World History: 10. Struggle in Medieval Europe, Lessons 1–2

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  1. clearly
    without doubt or question
    The empire itself came to be called the Holy Roman Empire. The name of the empire clearly showed that the German kings wanted to create a Christian, or holy, version of the Roman empire.
  2. authority
    the power or right to give orders or make decisions
    Pope Gregory issued a list of rules declaring his supreme authority over both Church and secular, or non-Church, leaders.
  3. secular
    not concerned with or devoted to religion
    Pope Gregory issued a list of rules declaring his supreme authority over both Church and secular, or non-Church, leaders.
  4. excommunicate
    expel from a church or a religious community
    To excommunicate means to exclude a person from a church or a religious community.
  5. standardize
    cause to conform to a norm
    A standardized system of coinage came into use throughout the kingdom.
  6. transform
    change or alter in appearance or nature
    The Norman Conquest transformed England. English language and culture would never be the same.
  7. pilgrimage
    a journey to a sacred place
    The cathedral of Canterbury became a destination of pilgrimage—a journey undertaken to worship at a holy place.
  8. common law
    a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
    Common law is law that has developed from custom and judges' decisions, rather than acts of a lawmaking assembly.
  9. habeas corpus
    a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
    An important practice to come out of English common law is known as habeas corpus, a Latin phrase that means "you shall have the body." Habeas corpus refers to a court order to bring an arrested person before a judge or a court.
  10. writ
    a legal document issued by a court or judicial officer
    A jailer who receives this writ, or court order, must either release the prisoner or present a good reason for keeping that person in jail.
  11. parliament
    a legislative assembly in certain countries
    A parliament is an assembly of representatives who make laws.
  12. judiciary
    the system of law courts that administer justice
    This was the beginning of England's independent judiciary, or system of courts outside the control of other branches of government.
Created on June 29, 2021 (updated July 1, 2021)

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