rift Valley
( geology) a depression in southwestern Asia and eastern Africa; extends from the valley of the Jordan River to Mozambique; marked by geological faults
Great Smoky Mountains
part of the Appalachians between North Carolina and Tennessee
Green Mountains
a range of the Appalachian Mountains that extends from south to north through Vermont
Guadalupe Mountains
a mountain range in southern New Mexico and western Texas; the southern extension of the Sacramento Mountains
Gulf Coast
a seashore of the Gulf of Mexico
Himalaya Mountains
a mountain range extending 1500 miles on the border between India and Tibet; this range contains the world's highest mountain
Hindu Kush Mountains
a mountain range extending to the west of the Himalayas
Japan Trench
a depression in the floor of the Pacific Ocean to the northeast of Japan that reaches depths of 30,000 feet
Jebel Musa
a promontory in northern Morocco opposite the Rock of Gibraltar; one of the Pillars of Hercules
Karakoram Range
a mountain range in northern Kashmir; an extension of the Hindu Kush; contains the 2nd highest peak
Kuenlun Mountains
a mountain range in western China that extends eastward from the Indian border for 1000 miles
Lascaux
a cave in southwestern France that contains Paleolithic paintings
Llano Estacado
a large semiarid plateau forming the southern part of the Great Plains
Loire Valley
the valley of the Loire River where many French wines originated
Massif Central
a mountainous plateau in southern France that covers almost one sixth of the country
Great Mendenhall Glacier
a glacier of the Piedmont type near Juneau in Alaska
Mesabi Range
a range of hills in northeastern Minnesota where rich iron ore deposits were discovered in 1887
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
a very long narrow elevation on the ocean floor that runs all the way from Iceland in the North Atlantic to Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic
Mount Carmel
a mountain range in northwestern Israel near the Mediterranean coast
Nan Ling
a mountain range in southeastern China running generally east to west
Nares Deep
a depression in the floor of the Atlantic Ocean to the north of Haiti and Puerto Rico
Old Faithful
a geyser in Yellowstone National Park that erupts for about 4 minutes about every 65 minutes
Ozark Mountains
an area of low mountains in northwestern Arkansas and southeastern Missouri and northeastern Oklahoma
Pacific Coast
a coast of the Pacific Ocean
Pamir Mountains
a mountain range in central Asia that is centered in Tajikistan but extends into Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan and Pakistan and western China
Pyrenees
a chain of mountains between France and Spain
Rhodope Mountains
a mountain range in the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe; extends along the border between Greece and Bulgaria
Rocky Mountains
the chief mountain range of western North America; extends from British Columbia to northern New Mexico; forms the continental divide
Sacramento Mountains
mountain range in New Mexico to the east of the Rio Grande
San Fernando Valley
a fertile valley in southern California to the north of Los Angeles; includes many residential communities
San Joaquin Valley
a vast valley in central California known for its rich farmland
San Juan Hill
a hill in eastern Cuba (near Santiago de Cuba) that was captured during the Spanish-American War
San Juan Mountains
a mountain range in southwestern Colorado that is part of the Rocky Mountains
Sayan Mountains
a range of mountains in southern Siberia to the west of Lake Baikal; contain important mineral deposits
Selkirk Mountains
a range of the Rocky Mountains in southeastern British Columbia
Shenandoah Valley
a large valley between the Allegheny Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains in northern Virginia; site of numerous battles during the American Civil War
sierra
a range of mountains (usually with jagged peaks and irregular outline)
Sierra Madre Occidental
a mountain range in northwestern Mexico that runs south from Arizona parallel to the Pacific coastline
Sierra Madre Oriental
a mountain range in northeastern Mexico the runs parallel to the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico
Sierra Nevada Mountains
a mountain range in eastern California; contains Mount Whitney
Sierra Nevada
a mountain range in southern Spain along the Mediterranean coast to the east of Granada
St. Elias Mountains
a range of mountains between Alaska and the Yukon territory
Taconic Mountains
a range of the Appalachian Mountains along the eastern border of New York with Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont
Teton Range
a mountain range in northwest Wyoming; contains the Grand Teton
Tien Shan
a major mountain range of central Asia; extends 1,500 miles
Transylvanian Alps
a range of the southern Carpathian Mountains extending across central Romania
Tyrolean Alps
a popular tourist area in the Tyrol
Ural Mountains
a mountain range in western Russia extending from the Arctic to the Caspian Sea; forms part of the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia
Cataract Canyon
a tributary of the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
the enormous gorge of the Colorado River in northern Arizona
Great Barrier Reef
the largest coral reef in the world; in the Coral Sea off the northeastern coast of Australia
Olduvai Gorge
a gorge in northeastern Tanzania where anthropologists have found some of the earliest human remains
Bikini
an atoll in the Marshall Islands; formerly used by the United States as a site for testing nuclear weapons
Eniwetok
an atoll in the Marshall Islands; site of an amphibious assault in World War II; later used temporarily by the United States to test atomic bombs
Kwajalein
an atoll in the western Marshall Islands that was used as a Japanese air and naval base during World War II
