 Types:
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extrapolation
(mathematics) calculation of the value of a function outside the range of known values

interpolation
(mathematics) calculation of the value of a function between the values already known

conversion
a change in the units or form of an expression: "conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade"

approximation, estimate, estimation, idea
an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth

derivative, derived function, differential, differential coefficient, first derivative
the result of mathematical differentiation; the instantaneous change of one quantity relative to another; df(x)/dx

integral
the result of a mathematical integration; F(x) is the integral of f(x) if dF/dx = f(x)

scalage
estimation of the amount of lumber in a log

curvature
the rate of change (at a point) of the angle between a curve and a tangent to the curve

data conversion
conversion from one way of encoding data to another way

digitisation, digitization
conversion of analog information into digital information

credit, credit rating
an estimate, based on previous dealings, of a person's or an organization's ability to fulfill their financial commitments

dead reckoning, guess, guessing, guesswork, shot
an estimate based on little or no information

guesstimate, guestimate
an estimate that combines reasoning with guessing

overestimate, overestimation, overrating, overreckoning
a calculation that results in an estimate that is too high

underestimate, underestimation, underrating, underreckoning
an estimation that is too low; an estimate that is less than the true or actual value

partial, partial derivative
the derivative of a function of two or more variables with respect to a single variable while the other variables are considered to be constant

indefinite integral
the set of functions F(x) + C, where C is any real number, such that F(x) is the integral of f(x)

definite integral
the integral of a function over a definite interval