Midway Islands
an atoll in the Hawaiian Islands some 1300 miles to the northwest of Honolulu; site of an important United States naval base
Types:
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aquifer
underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc
beach
an area of sand sloping down to the water of a sea or lake
cave
a geological formation consisting of an underground enclosure with access from the surface of the ground or from the sea
cliff, drop, drop-off
a steep high face of rock
delta
a low triangular area of alluvial deposits where a river divides before entering a larger body of water
diapir
a domed rock formation where a core of rock has moved upward and pierced through the more brittle overlying strata
folium
a thin layer or stratum of (especially metamorphic) rock
foreshore
the part of the seashore between the highwater mark and the low-water mark
ice mass
a large mass of ice
lakefront
land bordering a lake
massif
a block of the earth's crust bounded by faults and shifted to form peaks of a mountain range
monocline
a geological formation in which all strata are inclined in the same direction
mouth
the point where a stream issues into a larger body of water
depression, natural depression
a sunken or depressed geological formation
elevation, natural elevation
a raised or elevated geological formation
oceanfront
land bordering an ocean
chain, chain of mountains, mountain chain, mountain range, range, range of mountains
a series of hills or mountains
relict
geological feature that is a remnant of a pre-existing formation after other parts have disappeared
ridge, ridgeline
a long narrow range of hills
ridge
a long narrow natural elevation on the floor of the ocean
shore
the land along the edge of a body of water
incline, side, slope
an elevated geological formation
fountain, natural spring, outflow, outpouring, spring
a natural flow of ground water
scree, talus
a sloping mass of loose rocks at the base of a cliff
mineral vein, vein
a layer of ore between layers of rock
crater, volcanic crater
a bowl-shaped geological formation at the top of a volcano
wall
a vertical (or almost vertical) smooth rock face (as of a cave or mountain)
groundwater level, water level, water table
underground surface below which the ground is wholly saturated with water
arete
a sharp narrow ridge found in rugged mountains
acclivity, ascent, climb, raise, rise, upgrade
an upward slope or grade (as in a road)
bank
sloping land (especially the slope beside a body of water)
bank, camber, cant
a slope in the turn of a road or track; the outside is higher than the inside in order to reduce the effects of centrifugal force
basin
a natural depression in the surface of the land often with a lake at the bottom of it
bed, bottom
a depression forming the ground under a body of water
bonanza
an especially rich vein of precious ore
caldera
a large crater caused by the violent explosion of a volcano that collapses into a depression
canyonside
the steeply sloping side of a canyon
cavern
a large cave or a large chamber in a cave
coast
a slope down which sleds may coast
cove
small or narrow cave in the side of a cliff or mountain
crag
a steep rugged rock or cliff
crater
a bowl-shaped depression formed by the impact of a meteorite or bomb
declension, declination, decline, declivity, descent, downslope, fall
a downward slope or bend
escarpment, scarp
a long steep slope or cliff at the edge of a plateau or ridge; usually formed by erosion
Fountain of Youth
a fountain described in folk tales as able to make people young again
geyser
a spring that discharges hot water and steam
glacier
a slowly moving mass of ice
grot, grotto
a small cave (usually with attractive features)
highland, upland
elevated (e.g., mountainous) land
hill
a local and well-defined elevation of the land
hillside
the side or slope of a hill
hogback, horseback
a narrow ridge of hills
hole, hollow
a depression hollowed out of solid matter
hot spring, thermal spring
a natural spring of water at a temperature of 70 F or above
berg, iceberg
a large mass of ice floating at sea; usually broken off of a polar glacier
ice cap, icecap
a mass of ice and snow that permanently covers a large area of land (e.g., the polar regions or a mountain peak)
ice field
a large flat mass of ice (larger than an ice floe) floating at sea
floe, ice floe
a flat mass of ice (smaller than an ice field) floating at sea
lakeshore, lakeside
the shore of a lake
lowland
low level country
maar
a flat-bottomed volcanic crater that was formed by an explosion; often filled with water
mount, mountain
a land mass that projects well above its surroundings; higher than a hill
mountainside, versant
the side or slope of a mountain
piedmont
a gentle slope leading from the base of a mountain to a region of flat land
plage
the beach at a seaside resort
precipice
a very steep cliff
foreland, head, headland, promontory
a natural elevation (especially a rocky one that juts out into the sea)
ridge
a long narrow natural elevation or striation
coast, sea-coast, seacoast, seashore
the shore of a sea or ocean
sink, sinkhole, swallow hole
a depression in the ground communicating with a subterranean passage (especially in limestone) and formed by solution or by collapse of a cavern roof
ski slope
a snow-covered slope for skiing
strand
a poetic term for a shore (as the area periodically covered and uncovered by the tides)
swell
a rounded elevation (especially one on an ocean floor)
deep, oceanic abyss, trench
a long steep-sided depression in the ocean floor
trough
a narrow depression (as in the earth or between ocean waves or in the ocean bed)
vale, valley
a long depression in the surface of the land that usually contains a river
Type of:
object, physical object
a tangible and visible entity; an entity that can cast a shadow

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